HVAC System Performance Testing

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1 2010 HVAC System Performance Testing Wes Davis Manager, Technical Services ACCA 1 Lansdowne, VA

2 Presentation Outline Topic Time (min) ACCA Introduction ~ 5 Background & Overview Equipment Capacity ~ 30 System Capacity Science Challenges & Issues Airflow measurement ~ 20 Capacity Measurement Next Steps What Your Students Need to Know ~ 10

3 The Air Conditioning Contractors of America (ACCA) The only nationwide association representing the technical, educational and policy interests of U.S. businesses that design, install and maintain indoor environmental systems

4 Antecedents National Warm Air Heating and Air Conditioning Assn. (1914) Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Contractors of America (1946) National Environmental Systems Contractors Assn. (1968) Air Conditioning Contractors of America (1969)

5 Mission Statement To assist and enable HVACR contractors to acquire, serve and satisfy their customers.

6 Approach Contractor Support Consumer Assistance Government Relations Industry Relations Technical Expertise

7 Measuring Capacity Everything should be as simple as it is, but not simpler. Albert Einstein

8 Measuring Capacity

9 Measuring Capacity Was the target hit? Types of capacity measurement Sensible capacity (Equipment capacity) Total capacity (System capacity)

10 Measuring Equipment Capacity Measurements taken at the unit Verify installation Examines the efficiency rating SBtuh = CFM x T x 1.08

11 Measuring System Capacity Measurements taken at the RAG and SAR Verify system installation / Confirm delivered efficiency TBtuh = CFM x h x 4.5

12 Measuring Capacity So what is the difference? (Part 1) vs.

13 Measuring Capacity So what is the difference? (Part duex) Sensible Btuh vs. Total Btuh + Sensible Total

14 Measuring Sensible Capacity SBtu/h = CFM x T x 1.08 CFM T Constant = 1.08

15 Measuring Sensible Capacity Measurements taken at the R/A and S/A Heating or Cooling

16 Methods Background and Overview Measuring Airflow External Static Pressure (OEM Blower Tables) Temperature Rise (heating only) Duct Traverse TrueFlow Grid Pressure matching

17 Measuring Airflow External Static Pressure (OEM Blower Tables) Measure ESP with static pressure probe Consult OEM Blower Tables

18 Measuring Airflow Supply = Return = (+) (-)

19 Measuring Airflow External Static Pressure (OEM Blower Tables) Equipment Model Blower Speed ESP = ,077 CFM

20 Measuring Airflow Used on gas, oil or electric furnaces only F I L T E R FURNACE Compare measured value to the OEM s published acceptable range of temperature rises. If the reading is higher than the acceptable range, then increase the blower speed. If the reading is below the acceptable range, then decrease the blower speed. T = supply temperature (db) Return temperature (db) 103 F 68 F = 35 F Temperature Rise 20

21 Measuring Airflow Temperature Rise (heating only) RAT SAT CFM = SBtu/h / [ (SAT-RAT) x 1.08] SBtu/h: Electric resistance heat = V x A x SAT = 110 F SBtu/h: 240V x 49.7A x = 40,710 CFM = 40,710 [(103 F -68 F) x 1.08] V = 240V A = 49.7A CFM = 40, F x 1.08 RAT = 75 F CFM = 40, CFM = 1,077

22 Measuring Airflow Temperature Rise (heating only) RAT SAT CFM = SBtu/h / [ (SAT-RAT) x 1.08] Fossil Fuel: SBtu/h = Input Capcity (Fuel use {timed} x Heat Content) x Efficiency

23 Measuring Airflow Clock the gas meter Considerations: Pilot lights other than the unit that you are checking (allow about 1000 Btuh each). Other burners that may be in operation (clothes drier, stove/oven, hot water heater, fireplace, etc.). These should be turned off during the clocking. Do not use the smallest (one half cubic foot) dial when clocking a meter. This is a flow-prover and not an indicator of actual usage. 23

24 Measuring Airflow Divide the number of seconds it takes to use one cubic foot of gas into This is the cubic foot per hour rate that the appliance is using. Next multiply that value by the heating value of the fuel ( Btuh/ft 3 for natural gas) to get the total Btuh input sec/1 ft 3 Example: The meter uses one cubic foot of natural gas in 18 seconds. Therefore, 3600 = 100 ft 3 x 1,000 Btuh/ft 3 = 100,000 Btu/h total input 36 24

25 Measuring Airflow SAT = 110 F Temperature Rise (heating only) RAT SAT CFM = SBtu/h / [ (SAT-RAT) x 1.08] 1ft 3 = 62seconds 80% Efficiency RAT = 70 F SBtu/h: Input Capacity (Fuel use {timed} x Heat Content) x Efficiency Input Capacity = ( seconds) x 1,000 Btu = 56,064 Output Capacity = 56,064 Input x 80% Efficiency = 46,451 CFM = 46,451 [(110 F -70 F) x 1.08] CFM = 46,451 (40 F x 1.08) CFM = 46, CFM = 1,075

26 Duct Traverse Background and Overview Measuring Airflow Air s Velocity Pressure converted to Velocity Velocity x Area = CFM

27 Duct Traverse Background and Overview Measuring Airflow Air s Velocity Pressure converted to Velocity V = VP x 4005 Velocity x Area = CFM V = VP x 4005 VP 1 = VP 2 = VP 18 = = x 4005 = 1,077 CFM = V x A CFM = 1,077 x (12 x12) = 1,077 CFM

28 TrueFlow Grid Background and Overview Measuring Airflow

29 Measuring Airflow Pressure matching Energize blower assembly Measure ESP in supply plenum De-energize blower assmbely, but leave ESP probe in place Connect calibrated fan Block return Re-energize blower assembly Adjust fan until ESP matches original Record CFM correlating to fan speed

30 Measuring Airflow Pressure matching Energize blower assembly Measure ESP in supply plenum De-energize blower assmbely, but leave ESP probe in place Connect calibrated fan Block return Re-energize blower assembly Adjust fan until ESP matches original Record CFM correlating to fan speed Fan Furnace Coil 1, A B A B Outdoors

31 Measuring T (TD) Temperature Rise (heating only) RAT SAT SAT = 110 F SAT - RAT = T 110 F - 75 F = 35 F RAT = 75 F

32 The Conversion Factor SBtu/h = CFM x T x 1.08 Sensible Btu/h considers pounds of air at a certain heat content over an hour 1.08 is a conversion constant that represents: the heat content of the air, the weight of air (mass), and time.

33 The Conversion Factor 1.08 = Heat content, weight, and time. One Btu = heat to raise 1lb H 2 O by 1 F 0.24 Btu raises 1lb of air* 1 F Pounds of air (mass) is different than pounds of air (force) (http://www.physlink.com/education/askexperts/ae650.cfm) N2: 78.03% O2: 20.99% Ar: 0.93% CO2: 0.03% Ne: % He: % Kr: % Xe: % N2: moles O2: moles Ar: moles CO2: moles Ne: x 10-4 moles He: x 10-5 moles Kr: x 10-5 moles Xe: x 10-6 moles N2: 27.63g O2: 8.49g CO2: 0.02g Ar: 0.47g * Air at 70 F and 0% Rh.

34 The Conversion Factor Specific Volume is inverse of Specific Density 70 F dry air = 13.3 specific density Inverse = 1 / 13.3 = lbs of mass (not weight)

35 The Conversion Factor 1.08 = Heat content, weight, and time. One Btu = heat to raise 1lb H 2 O by 1 F 0.24 Btu raises 1lb of air* 1 F lbs of air (mass) 60 minutes per hour 0.24 x x 60 = represents the heat content in the conversion of pounds of dry air at sea level to a cubic volume.

36 Calculating Sensible Capacity SBtu/h = CFM x T x 1.08 SBtu/h = 1,077CFM x 22 F x 1.08 = 25,590 Btu/h What now?

37 Measuring Total Capacity SBtu/h = CFM x h x 4.5 CFM h Constant = 4.5

38 Methods Background and Overview Measuring Airflow External Static Pressure (OEM Blower Tables) Temperature Rise (heating only) Duct Traverse TrueFlow Grid Pressure matching Balancing Hood (flow hood, capture hood, etc.) Vane anemometer

39 Measuring h (Difference Enthalpy) Eh - Lh = h 28.3h 23.3h = 6.0 h LAT = 57 F LARh = 85% LAWB = 55 F 51 F 23.3h EAT = 75 F EARh = 50% EAWB = 63 F 57 F 28.3h

40 The Conversion Factor TBtu/h = CFM x h x 4.5 One CFM = Lbs (mass) 60 minutes per hour 0.75 x 60 = represents the conversion of pounds of dry air at sea level to a cubic volume.

41 Calculating Total Capacity TBtu/h = CFM x h x 4.5 SBtu/h = 990CFM x 6.0 h x 4.5 = 26,730 Btu/h What now?

42 Challenges and Issues Airflow Measuring Airflow ESP: Blower must be clean/like new condition to use blower performance tables Follow OEM procedures (with filter or with out filter, dry coil or wet coil, etc.) Temp Rise (Heating): Line of sight Steady state Heat content of the fuel 1000 Btuh/ft3 for NG 91,500 Btu/Gal LP 140,000 Btu/Gal #2 FO 70 F I L T E R FURN ACE 120

43 Measuring Airflow Traverse: Straight lengths of duct (affects TrueFlow grid in a similar manner) Probe locations and holding Challenges and Issues Airflow the probe (watch those hoses) If using a hot-wire probe, then unable to determine if measurements are positive or negative TrueFlow: Does the grid add or remove resistance (more or less than the existing filter) Pressure matching: Very susceptible to external wind conditions

44 Challenges and Issues T and h Air density at elevation Use correct Psych chart Where/How to take temperature/ enthalpy measurements Equipment configurations Differences within the plenum, wait for steady state Sea 5,000 Level

45 Challenges and Issues Constants (1.08) Standard air: temperature and density 70 F Dry air Atmospheric pressure (14.7 psi) Dry Air?? (Who has dry air?) x 0.24 x 60 = grains in 70 F/50% air 7,000 grains per pound of water = Heat content of 55 grains of moisture 0.04 Btu/h 60 minutes per hour x 0.04 x 60 = = 1.10

46 Challenges and Issues Constants Altitude correction factor SBtu/h = CFM x T x 1.10 x ACF SBtu/h = 1,077 x 22 F x 1.10 x 0.84 = 25,590 21,893

47 Challenges and Issues Factors Affecting Capacity Measurement Equipment conditions (System vs. Equipment) Entering conditions (Load is a dynamic target) Duct leakage (Affects both sensible and total capacity measurements) Duct insulation (thermal conductivity)

48 What Your Students Need to Know Honest (consistent measurements) yield an honest yard stick. Tools have different sensitivities, also - calibrate and care for them Be familiar with the procedures What are the strengths and weaknesses of each procedure When each procedure is applicable How to perform 2 or more procedures The background science for the assumptions How to adjust and correct Good locations for measurements

49 What Your Students Need to Know Familiar with the Procedures What are the strengths and weaknesses of each procedure When each procedure is applicable How to perform 2 or more procedures How to read the meter

50 What Your Students Need to Know Background Science Familiar with Air density (altitude) Dry air (weight) Moisture content

51 What Your Students Need to Know Good Locations for Measurements

52 What Your Students Need to Know ACCA 5 QI Free PDF download

53 What Your Students Need to Know ACCA 5 QI Design/Selection Load Calc Equip Capacity Selection Matched Systems (AHRI) Duct Distribution Aspects Duct Leakage Airflow Balance Installation Aspects Airflow across Coil Refrigerant Charge Electrical Requirements System Controls On-rate (fuel-fired) Venting Doc. / Education Aspects System Documentation Owner Education Well recognized practices that quality contractors embrace when delivering quality installations

54 What Your Students Need to Know ACCA 5 QI

55 Summary Everything should be as simple as it is, but not simpler. Albert Einstein

56

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