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1 Animal Farm- English 1201

2 Animal Farm- George Orwell

3 Totalitarianism centralized control by an autocratic authority the political concept that the citizen should be totally subject to an absolute state authority

4 Intro to Totalitarianism You Tube Videos Lisa Ling- For National Geographic on North Korea BBC Documentaries on North Korea

5 The Characters- Animals The Animals Major An old boar whose speech about the evils perpetrated by humans rouses the animals into rebelling. His philosophy concerning the tyranny of Man is named Animalism by his followers. He also teaches the song "Beasts of England" to the animals. Snowball A boar who becomes one of the rebellion's most valuable leaders. After drawing complicated plans for the construction of a windmill, he is chased off of the farm forever by Napoleon's dogs and thereafter used as a scapegoat for the animals' troubles.

6 The Characters Napoleon A boar who, with Snowball, leads the rebellion against Jones. After the rebellion's success, he systematically begins to control all aspects of the farm until he is an undisputed tyrant. Squealer A porker pig who becomes Napoleon's mouthpiece. Throughout the novel, he displays his ability to manipulate the animals' thoughts through the use of hollow yet convincing rhetoric. Boxer A dedicated but dimwitted horse who aids in the building of the windmill but is sold to a glue-boiler after collapsing from exhaustion.

7 The Characters Mollie A vain horse who prefers ribbons and sugar over ideas and rebellion. She is eventually lured off the farm with promises of a comfortable life. Clover A motherly horse who silently questions some of Napoleon's decisions and tries to help Boxer after his collapse. Benjamin A cynical, pessimistic donkey who continually undercuts the animals' enthusiasm with his cryptic remark, "Donkeys live a long time." Moses A tame raven and sometimes-pet of Jones who tells the animals stories about a paradise called Sugarcandy Mountain

8 The Characters Bluebell, Jessie, and Pincher Three dogs. The nine puppies born between Jessie and Bluebell are taken by Napoleon and raised to be his guard dogs.

9 The Characters- The Humans Mr. Jones The often-drunk owner of Manor Farm, later expelled from his land by his own animals. He dies in an inebriates' home after abandoning his hopes to reclaim his farm. Mrs. Jones Jones' wife, who flees from the farm when the animals rebel. Mr. Whymper A solicitor hired by Napoleon to act as an intermediary in Animal Farm's trading with neighboring farms. Mr. Pilkington The owner of Foxwood, a neighboring and neglected farm. He eventually sells some of his land to Napoleon and, in the novel's final scene, toasts to Napoleon's success. Jones; Mr. Frederick An enemy of Pilkington and owner of Pinchfield, another neighboring farm. Known for "driving hard bargains," Frederick swindles Napoleon by buying timber from him with counterfeit money. He later tries to attack and seize Animal Farm but is defeated.

10

11 Themes Themes are the fundamental and often universal ideas explored in a literary work.

12 The Corruption of Socialist Ideals in the Soviet Union Animal Farm is most famous in the West as a stinging critique of the history and rhetoric of the Russian Revolution. Retelling the story of the emergence and development of Soviet communism in the form of an animal fable, Animal Farm allegorizes the rise to power of the dictator Joseph Stalin

13 The Societal Tendency Toward Class Stratification Animal Farm offers commentary on the development of class tyranny and the human tendency to maintain and reestablish class structures even in societies that allegedly stand for total equality. The novella illustrates how classes that are initially unified in the face of a common enemy, as the animals are against the humans, may become internally divided when that enemy is eliminated.

14 The Danger of a Naïve Working Class One of the novella s most impressive accomplishments is its portrayal not just of the figures in power but also of the oppressed people themselves. Animal Farm is not told from the perspective of any particular character, though occasionally it does slip into Clover s consciousness. Rather, the story is told from the perspective of the common animals as a whole. Gullible, loyal, and hardworking, these animals give Orwell a chance to sketch how situations of oppression arise not only from the motives and tactics of the oppressors but also from the naïveté of the oppressed, who are not necessarily in a position to be better educated or informed.

15 The Abuse of Language as Instrumental to the Abuse of Power One of Orwell s central concerns, both in Animal Farm and in 1984, is the way in which language can be manipulated as an instrument of control. In Animal Farm, the pigs gradually twist and distort a rhetoric of socialist revolution to justify their behavior and to keep the other animals in the dark. The animals heartily embrace Major s visionary ideal of socialism, but after Major dies, the pigs gradually twist the meaning of his words. As a result, the other animals seem unable to oppose the pigs without also opposing the ideals of the Rebellion

16 Economic and Political systems Communism an economic and political system based on the principle From each according to their ability, to each according to their need. It stresses that the control of the means of the producing economic goods in a society should reside in the hands of those who invest their labor for production. In its ideal form, social classes cease to exist, there is no coercive governmental structures, and everyone lives in abundance without supervision from a ruling class. Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels popularized this theory in their 1848 Communist Manifesto. Socialism an economic, social, and political doctrine which expresses the struggle for the equal distribution of wealth by eliminating private property and the exploitative ruling class. In practice, such a distribution of wealth is achieved by social ownership of the means of production, exchange and diffusion.

17 Capitalism an economic theory which stresses that control of the means of producing economic goods in a society should reside in the hands of those who invest the capital for production. It is a system based on the production of goods and services for exchange rather than use. Private ownership and free enterprise supposedly leads to more efficiency, lower prices, and better products. Adam Smith popularized this theory in his 1776 book The Wealth of Nations.

18 Characteristics of a Fairy Tale

19 Qualities of a Good Leader

20 Why Should a Government be Overthrown

21 History Videos https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b3u4eftwprm&list=plfgwygx 6B3LZKg61ZHHmiXkmvPPPRkVfM&index=2 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vtsw0tscsbi

22 Chapter 1 Questions Form five groups in the classroom. Each group will be assigned a question to complete. It is alright to make mistakes in your writing of the question because this will help others pay attention and look for errors. You will be sharing your answers with the class.

23 Old Major s Speech Elements of speech How does he draw the animals in? What are the commandments Major gives the animals? Can you think of ways each of them could be considered a vice? What motto does Old Major give the animals? What is the significance of the way the animals arrange themselves as they gather to hear Old Major?

24 Beasts of England What is the mood of the song? What are some of the images of the song? Why do you think the animals liked the songs so much? Why are songs a good way to communicate ideas and encourage support? Do you have any revolutionary songs in your culture?

25 Britain s Civil Wars 1600s theunitedkingdom/thestuarts/charlesi.aspx https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/timeline_of_british_history_(1600% E2%80%9399) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/timeline_of_the_english_civil_war m https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_hhlarkrwfk

26 Revolutionary Songs https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hus6iwzfgts

27 Extension Present Old Major s speech orally. You must work in groups of 2-3. Think of how politicians and activists draw people in and model your performance after them.

28 Chapter Two - Predictions

29 Positive and Negatives Animal Run Farm

30 Read/Listen Read/listen to the text. Answer the questions in your notebook individually. Fill out Animalism Guide, Other Principles and begin Commandment broken chart. Share answers with class.

31 Discussion Think about the events that began the Revolution Jones mismanagement of the farm, hungry cows, violence by human beings as well as all the thinking, teaching, planning and organizing that the pigs did. In your opinion, would it have been possible for the Revolution to have happened without Animalism? The words Orwell uses to describe the morning after the Revolution are very descriptive. What sort of words and images does he use? What does he want us to think about the farm? The pigs begin to slowly take more control than the others. Can you find some examples of this in Chapter 2?

32 What s in a Name? The animals change the name of the farm from Manor Farm to Animal Farm. Why is this important? What does changing a name do for ideas, behavior, power, etc.?\ Real world examples: Sankt Petersburg changed to Petrograd in 1914 because of the German words Sankt and Burg. Petrograd changed to Leningrad in 1924 after Lenin s death. Leningrad changed to Saint Petersburg in 1991 after first democratic election after fall of Soviet Russia. Can you think of anywhere else where the name of a place was changed? Why?

33 The Seven Commandments What are the seven commandments? Are they sufficient to keep the farm running? Are there any commandments that should be added? Are there any commandments that should be deleted? Extension: Depict the Seven Commandments through visual representation on a piece on blank paper.

34 Chapter Three - Prompt From what you know so far about the pigs and the other animals on the farm, speculate on what the future will be like for the animals.

35 Read/listen to chapter three and answer the questions in groups. Share answers with the class. Work on your timeline

36 Discussion Questions What further examples of the differences between the pigs and the other animals appear in this chapter? What shows that there are already problems in the leadership of the new government? Considering the pigs are in charge, do you think its fair that only the pigs are allowed to drink the milk produced? Why or why not?

37 Chapter Four Word Prediction Anniversary Charge Military decoration Cowshed Retreat Invasion Exploit Rebelliousness Ambush Based on the words, create a statement about what could potentially happen in this chapter.

38 Chapter Four Read/listen to chapter four In five groups, you will be assigned a question to answer and share with the class.

39 Discussion Character Comparison Read the following quotations from after the Battle of Cowshed and compare Snowball s and Boxer s reactions. What does this say about their characters? I have no wish to take life, not even a human s life, repeated Boxer, and his eyes were full of tears. (page) No sentimentality, comrade! cried Snowball, from whose wounds the blood was still dripping. War is war. The only good human being is a dead one. (page)

40 Society Comparison In your workbook, there is an In-class Activity for you to complete. The society being compared to Manor Farm is American but can still work in helping you to compare the two. You may wish to create a third column with information for Canada.

41 Propaganda Pigeons: a symbol of Soviet propaganda. The Soviets (indeed, all communists) would like to brag about the superiority of their system of government. In the early days, the Soviets would send agents to other countries, spreading positive news about Communism-though the things they said were never verified by outside agencies. Why is propaganda so effect? What are some of the types of propaganda?

42 Types of Propaganda Euphemism: The use of words to soften the true meaning of a message (For example, passed away instead of died ; misappropriate the funds instead of stealing the money ). Oversimplification: By allowing a message to be oversimplified, the real message is softened and distorted EXAMPLE: Contains real fruit juice sounds healthy, but what if the juice is only 10% of the content, and the rest is sugar water? Bandwagon: Doing something everyone else is, often without giving it much thought. When someone does this, they don t want to be left out. When enough people jump on the bandwagon, debate is discouraged. EXAMPLE: Everyone in Lemmingtown is behind Jim Burrows for Mayor. Shouldn't you be part of this winning team? Internal Contradiction: One part of a statement contradicts another. EXAMPLE: You don t have to do the exam, but you will fail the course. Faulty Cause and Effect Reasoning: The cause given for a statement is not backed up by evidence or the evidence given is false. EXAMPLE: Brand X toothpaste whitens the best.

43 There are other elements that are commonly associated with propaganda, and are often necessary for it to take hold. Supporters: There must be a large and vocal group of supporters who often fail to ask questions. Ignorance of Followers: It helps if the followers are not educated or enlightened. Scapegoat: Usually a person or group that is used to deflect attention from the leadership. Fear: The idea is to present a dreaded circumstance and usually follow it up with the kind of behaviour needed to avoid that horrible event.

44 What type of propaganda is being used so far in Animal Farm?

45 Smart Response/Plickers Quiz Chapter One to Four..\Animal Farm 2\Quiz 1-4.notebook

46 Chapter Five and Six What do they really mean? As you read through Chapter Five and Six you will come across manipulative communication. Complete a chart by paraphrasing the passages from the text and what is really meant. Example: The Words In the future, all questions relating to the working of the farm would be settled by a special committee of pigs presided over by himself. No one believes more firmly than Comrade Napoleon that all animals are equal. He would be only too happy to let you make decisions for yourselves. But sometimes you might make the wrong decisions, comrades, and then where would you be? What They Really Mean Napoleon is going to make all the decisions.

47 Chapter Five Read/listen Answer questions on your own

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