# Data Visualization. or Graphical Data Presentation. Jerzy Stefanowski Instytut Informatyki

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1 Data Visualization or Graphical Data Presentation Jerzy Stefanowski Instytut Informatyki Data mining for SE

2 Ack. Inspirations are coming from: G.Piatetsky Schapiro lectures on KDD J.Han on Data Mining Ken Brodlie Envisioning Information Chris North Information Visualisation

3

4 What is visualization and data mining? Visualize: To form a mental vision, image, or picture of (something not visible or present to the sight, or of an abstraction); to make visible to the mind or imagination. Visualization is the use of computer graphics to create visual images which aid in the understanding of complex, often massive representations of data. Visual Data Mining is the process of discovering implicit but useful knowledge from large data sets using visualization techniques.

5 Tables vs graphs A table is best when: You need to look up specific values Users need precise values You need to precisely compare related values You have multiple data sets with different units of measure A graph is best when: The message is contained in the shape of the values You want to reveal relationships among multiple values (similarities and differences) Show general trends You have large data sets Graphs and tables serve different purposes. Choose the appropriate data display to fit your purpose.

6 Exploratory Data Analysis Pioneer -> John Tukey New approach to data analysis, heavily based on visualization, as an alternative to classical data analysis See its bio Two stage process: Exploratory: Search for evidence using all tools available Confirmatory: evaluate strength of evidence using classical data analysis

7 Box Plots In some situations we have, not a single data value at a point, but a number of data values, or even a probability distribution When might this occur? Tukey proposed the idea of a boxplot to visualize the distribution of values For explanation and some history, see: M median Q1, Q3 quarrtiles Whiskers 1.5 * interquartile range Dots - outliers Darwin s plant study WhiskerPlot.html

8 Distribution visualisation US Crime Story

9 Data Visualization Common Display Types Common Display Types Bar Charts Line Charts Pie Charts Bubble Charts Stacked Charts Scatterplots

10 When to use which type? Line Graph x-axis requires quantitative variable Variables have contiguous values Familiar/conventional ordering among ordinals % 80% R 2 = % 40% 20% 0% Bar Graph Comparison of relative point values Scatter Plot Convey overall impression of relationship between two variables Pie Chart Emphasizing differences in proportion among a few numbers

11 Line Graph Trend visualization Fundamental technique of data presentation Used to compare two variables X-axis is often the control variable Y-axis is the response variable Good at: Showing specific values Trends Trends in groups (using multiple line graphs) Students participating in sporting activities Mobile Phone use Note: graph labelling is fundamental

12 Time line graph show dynamics of measurements

13 Stratified graphs Trends of values with respect to time and different qualitative categories

14 Demo Baby Names Voyager

15 Scatter Plot Wykresy rozrzutu XY Used to present measurements of two variables Effective if a relationship exists between the two variables Car ownership by household income Example taken from NIST Handbook Evidence of strong positive correlation

16

17 Simple Representations Bar Graph Bar graph Presents categorical variables Height of bar indicates value Double bar graph allows comparison Note spacing between bars Can be horizontal (when would you use this?) Number of police officers Note more space for labels Internet use at a school

18 Dot Graph Very simple but effective Horizontal to give more space for labelling

19 Bad Visualization: Spreadsheet Year Sales , , , , , Sales Sales What is wrong with this graph?

20 Bad Visualization: Spreadsheet with misleading Y axis Year Sales , , , , , Sales Sales Y-Axis scale gives WRONG impression of big change

21 Better Visualization Year Sales , , , , , Sales Sales Axis from 0 to 2000 scale gives correct impression of small change + small formatting tricks

22 Integrating various graphs

23 Pie Chart Pie chart summarises a set of categorical/nominal data But use with care too many segments are harder to compare than in a bar chart Should we have a long lecture? Favourite movie genres

24 Visualizing in 4+ Dimensions Extensions of Scatterplots Parallel Coordinates Radar Figures Other tools

25 Multiple Views Give each variable its own display 1 A B C D E Problem: does not show correlations A B C D E

26 Tableau bar comparisons

27 Buisness Analytics Tools Manager Dashboards

28 Scatterplot Matrix Represent each possible pair of variables in their own 2-D scatterplot (car data) Q: Useful for what? A: linear correlations (e.g. horsepower & weight) Q: Misses what? A: multivariate effects

29 Parallel Coordinates Encode variables along a horizontal row Vertical line specifies values Dataset in a Cartesian coordinates Same dataset in parallel coordinates Invented by Alfred Inselberg while at IBM,

30 Parallel Coordinates: 4 D Sepal Length Sepal Width Petal length Petal Width sepal sepal petal petal length width length width

31 Parallel Coordinates Plots for Iris Data

32 Radar Figures Agregate multidimensional observations Each observation gets a separate colour or graph symbols Variables corresponds to angles

33 Wybrana dziedzina Wykres radarowy oceny wskaźników w ramach dziedziny I poziom oceny

34 F. Nightingale (1856) abstract representation

35 Buisness Analytics Tools Typical Reports Raport more traditional Other forms

36 Buisness Analytics Tools Manager Dashboards

37 Bars in business dashboards Tableau Software

39 Multidimensional Stacking

40 Multidimensional presentation of nominal attributes VL1 diagrams (Michalski 70) for machine learning STAGGER and concept drif

41 Hierarchiczne wizualizacje - Treemaps Treemaps display hierarchical data using rectangles. Each branch of the tree is assigned a rectangle. Then each sub-branch gets assigned to a rectangle and this continues recursively until a leaf node is found. Depending on choice the rectangle representing the leaf node is colored, sized or both according to chosen attributes.

42

43

44 Gapminder Motion Charts Using Bubble presentations

45 Spotfire

46 Chernoff Faces Encode different variables values in characteristics of human face Cute applets:

47

48 Hierarchical Techniques Cone Trees [RMC91] animated 3D visualizations of hierarchical data file system structure visualized as a cone tree

49 Abstract Hierarchical Information Preview Traditional Treemap Hyperbolic Tree ConeTree SunTree Botanical

50 Visualization of Search Results & Inter-Document Similarities

51 Abstract Text MetaSearch Previews Grokker Kartoo MSN Lycos AltaVista MetaCrystal searchcrystal

52 Other buisness tools

53 Visualization of different conditions

54 Overview and Detail

56 Census Data

57 57 Visualization of Association Rules in SGI/MineSet 3.0

58 IBM Miner visualization of mining results

59 SGI other tools

60 Graph-based Techniques Narcissus Visualization of a larg number of web pages visualization of compl highly interconnected data

61 Visualization of knowledge discovery process A graphical tool for arranging components / steps of KDD Just a graph flow of actions Graphical objects plug and place Parametrization Often you may produce a kind of scipt representing a graphical flow of KD process

62 Statsoft Data mining graphical panel

63 RapidMiner (YALE)

64 Tukey s recommendations

65 Tufte s Principles of Graphical Excellence Give the viewer the greatest number of ideas in the shortest time with the least ink in the smallest space. Tell the truth about the data!.r. Tufte, The Visual Display of Quantitative Information,, 2nd edition)

66 Look for other references And play with different software tools Excel is not the only and best software

67 Thank you for you coming to my lecture and asking questions!

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