Chapter 4 Verbs of Love and Hate in English and Macedonian

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1 Chapter 4 Verbs of Love and Hate in English and Macedonian 1 Complements that love and hate take 2 Translation of hate 3 Translation of love 4 Translation of сака and мрази 5 How Macedonian learners of English use the words love and hate 6 Conclusion 1 Complements that love and hate take Let s start by looking at some examples and defining the complements that these words are accompanied by in the two languages. The sentences below will represent a base for describing the syntactic characteristics of the words hate and love. All examples of the English verbs were taken from Chapter 5, Loving and hating in English and Norwegian, from Johansson (2007). 1. She never added up her cheque stubs and hated going into the bank for fear of what she would find out. 2. Lesley, I hate to have to keep reminding you about this, but the time is coming. 3. I hate that choosy style. 4. I used to hate it when the Ericsons slaughtered their veal calves. 5. Now Jean loved dropping bombshells. 6. He loved to take the train into Antwerp. 7. One morning over breakfast [...] Celia said, I love this place. The island, its people and the quietness. 8. Poor Greville, they repeated, meaning it, and said they would love to see me in Tokyo, in Sydney, whenever. 9. I loved it that this man was willing to chat. On the basis of the above examples we can draw the following conclusions: Love and hate can have the following types of complements:

2 noun phrase -ing non-finite clauses infinitive non-finite clause cataphoric it The translation of love and hate may seem straightforward: we translate love with сака, and сака with love, and we translate hate with мрази, and мрази with hate. However, the translation of the sentences below shows that it is more complex than that. 2 Translation of hate 1. He hated to sound narrow-minded, but his readers did avoid the exotic. 2. Mathilda hated swallowing anything whole, she said apologetically. 3. Jane put on a flowered dress he hated. 4. I hate the country and I particularly loathe flat country. 5. It was very much a little girl s dress, and I hated it. 6. I used to hate it when the Ericsons slaughtered their veal calves. 1. Не сакаше да звучи ограничено, но читателите ги одбегнуваа егзотичните детали. 2. Матилда не сакаше да голтне било што што е цело рече извинувајќи се. 3. Џејн го облече цветниот фустан којшто воопшто не му се допаѓаше. 4. Ја мразам природата, особено ја мразам рамнината. 5. Воопшто не ми се допаѓаше, изгледаше како фустан за мало девојче. 6. Се згрозував кога Ериксонови ги колеа младите телиња The translation of the sentences with hate shows that мрази is not always its corresponding translation. A variety of Macedonian verbs are used to translate hate, ranging from weak forms, like не сака, не се допаѓа (which are negative forms of сака) to very strong forms like презира, се згрозуве, ми се мачи, etc. Sometimes intensifying adverbs are used to intensify the meaning of the verb, as in the example Воопшто не ми се допадна, изгледаше како фустан за мало девојче. In the Glossa Corpus, Macedonian section, мрази appears in only five examples: Тој луѓето ги мрази..

3 Побратимот брат ќе мрази, а таткото сина гази. Земјата своја никој не може да ја мрази. Сме навикнале сите да ги мразиме. Си го мрази животот и целиот свет. In all of the examples the object of мрази is a noun phrase. There were no examples with мрази да. Speakers of Macedonian exposed to English are willing to accept sentences of the type Мразам да станувам рано, which English correspondence is I hate getting up early. However, Macedonian speakers not exposed to English find these sentences awkward. Their most common comment for those cases is that мрази sounds too strong and they would prefer не сака, Не сакам да станувам рано. The fact that this construction does not appear in the Glossa Corpus justifies the appropriateness of our previous statement. There are cases that for different kinds of reasons may sound appropriate to us. However, if people don t produce them, they are obviously strange to the language discussed. In Lesley, I hate to have to keep reminding you about this, but the time is coming, hate is used in the speech act of apologizing as a mitigating opening. Again, no Macedonian speaker would dream of translating it with мрази. Most of them would probably go for не сака. It is just not in the spirit of the language to use words with such intense meaning for mitigation. 3 Translation of love 1. Children are not so serious as grown-ups and they love to laugh. 2. I loved watching the grass change colour. 3. I d love to try it. 4. I loved her, but she dumped me. 5. I loved it, she said to Mrs Phelps. 6. But all right, I d love some red wine. 7. I love fresh cane syrup with my biscuits. 8. I loved the book. 9. I loved it when the flame began to race through the grass. 1. Децата не се толку сериозни како возрасните и обожаваат да се смеат. 2. Уживав да гледам како тревата ја менува бојата. 3. Би сакала да го пробам. 4. Ја сакав, но таа ме откачи.

4 5. Ми се допадна, í рече на г-ѓа Фелис. 6. Добро, ќе се напијам црвено вино/ за мене чаша црвено вино. 7. Го обожавам вкусот на свежиот прелив со бисквитите. 8. Многу ми се допадна книгата. 9. Глетката беше прекрасна кога огнот почна да се движи по тревата. Like hate, the translation of the sentences containing love shows that сака is not always their corresponding translation. A variety of Macedonian verbs are used to translate love and like, ranging from weak forms, like ми се допаѓа, to very strong forms like обожава. Sometimes the most appropriate translation is not a verb of liking, but another verb, like ужива, or even a construction with an adjective, as in глетката беше прекрасна. Very often the adverb многу is used to intensify the meaning of ми се допаѓa. 4 Translation of сака and мрази Macedonian мрази is always translated with hate: Те мразам (I hate you), Си го мрази животот и целиот свет (He hates his life as well as the whole world). However, сака is not always translated with love. In the sentence Тој само сака да го мразам (He just wants me to hate him), it is translated with want, while in the sentence Не може тоа да го толкуваш како што сакаш (You can t interpret this as you please.) with please. Тие аргументи што ги даваме сака некој да ги слуша (Those arguments of ours need to be heard) is yet another interesting example in which сака is translated with need. As it has just been explained, Macedonian verbs сака and мрази are almost always translated by love and hate, while the English verbs are often translated in other ways than сака and мрази. We can interpret this in the following way: the English verb hate has a wider semantic field than the Macedonian verb мрази. This is also suggested by the difference in overall frequency of the two verbs. We have already seen that the frequency of мрази is very low. Besides, Macedonian сака has developed a large number of pragmatic functions. Some of its functions are demonstrated with the examples below taken from the Glossa Corpus, the Macedonian section. Thus, it is often used to express: 1. a wish - Сака Петунија да му ја пополни празнината во душата. (He would like Petunia to fill the emptiness in his soul); Пишуваше дека и требам, дека ме сака, сака да ме види. (She wrote that she needs me, that she loves me, that she would like to see me)

5 2. a request - Ако сака нека ми се јави (Please tell him to call me); Ако сака министерот на ова дополнително прашање да ми одговори. (Would the Minister answer my question?) 3. disagreement - Нека ме демантира кој сака. (Anyone can disagree with me); Кој сака нека биде и како сака нека се договори. (I don t care who it is or what arrangements they would make.) 4. refusal Не сакам ништо да речам. (I wouldn t say anything.) 5. intention and generalization - Како да се сака да се направи гето. (As if a ghetto is to be made.); Целта што сака да се постигне со законот. (The aims that are to be achieved with this act.) This wide range of meanings of сака is probably an explanation for its frequency of occurrence, especially in spoken Macedonian. In the Macedonian section of the Glossa Corpus, which is not very big, there are 337 occurrences of сака, 13 occurrences of се допаѓа, and 5 occurrences of мрази. However, as it has already been mentioned, there are no occurrences of мрази да. 5 How Macedonian learners of English use the words love and hate For the purpose of this chapter,we analyzed the B2 and C1 section of the Macedonian Corpus of English Interlanguage, which consists of 221,006 words. The frequency of the words of love and hate at these two levels was as follows: love occurrences like - 1, 097 occurrences would like occurrences want occurrences hate - 29 occurrences Love As it was mentioned in 4.1, love and hate can have the following types of complements: noun phrase -ing non-finite clauses infinitive non-finite clause cataphoric it

6 On the basis of the examples obtained from the Macedonian Corpus of English Interlanguage (MKAM), we can notice that students are quite confident when using love with a noun phrase complement, no matter if this noun phrase is an animate or inanimate complement, or even an abstract nouns: I love him because he is there for me when I need him. I love her concerts and her videos. She loves the subject that she teaches. I really love her personality. The corpus gives evidence that students are also quite comfortable using love with an -ing complement. I love helping people I love watching films and soap operas I love taking pictures of places I visit. Like most young people, I love hanging out with my friends, going out, watching movies. However, when students mention more than one thing after love, they sometimes may have a problem, as in the example: I love also spending time with my friends, to have fun and fool around. It often happens that although the form of the first thing after love is correctly used (spending time with my friends), the next one (to have fun and fool around) is not used with its appropriate form. In fact, students seem to switch between the -ing and the infinitive complement without any consistency. The examples with to infinitive are also plentiful. We will illustrate those with the following examples: Ville is a lovely person. He loves to sing from the earliest years. I love to go to concerts and gigs. I was immediately attracted by this advertisement, because I love to spend time with little children. I love to help people. ELT books usually teach that love is followed by an -ing complement. However in real-life language we also find examples with love+to infinitive complements. A teacher on an internet site proclaims that February is I Love to Read Month, the perfect time to assess if your students do, in fact, love to read. People also love to sing, love to dance, love to shop, etc. In the entry for love, the Longman dictionary (2003) makes the following subentry: [V-ing] (especially in BrE) My dad loves going to football games [Vtoinf] (especially AmE) I love to go out dancing

7 Love is among those verbs which can have an -ing non-finite clause or a to infinitive non-finite clause as a complement, but it cannot take a finite clause as a complement, as in the sentences below produced by some Macedonian students: I also loved when we go to disco I would love if you could come and visit my place. These sentences can be made more acceptable by inserting a cataphoric it: I also loved it when we went to disco, or I would love it if you could come and visit my place. It is strikingly obvious that students are much more comfortable using love in prose, like writing a story or expressing their attitudes or feelings for someone or something. However, their use of love becomes more awkward when they need to use it in conversation. In conversation people want to be more playful with language, they want to express more than just opinions or facts. There is so much more they want to express in conversation. The way it is done in L2 is most often different from the way it is done in L1. Students need to be more sensitive about the situational context and how native speakers would react in those situations. The examples below illustrate the awkward use of love by Macedonian students: Nigel: You don't have to thank me. I m doing this because I love you, and I care about you. You: That s so nice to hear from you. Now I want to go out with you. Shall we? Nigel: Why not. Everything connected with you is perfect for me. You: Thank you Nigel for doing this I really appreciate it. Nigel: No problem. I love helping you at any time you know that. You: Yeah. But I don't give you enough credit about it. Nigel: Don't worry about it ok. I love you. You are a very good friend of mine. Hate As we have mentioned it above, hate has a much smaller frequency of occurrence than love. Students have used it correctly when its complement is a noun phrase: You know how I hate sea food. She hated me. I don't know what kind of person would hate her. However, we found only a few examples with -ing complements and no examples whatsoever with to infinitive as a complement.

8 Mike absolutely hates cleaning up his room. As it happens with love, students make attempts to use hate with finite clause, but never use the cataphoric it with them. Consequently, the examples below would sound more acceptable if the cataphoric it is inserted after hate. I hate when my best friend is sad. I hate when people make of me something that I'm NOT He hates when someone does not think of him as a man who should be treated with respect and dignity. 6 Conclusion This contrastive study reveals that there are clear differences between the English love and hate and the Macedonian сака and мрази. What is most significant from a contrastive point of view is that the Macedonian translations of love and hate include forms which vary in the strength of feeling expressed (ми се допаѓа, сака, ме воодушеви, ужива, обожавам). Sometimes the strength of сака is intensified by the adverb многу. The translation of English love and hate reveals a rich inventory of correspondences, which shows that translators are aware of the differences in relation to Macedonian сака and мрази. The Macedonian examples with сака show that it has a significant pragmatic role and that it is used in a variety of communicative situations. In the corresponding English situations thoroughly different linguistic means may be used. This poses a real challenge for translators who need to be aware of the linguistic, pragmatic and cultural differences between the two languages so that they could select the best option. Although the corpus study revealed clear differences in the structures and use of сака and мрази, and the frequency of occurrence shows zero occurrence for мрази да, we still feel comfortable with it. This may be due to the great influence of English not only in written but also in spoken Macedonian. There may be an ongoing change in our language. The Macedonian language is exposed to a great deal of influence from English, as can be seen most clearly through the adoption of the large number of loanwords. The language of translated texts is a channel of English influence, in our case leading to the use of сака and мрази in a weakened sense parallel to that found in English. References Biber, D, Johansson, S., Leech, G., Conrad, S., and Finegan, E. (1999). Longman Grammar of Spoken and Written English. Harlow: Pearson Education Limited.

9 Glossa - Johansson, Stig. (2007). Seeing Through Multilingual Corpora : On the Use of Corpora in Contrastive Studies. Amsterdam, NLD: John Benjamins Publishing Company. I love to read. Retrived from Macedonian Corpus of English Interlanguage Hornby, A. S. (2003). Oxford Advanced Learner s Dictionary. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

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