mutagen Somatic mutation Germ cell mutation A change in the DNA of an organism. Mutation Inversion Translocation deletion Non-disjunction Monosomy

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1 Any substance that causes changes in the DNA of an organism. mutagen A change in the DNA of an organism which affects the body cells and cannot be passed down to offspring. A change in the DNA of an organism which affects the gametes and can be passed down to offspring. A change in the DNA of an organism. A chromosome mutation in which a piece breaks off and reattaches in reverse orientation to the same chromosome. A chromosome mutation in which a piece breaks off and reattaches to another, nonhomologous chromosome. Chromosome mutation in which a piece of a chromosome breaks off and is lost. Somatic mutation Germ cell mutation Mutation Inversion Translocation deletion A chromosome mutation in which homologous chromosomes fail to separate during meiosis. A condition which results from nondisjunction where a chromosome is missing. A condition which results from nondisjunction where there is an extra chromosome. Non-disjunction Monosomy Trisomy

2 An example of a genetic disorder that results from a point mutation Sickle cell anemia Example of a multiple allele trait An example of a somatic mutation Example of sex-influenced trait Examples of Autosomal dominant traits Examples of autosomal recessive traits Examples of mutagens include Examples of polygenic traits Examples of sex-linked traits blood type (alleles - A, B, or O) Skin cancer male pattern baldness dwarfism, cataracts, Huntington's disease cystic fibrosis, sickle cell anemia, phenylketonuria, Tay Sachs disease asbestos, radiation, and ultraviolet rays skin color, eye color, height, curliness of hair red/green colorblindness, hemophelia, duchenne muscular dystrophy The exchange of pieces of DNA (genes) between homologous chromosomes which produces new gene combinations. Crossing over

3 A family record that shows how a trait is inherited over several generations. Pedigree A genetic disorder in which the affected person has excess mucous production that clogs respiratory and digestive passageways. A genetic disorder in which the blood does not clot properly because it is missing an important clotting protein. Cystic fibrosis Hemophelia A genetic disorder in which the red blood cells are shaped irregularly and they clog up vessels which results in circulatory problems and tissues deprived of oxygen Sickle cell anemia A genetic disorder is which muscles atrophy and progressively become weaker; most commonly affects males A genetic disorder which has an onset later in life, in your 30's or 40's; causes muscles spasms, severe mental illness and eventually death. Duchenne muscular dystrophy Huntington's disease How many blood types are there for humans? In humans, who determines the sex of the baby? Mother or father? 4 - types A, B, AB, and O Father In the US, which blood type is least common? In the US, which blood type is most common? Type AB Type O

4 A mutation in which a single nucleotide, like an A, T, C, G, is substituted, added or deleted from a gene. A mutation where an inserted or deleted nucleotide causes the remaining codons in the gene to be incorrectly grouped. A picture of a fetus' chromosomes arranged in pairs which can be used to detect chromosome abnormalities and gender / sex. A procedure where a needle is inserted into the uterus of an expectant mother and fluid is removed containing a sample of the fetus' cells. Point mutation Frame shift mutation Karyotype Amniocentesis A technique used to detect genetic disorders in which a piece of tissue that lies between the uterus and the placenta is removed and studied. Chorionic villi sampling A technique used to produce an image of the fetus often done in conjunction with an amniocentesis. Thomas Hunt Morgan first discovered sex chromosomes in what organism? Ultrasound Fruit flies Traits controlled by three or more alleles of the same gene. Multiple allele trait Traits controlled by two or more gene pairs Traits that are expressed only in the presence of certain male and female sex hormones Polygenic traits Sex-influenced traits

5 Traits which are expressed by one dominant gene located on chromosomes #1-22; requires one allele to be expressed Traits which are expressed by recessive genes located on chromosomes #1-22; requires 2 alleles to be expressed Traits whose alleles appear only on the X or Y chromosome. Autosomal dominant traits Autosomal recessive traits Sex-linked traits A type of monosomy in which the sex chromosomes are affected; a female with only one X chromosome. The type of therapy used to replace defective genes with non-defective genes in people with genetic disorders. A type of trisomy in which the extra chromosome is on the 21st pair; trisomy 21 Turner's syndrome Gene Therapy Down syndrome A type of trisomy in which the sex chromosomes are affected; a male with XXY sex chromosomes. What are the alleles of the same gene that code for the human blood types? Klinefelter syndrome A = IA, B = IB, O = i What is an example of a codominant trait in humans? What is the genotype for a female? Blood type - A and B alleles are codominant and can produce blood types A, B, or AB XX

6 What is the genotype for a male? Who can contribute the X for a female child? Who can contribute the X for a male child? Who can contribute the Y for a female child? Who can contribute the Y for a male child? XY Both mom and dad Only mom contributes the X chromosome to male children Neither parent - females do not have a Y chromosome Only dad contributes the Y chromosome to male children

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