# Module 5 : Force Method - Introduction and applications Lecture 1 : Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Beams

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1 Module 5 : Fce Method - Introduction and applications Lecture 1 : Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Beams Objectives In this course you will learn the following Introduction to statically indeterminate structure. Analysis of statically indeterminates beam using moment area and conjugate beam method. To demonstrate the application of moment area and conjugate beam method through illustrative examples. 5.1 Introduction A strucure in which the laws of statics are not sufficient to determine all the unknown fces moments is said to be statically indeterminate. Such structures are analyzed by writing the appropriate equations of static equilibrium and additional equations pertaining to the defmation and constraints known as compatibility condition. The statically indeterminate structures are frequently used f several advantages. They are relatively me economical in the requirement of material as the maximum bending moments in the structure are reduced. The statically indeterminate are me rigid leading to smaller deflections. The disadvantage of the indeterminate structure is that they are subjected to stresses when subjected to temperature changes and settlements of the suppt. The construction of indeterminate structure is me difficult if there are dimensional errs in the length of members location of the suppts. This chapter deals with analysis of statically indeterminate structures using various fce methods. 5.2 Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Beams The moment area method and the conjugate beam method can be easily applied f the analysis of statically indeterminate beams using the principle of superposition. Depending upon the degree of indeterminacy of the beam, designate the excessive reactions as redundant and modify the suppt. The redundant reactions are then treated as unknown fces. The redundant reactions should be such that they produce the compatible defmation at the iginal suppt along with the applied loads. F example consider a propped cantilever beam as shown in Figure 5.1(a). Let the reaction at B be R as shown in Figure 5.1(b) which can be obtained with the compability condition that the downward vertical deflection of B due to applied loading (i.e. shown in Figure 5.1(c)) should be equal to the upward vertical deflection of B due to R (i.e. shown in Figure 5.1(d)). Example 5.1 Determine the suppt reactions of the propped cantilever beam as shown in Figure 5.2(a).

2 Solution: The static indeterminacy of the beam is = 3 2 = 1. Let reaction at B is R acting in the upward direction as shown in Figure 5.2(b). The condition available is that the. (a) Moment area method The bending moment diagrams divided by EI of the beam are shown due to P and R in Figures 5.2(c) and (d), respectively. Since in the actual beam the deflection of the point B is zero which implies that the deviation of point B from the tangent at A is zero. Thus,

3 Taking moment about A, the moment at A is given by The vertical rection at A is The bending moment diagram of the beam is shown in Figure 5.2(e). (b) Conjugate beam method The cresponding conjugate beam of the propped cantilever beam and loading acting on it are shown in Figure 5.2(f). The unknown R can be obtained by taking moment about B i.e. Example 5.2 Determine the suppt reactions of the fixed beam with internal hinge as shown in Figure 5.3(a).

4 Solution: The static indeterminacy of the beam is = =1 Let the shear in the internal hinge be R. The free body diagrams of the two separated ptions of the beam are shown in Figure 5.3(b) along with their M/EI diagrams. The unknown R can be obtained with the condition that the vertical deflection of the free ends of the two separated cantilever beams is identical. Consider AC : The vertical displacement of C is given by Consider CB : The vertical displacement of C is given by Equating the from Eqs. (i) and (ii) Solving f R will give The reactions at the suppts are given by

5 Example 5.3 Determine the suppt reactions of the fixed beam with one end fixed and other suppted on spring as shown in Figure 5.4(a). The stiffness of spring is. Solution: The static indeterminacy of the beam is = 3 2 =1. Let the fce in the spring be R. The free body diagram of the beam along with the M/EI diagram and spring are shown in Figure 5.4(b) and (c), respectively. The unknown R can be obtained with the condition that the vertical deflection of the free end of the beam and spring is identical. Using moment area theem, the deflection of free end A of the beam is

6 The downward deflection of spring is Equating and The bending moment at B The vertical reaction at B The fce in the spring (compressive) The bending moment diagram of the beam is shown in Figure 5.4(d). Example 5.4 Determine the suppt reactions of the fixed beam as shown in Figure 5.5(a). The beam carries a unifmly distributed load, w over the left half span.

7 Solution: The static indeterminacy of the beam is = 4-2 =2. Let the reactions at B be the unknown as shown in Figure 5.5(b). (a) Moment Area Method The free body diagram of the beam is shown below along with their M/EI diagrams. The unknowns and can be obtained with the condition that the vertical deflection and slope at B are zero. Since the change of slope between points A and B is zero (due to fixed suppts at A and B ), therefe, accding to the first moment area theem,

8 (i) (ii) Solving equations (i) and (ii) The bending moment diagram of the beam is shown in Figure 5.5(f) (b) Conjugate Beam Method The cresponding conjugate beam (i.e. free-free beam) and loading on it are shown in Figure 5.5(g). Considering vertical equilibrium of all fces acting on Conjugate beam (iii)

9 Taking moment about A (iv) Solving eqs. (iii) and (iv) Example 5.5 The end B of a unifm fixed beam sinks by an amount D. Determine the end reactions using moment area method. Solution: The degree of indeterminacy is 2. Let end reactions due to settlement at B be and as shown in Figure 5.6(b). The M/EI diagram of the beam is shown in Figure 5.6(c). Applying first moment area theem between A and B (i)

10 Applying second moment area theem between point A and B Solving eqs. (i) and (ii) By equilibrium conditions, the reactions at suppt A are and Example 5.6 Determine the suppt reactions of the continuous beam as shown in Figure 5.7(a). Solution: The static indeterminacy of the beam is = 3-2 =1. Let the vertical reaction at B be the unknown R as shown in Figure 5.7(b). The M/EI diagrams of the beam are shown in Figure 5.7(c).

11 Because of symmetry of two spans the slope at B, As a result The vertical reaction at A and C are The bending moment diagram of the beam is shown in Figure 5.7(d). Recap In this course you have learnt the following Introduction to statically indeterminate structure. Analysis of statically indeterminates beam using moment area and conjugate beam method. To demonstrate the application of moment area and conjugate beam method through illustrative examples.

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