Valence Electrons. Valence electrons are the electrons in the outermost s- and p-orbitals that can be involved in chemical reactions.

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1 Ionic Bonding

2 Content Objectives SWBAT describe the process of ionic bonding due to some atoms removing electrons from other atoms to reach the Octet Rule and then attracting to each other due to electrostatic charger.

3 Valence Electrons Valence electrons are the electrons in the outermost s- and p-orbitals that can be involved in chemical reactions. 1s orbital is not involved

4 Valence Electrons Valence electrons are the electrons in the outermost s and p-orbitals that can be involved in chemical reactions. 1s orbital is not involved Outer octet of 2s and 2p orbitals are involved

5 Ions Cation Positively Charged Atom (loses electrons) K +1 Pronounced CAT-ion

6 Ions Cation Positively Charged Atom (loses electrons) K +1 Anion Negatively Charged Atom (gains electrons) Cl -1 Pronounced AN-ion

7 Ions Cation Positively Charged Atom (loses electrons) K +1 Anion Negatively Charged Atom (gains electrons) Cl -1 Ionic Bonding occurs when a cation gives electrons to an anion and the atoms become attracted to each other due to the opposite charges.

8 Ionic Bonds Na Cl Sodium has one valence electron it wants to lose Chlorine has 7 valence electrons, so it wants to gain one more to make it to eight.

9 Ionic Bonds Na Cl The Sodium atom donates its one valence electron to Chlorine.

10 Ionic Bonds Na +1 Cl -1 This means Na has the electron configuration of the noble gas before it, which is Neon Sodium s electron configuration is now written as [Ne] +

11 Ionic Bonds Na +1 Cl -1 Chlorine now has the electron configuration of the noble gas after it, which is Argon. Chlorine s electron configuration is now written as [Ar] -

12 Ionic Bonds Na Cl Sodium and Chloride are now ionically bonded to form a new compound known as sodium chloride (NaCl). This is known to most of us as Table Salt.

13 Ionic Bonds +1-1 Na Cl Now each sodium is positively charged and each chlorine is negatively charged. They are attached because opposite charges attract electrostatically. However, together they balance each other out.

14 -1 Cl Ionic Bonds +1-1 Na Cl Na +1 But, the positive charge, does attract other negatively charged molecules, such as other chlorine ions The same holds true for negatively charged chlorine ions attracting other positive ones

15 Ionic Bonds Na Cl Na +1 Cl Cl Na +1 Soon, they all begin to line up

16 -1 Cl -1 Ionic Bonds +1-1 Na +1-1 Na +1 Cl Na Cl Cl Na +1 Soon, they all begin to line up This then forms crystals of salt

17 -1-1 Ionic Bonds +1-1 Na +1 Cl Na +1 Cl Na Cl Cl -1 Na +1 Soon, they all begin to line up This then forms crystals of salt

18 Ionic Bonds Bonding that involves a transfer of electrons. Positively and negatively charged atoms (ions) result from this transfer The resulting positive and negative charged atoms are attracted to each because of their opposite charges. Na + Cl -

19 Solvents and Solutions Because ionic molecules have positive and negative atoms, they can be pulled apart by other substance with positive and negative charges.

20 Solvents and Solutions One example is dissolving salt into water Water molecules have positive ends near the hydrogens and negative ends near the oxygen.

21 Solutions Since all of the ions are evenly dispersed and dissolved in the water, it makes a solution of salt water. This solution is transparent.

22 Reforming Crystals When the water evaporates, the positive Na ions and the negative Cl ions come back together again!

23 So, Who Makes Ions Anyways? It all depends on how many valence electrons they have and what they need to get to noble gas configuration. Question #1 How many valence electrons does Aluminum have?

24 So, Who Makes Ions Anyways? It all depends on how many valence electrons they have and what they need to get to noble gas configuration. Question #1 How many valence electrons does Aluminum have? Answer 3 Question #2 What ionic charge will it have to become noble gas configuration?

25 So, Who Makes Ions Anyways? It all depends on how many valence electrons they have and what they need to get to noble gas configuration. Question #1 How many valence electrons does Aluminum have? Answer 3 Question #2 What ionic charge will it have to become noble gas configuration? Answer Al +3

26 Alkali Metals Charge +1

27 Alkaline Earth Metals Charge +2

28 Boron Family Charge +3

29 Carbon Family Do not usually make ions, but could be +4 or -4

30 Nitrogen Family Charge -3

31 Oxygen Family Charge -2

32 Halogens Charge -1

33 Noble Gas Family Do not make ions, because they already have full orbitals

34 Transition Metals A variety of positive ions from +1 to +7 We ll discuss these in more detail later

35 Polyatomic Ion Polyatomic ions are ions that have multiple atoms attached to each other, but as a unit have a net charge. Sulfate (SO 4-2 ) is an example.

36 Polyatomic Ions Anions Acetate CH 3 COO Bicarbonate (hydrogen carbonate) HCO - 3 Carbonate CO -2 3 Cyanide CN Hydroxide OH Nitrate NO - 3 Phosphate PO -3 4 Sulfate SO -2 4 Sulfite SO -2 3 Cations Ammonium NH + 4 Hydronium H 3 O + Mercury(I) Hg +2 2 Polyatomic Cations are more rare State Anion name chloride hypochlorite chlorite chlorate perchlorate Formula Cl ClO ClO 2 ClO 3 ClO 4 Structure

37 Acetic Acid Dissolving in Water Acetic Acid Water Acetate ion Hydronium ion +

38 Content Objectives SWBAT describe the process of ionic bonding due to some atoms removing electrons from other atoms to reach the Octet Rule and then attracting to each other due to electrostatic charger.

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