How do we learn? How many of you have to have popcorn when you go to the movies??? Walk on the right side of the hall?

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1 Unit 6: Learning

2 Introduction Learning a relatively permanent change in an organism s behavior due to experience. Habituation an organism s decreasing response to a stimulus with repeated exposure to it.

3 How do we learn? Most learning is Associative learning Associative Learning is that certain events occur together. The events may be two stimuli (as in classical conditioning) or a response and its consequence (as in operant conditioning). How many of you have to have popcorn when you go to the movies??? Walk on the right side of the hall?

4 Classical Conditioning a type of learning in which one learns to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events. Operant Conditioning a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher. Observational Learning learning by observing others. Also called social learning.

5

6 Classical Conditioning

7 Operant Conditioning

8 Introduction Classical conditioning Ivan Pavlov John B. Watson Behaviorism the view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most research psychologists today agree with (1) but not with (2).

9 Pavlov s Experiments Ivan Pavlov Background Experimental procedure

10 Pavlov s Experiments Parts of Classical Conditioning Unconditioned stimulus (US) Unconditioned response (UR) Conditioned stimulus (CS) Conditioned response (CR)

11 Pavlov s Experiments Parts of Classical Conditioning Unconditioned stimulus (US) in classical conditioning, a stimulus that unconditionally naturally and automatically triggers a response.

12 Pavlov s Experiments Parts of Classical Conditioning Unconditioned response (UR) in classical conditioning, the unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus (US), such as salivation when food is in the mouth.

13 Pavlov s Experiments Parts of Classical Conditioning Conditioned stimulus (CS) in classical conditioning, an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus (CS), comes to trigger a conditioned response.

14 Pavlov s Experiments Parts of Classical Conditioning Conditioned response (CR) in classical conditioning, the learned response to a previously neutral (but now conditioned) stimulus (CS).

15 Pavlov s Experiments

16 Classical Conditioning

17 Extending Pavlov s Understanding

18 Biopsychosocial Influences on Learning

19 Pavlov s Legacy Applications of Classical Conditioning John Watson and Baby Albert

20

21 Introduction Respondent behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus. Operant conditioning A type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by reinforcement or diminished if followed by punishment. Classical conditioning is a type of learning based on association of stimuli, operant conditioning is a kind of learning based on the association of consequences with one s behaviors.

22 Edward Thorndike s Law of Effect Thorndike s principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely, and that behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely.

23 Skinner s Experiments Operant Chamber (Skinner Box)

24 Skinner s Experiments Shaping Behavior Shaping an operant conditioning procedure in which reinforces guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior.

25 Skinner s Experiments Types of Reinforcers Reinforcer in operant conditioning, any event that strengthens the behavior it follows Positive reinforcement increasing behaviors by presenting positive stimuli, such as food. Negative reinforcement increases behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli, such as shock.

26

27 Skinner s Experiments Types of Reinforcers Primary reinforcer an innately reinforcer stimulus, such as one that satisfies a biological need. Conditioned reinforcer a stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer

28 Skinner s Experiments Reinforcement Schedules Continuous reinforcement reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs. Partial (intermittent) reinforcement reinforcing a response only part of the time; results in slower acquisition of a response but much greater resistance to extinction than does continuous reinforcement.

29 Skinner s Experiments Reinforcement Schedules Schedules Fixed-ratio schedule in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specific number of responses. Variable-ratio schedule in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses.

30

31 Schedules Skinner s Experiments Reinforcement Schedules Fixed-interval schedule in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specific time has elapsed. Variable-interval schedule in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals.

32

33 Skinner s Experiments Punishment Punishment an event that decreases the behavior that it follows. Positive punishment Negative punishment

34 Skinner s Experiments Punishment Negatives of using punishment Punished behavior is suppressed not forgotten Punishment teaches discrimination Punishment can teach fear Physical punishment may increase aggression

35

36 Contrasting Classical and Operant Conditioning

37

38 Introduction Observational learning learning by observing others. Also called social learning. Modeling the process of observing and imitating a specific behavior.

39 Applications of Observational Learning Prosocial vs Antisocial Effects Prosocial effects positive, constructive, helpful behavior. The opposite of antisocial behavior Antisocial effects

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