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1 Name: Period: Reading Guide Chapter 7: Learning How do we learn? (pp ) Before reading SURVEY pp Look at the pictures, tables, cartoons, read any quotations and anything else in the margins. A QUESTION to consider BEFORE you read pp : What are some basic forms of learning? READ How do we learn? (pp ) 1 1. Define: learning 2. Aristotle, John Locke, and David Hume all believed that we learn though. What does this mean? 3. Define habituation (you might need to go back to Chapter 5). Describe how the sea slug Aplysia demonstrates this simple form of learning. 4. What is conditioning? 5. What is classical conditioning? 6. What is operant conditioning? 7. Classical and operant conditioning are not the only types of learning. What is the third? Explain what it is. REHEARSE: STOP! Look at this question again. Recite your answer aloud. Check yourself by going back to your answers in this reading guide and/or go back and reread your textbook. Make sure you can answer this question. #1:What are some basic forms of learning? Do you recognize these key terms? Put a star (*) by the ones you don t recognize. Go back to your reading guide or the textbook and make sure you can identify & explain them. Learning Associative learning Conditioning Classical conditioning Operant conditioning Observational learning

2 2 Classical conditioning? (pp ) Before reading SURVEY pp Look at the pictures, tables, cartoons, read any quotations and anything else in the margins. A QUESTION to consider BEFORE you read p. 294: What is classical conditioning, and how did Pavlov s work influence behaviorism? READ Classical Conditioning? (pp. 294) 1. What type of learning did Pavlov study? 2. John B Watson was an early learning theorist. What did he believe was appropriate for psychologists to study? 3. What is behaviorism? What basic beliefs did early behaviorists, like Pavlov and Watson, share? A QUESTION to consider BEFORE you read p : How does a neutral stimulus become a conditioned stimulus? READ Pavlov s experiments? (pp ) Fact Check: Conditioning Don t let the term conditioning trick you, it just means learning. 1. Define each: a) Neutral stimulus (NS): b) Unconditioned response (UR): c) Unconditioned stimulus (US): d) Conditioned response (CR): e) Conditioned stimulus (CS):

3 3 2. Now tie these concepts to Pavlov s experiments with the dogs. Fill in each blank: a) UR: b) US: c) NS: d) CR: e) CS: Fact Check: Classical Conditioning An experimenter sounds a tone just before popping a balloon. You flinch to the loud noise. After several repetitions, you flinch to the tone alone. What is the US? The UR? The NS? The CS? The CR? Answers to Fact Check: US: loud noise UR: flinching NS: tone CS: tone after procedure CR: flinching How did you do? 3. What comes first during the classical conditioning procedure, the NS or the US? Use Pavlov s experiments to illustrate. REHEARSE: STOP! Look at this question again. Recite your answer aloud. Check yourself by going back to your answers in this reading guide and/or go back and reread your textbook. Make sure you can answer this question. #1: How does a neutral stimulus become a conditioned stimulus? Do you recognize these key terms? Put a star (*) by the ones you don t recognize. Go back to your reading guide or the textbook and make sure you can identify & explain them. Classical conditioning Behaviorism Ivan Pavlov John B. Watson Unconditioned response (UR) Unconditioned stimulus (US) Neutral stimulus (NS) Conditioned stimulus (CS) Conditioned response (CR)

4 4 A QUESTION to consider BEFORE you read p : In classical conditioning, what are the processes of acquisition, extinction, spontaneous recovery, generalization, and discrimination? READ Acquisition, Extinction & Spontaneous Recovery, Generalization, & Discrimination (pp ) 1. Define: acquisition 2. How much time should elapse between presenting the NS (like a tone), with the US (like the food)? 3. What do you think would happen if the food (US) appeared before the tone (CS)? Would conditioning occur? Explain in detail. Give an example to illustrate. 4. Define: higher-order conditioning (also called second-order conditioning) 5. Give an example of higher order conditioning. Fact Check: higher-order conditioning 1st classical conditioning procedure: US food UR salivation Acquisition: NS/CS (tone) + US (food) CR (salivation) Higher-order conditioning Acquisition: CS1 (tone) + CS2 (bell) CR (salivation) CS2 (alone) CR (salivation) *Weaker response 6. Define & give an example of extinction: 7. Define & give an example of spontaneous recovery: 8. Define & give an example of generalization: 9. Define & give an example of discrimination:

5 Time to Review! Every time Brandy drops a cricket into the cage of her pet tarantula, Chompers, he begins to salivate. Brandy has gotten into the habit of playing her favorite CD when she feeds Chompers. After several pairings of the cricket and her favorite CD, all Brandy has to do is play the CD and Chompers begins to salivate. Using this example, identify the following: US: UR: NS/CS: CR: If Brandy played the CD and never gave Chompers food, what would likely occur? What is the correct term to describe this phenomenon? 5 Chomper has stopped salivating to the music from Brandy s favorite CD. However, one day Brandy plays this CD while feeding Chompers and he begins salivating again. What is the correct term to describe this phenomenon? If Chompers salivated to ANY music Brandy played, what would we say had occurred? Give the correct term. If Chompers ONLY salivates to this particular CD, what would we say had occurred? Give the correct term. REHEARSE: STOP! Look at this question again. Recite your answer aloud. Check yourself by going back to your answers in this reading guide and/or go back and reread your textbook. Make sure you can answer this question. #1: In classical conditioning, what are the processes of acquisition, extinction, spontaneous recovery, generalization, and discrimination? Do you recognize these key terms? Put a star (*) by the ones you don t recognize. Go back to your reading guide or the textbook and make sure you can identify & explain them. Acquisition Higher-order (or second-order) conditioning Extinction Spontaneous recovery Generalization READ Extending Pavlov s Understanding (pp ) Discrimination A QUESTION to consider BEFORE you read p : Do cognitive processes & biological constraints affect classical conditioning? READ Extending Pavlov s Understanding p What did Robert Rescorla & Allan Wagner discover about classical conditioning? Why does an animal learn this association? Be sure to use the terms predictability and expectancy in your explanation.

6 6 2. Alcoholics may be given a drug to put in their alcohol that makes them nauseous. This is called aversive therapy. This technique has limited success. Using Rescorla & Wagner s findings, explain why. 3. Using John Garcia s taste aversion research, fill in the blanks: a) UR: b) US: c) NS: d) CR: e) CS: 4. What were the results of Garcia s taste aversion studies? What conclusions did he draw about the nature of classical conditioning? 5. Describe how Garcia s taste aversion studies were applied to the coyote and wolf problem. Be specific. A QUESTION to consider BEFORE you read p : Why is Pavlov s work important? and What have been some applications of classical conditioning? READ Pavlov s Legacy & Applications of Classical Conditioning, p Why is Pavlov s work important? Explain both reasons provided in your text. 2. Using John B. Watson s study with Baby Albert, fill in the blanks: a) UR: b) US: c) NS: d) CR: e) CS: f) generalized stimulus (GS): g) generalized response (GR):

7 7 4. What is the significance of John B. Watson s research with Little Albert? REHEARSE: STOP! Look at this question again. Recite your answer aloud. Check yourself by going back to your answers in this reading guide and/or go back and reread your textbook. Make sure you can answer this question. #1: Do cognitive processes and biological constraints affect classical conditioning? #2: Why is Pavlov s work important? #3: What have been some applications of classical conditioning? REACTION: Do you recognize After surveying these key pp. terms? , Put write a star about (*) by 1 the thing ones you you learned, don t found recognize. interesting Go back or surprising, to your reading or comment guide on or something the textbook that and you make already sure knew. you can identify & explain them. Rescorla & Wagner Contingency Model (expectancy & predictability) John Garcia s taste aversion studies Learning as adaptation John B. Watson Baby or Little Albert Stimulus generalization Ethics in research How do we learn? (pp ) Before reading SURVEY pp Look at the pictures, tables, cartoons, read any quotations and anything else in the margins. A QUESTION to consider BEFORE you read pp : What is operant conditioning and how does it differ from classical conditioning? READ Operant Conditioning? (pp ) 1. How is classical conditioning different from operant conditioning? 2. What is respondent behavior? What type of learning is associated with this behavior? 3. What is operant behavior? What type of learning is associated with this behavior? 4. The author suggests that you can distinguish operant from classical conditioning by asking what?

8 8 5. Who is B.F. Skinner? What was his background? What is he known for? 6. What concept did Edward L. Thorndike discover? Describe this law. 7. Read the text that accompanies Figure Describe Thorndike s 1898 experiments. 8. Describe Skinner s operant chamber (or Skinner box ). What was the purpose of this apparatus? 9. Define: shaping 10. The author describes how shaping can be used to train a hungry rat to press a bar. Describe this procedure. 11. Define: successive approximations 12. Describe how a discriminative stimulus is used to help researchers understand what nonverbal organisms perceive.

9 9 A QUESTION to consider BEFORE you read pp : What are the basic types of reinforcers? READ Types of Reinforcers (pp ) 1. Define: reinforcer 2. Define: positive reinforcement 3. Give an example of one positive reinforcer discussed in your text. 4. Define: negative reinforcement 5. Give an example of one negative reinforcer discussed in your text. 6. Negative reinforcement is NOT!!!!! 7. What does aversive mean? Fact Check: Positive vs. Negative Reinforcement Think of positive as a + (plus) sign. It means you ADD something (positive doesn t mean good ). Think of negative as a (minus) sign. It means you TAKE something away (negative doesn t mean bad ). *The result? The behavior is STRENGTHENED, ALWAYS!!! 8. What is a primary reinforcer? Give one example from the text. 9. What is a conditioned (also called secondary ) reinforcer? Give one example from the text.

10 What is an immediate reinforcer? Give an example from the text. 11. What is a delayed reinforcer? Give an example from the text. A QUESTION to consider BEFORE you read pp : How do reinforcement schedules affect behavior? READ Reinforcement Schedules (pp ) 1. Define: continuous reinforcement 2. Give one example of continuous reinforcement presented in the text. 3. Define: partial (also called intermittent ) reinforcement 4. What is a drawback to partial reinforcement schedules? What is a benefit? 5. Define AND give an example of each partial reinforcement schedule: a) fixed-ratio: b) variable-ratio: c) fixed-interval:

11 11 d) variable-interval: 6. On a fixed-ratio schedule, once conditioned the animal will and will then return to a high rate of responding. 7. The variable-ratio schedule produces because reinforcers increase as.. 8. The fixed-interval schedule produces a choppy stop-start pattern rather than a steady rate of response because. 9. Variable-interval schedules tend to produce because. 10. Read the information provided with Figure 7.13 on p a) Which partial reinforcement schedule produces a higher response rate? b) What type of partial reinforcement schedule produces more consistent responding? A QUESTION to consider BEFORE you read pp : How does punishment affect behavior? READ Punishment (pp ) 1. Define: punishment 2. Define and give an example of positive punishment.

12 12 3. Define and give an example of negative punishment. Fact Check: Punishment Think of positive as a + (plus) sign. It means you ADD something (positive doesn t mean good ). Think of negative as a (minus) sign. It means you TAKE something away (negative doesn t mean bad ). *The result? The behavior is WEAKENED, ALWAYS!!! 4. Parents often use punishment with their children. List 4 reasons why punishment may not be effective way to deal with unwanted behavior. 5. What is a time-out. 6. Why does reinforcement tend to be more effective in changing behavior than punishment? A QUESTION to consider BEFORE you read pp : Do cognitive processes and biological constraints affect operant conditioning? READ Extending Skinner s Understanding (pp ) 1. Define: cognitive map 2. Define: latent learning 3. How did Tolman s research involving rats running mazes demonstrate that cognition is a part of operant conditioning? (Along with the text, make sure to read the information provided with the bolded term latent learning on p. 312) 4. Explain the difference between extrinsic and intrinsic motivation.

13 5. If you give a child a reward for something they already enjoy doing, what is the danger? WHAT YOU ARE DESCRIBING IS CALLED THE OVERJUSTIFICATION EFFECT! Give an example from the text of how an animal s natural predispositions constrain its capacity for operant conditioning. 7. Describe Breland & Breland study will pigs. How did it demonstrate the constraints of the pig s biological predispositions? 8. Define: instinctive drift A QUESTION to consider BEFORE you read pp : How might operant conditioning principles be applied at school, in sports, at work, and at home? READ Applications of Operant Conditioning (pp ) 1. What lesson has operant conditioning taught us about success in these areas? a. At school: b. In sports: c. At work: d. At home: To answer the following multiple choice question, review Table 7.4 on p When Ken kisses Barbie, his heart races. For a month now, Barbie snapped her fingers just before she kissed him. She stopped snapping her fingers, but now whenever Ken hears someone snapping their fingers, his heart begins to race. This is an example of. a. classical conditioning b. operant conditioning c. observational learning d. spontaneous recovery

14 3. Joey, the dog, quickly learns when he scratches at the door, his owner will allow him to go outside to play. This is an example of conditioning. a. operant b. higher-order c. avoidance d. classical 4. Shamir reflexively kicked his leg when the doctor tapped him on the knee. Later, the doctor began saying the word Help and then tapping Shamir on the knee. After forty-five trials of first saying Help followed immediately by tapping the knee, Shamir kicked his leg after hearing the word Help. Shamir has been trained using a. operant conditioning b. observational learning c. classical conditioning d. latent learning 5. Han is fearful of the powerful Jabba. Han becomes fearful when he hears Jabba s how voice, but also becomes fearful when he hears any low voice. What phenomenon best explains Han s tendency to become fearful when hearing any low voice? a. extinction b. spontaneous recovery c. stimulus generalization d. stimulus discrimination 6. Lisa s dog, Rover, began to put the remote under her chair not only during the day but also whenever a bright light was on at night thinking she would probably pat him. What phenomenon best explains Rover s behavior? a. stimulus discrimination b. extinction c. latent learning d. stimulus generalization 7. Baby Abbey was playing with her favorite toy rattle when her mom dropped an armful of pots and pans behind her. The loud noise made her startle and cry. Subsequently, on seeing her favorite rattle, she cries. However, Mom continues to give Baby Abbey her favorite rattle and doesn t drop any more pots and pans. We would expect that Baby Abbey s crying when seeing the rattle would now a. extinguish b. generalize c. continue through intermittent reinforcement d. decrease because of spontaneous recovery 8. Mrs. Whitlock is a huge Lord of the Rings fan and so is her son. When she talks Lord of the Rings to husband, she never gets much response, but she does from her son. So these days, she basically only talks about Lord of the Rings to her son! What phenomenon best explains Mrs. Whitlock s behavior? a. stimulus discrimination b. extinction c. latent learning d. stimulus generalization 14

15 9. Mike loves Q-Mart and shops there often. One day another customer asked Mike if he knew where turkey basters were in the store. Mike immediately gave directions to the exact aisle, even though he never looked for turkey basters himself. Mike has displayed a. insight b. an unconditioned response c. observational learning d. latent learning 10. Researcher successfully taught a raccoon to deposit wooden coins into a metal container for food reinforcement. But soon the raccoon started rubbing the coins together and dipping them (not dropping them) into the container. It was performing the motor program raccoons use to wash food in a stream. The raccoons demonstrated a. latent learning b. cognitive maps c. an unconditioned response d. instinctive drift 15 REHEARSE: STOP! Look at these questions again. Recite your answers aloud. Check yourself by going back to your answers in this reading guide and/or go back and reread your textbook. Make sure you can answer these questions. #1: What is operant conditioning, and how does it differ from classical conditioning? #2: What are the basic types of reinforcers? #3: How do reinforcement schedules affect behavior? #4: How does punishment affect behavior? #5: Do cognitive processes and biological constraints affect operant conditioning? #6: How might operant conditioning principles be applied at school, in sports, at work, and at home? Do you recognize these key terms? Put a star (*) by the ones you don t recognize. Go back to your reading guide or the textbook and make sure you can identify & explain them. Classical conditioning; respondent behavior Operant conditioning; operant behavior B.F. Skinner Edward L. Thorndike Law of effect Operant chamber ( Skinner box ) Shaping; successive approximation Reinforcer Positive reinforcement Negative reinforcement Primary reinforcer Instinctive drift *Understand each of the following for classical AND operant conditioning: Acquisition Extinction Spontaneous recovery Stimulus generalization Stimulus discrimination Secondary (or conditioned ) reinforcer Immediate vs. delayed reinforcers Continuous vs. partial (or intermittent ) reinforcement schedules Fixed-ratio schedule Variable-ratio schedule Fixed-interval schedule Variable-interval schedule Punishment Positive punishment Negative punishment Edward C. Tolman Cognitive map Latent learning Overjustification effect Intrinsic motivation Extrinsic motivation Breland & Breland

16 16 How do we learn? (pp ) Before reading SURVEY pp Look at the pictures, tables, cartoons, read any quotations and anything else in the margins. A QUESTION to consider BEFORE you read pp : What is observational learning, and how is it enabled by mirror neurons? READ Learning by Observation (pp ) 1. Define: observational learning 2. What is modeling? 3. What are mirror neurons? How do they function? 4. What ability is the theory of mind referring to? How is this ability and mirror neurons tied to autism? 5. What were the results of Bandura s Bobo doll study? A QUESTION to consider BEFORE you read pp : What is the impact of prosocial modeling and of antisocial modeling? READ Prosocial effects (pp ) 1. When are models most effective? 2. As a future parent, should you be concerned about your child watching violence on television? Explain using 1 research finding discussed in the text.

17 17 REHEARSE: STOP! Look at these questions again. Recite your answers aloud. Check yourself by going back to your answers in this reading guide and/or go back and reread your textbook. Make sure you can answer these questions. #1: What is observational learning, and how is it enabled by mirror neurons? #2: What is the impact of prosocial modeling and of antisocial modeling? Do you recognize these key terms? Put a star (*) by the ones you don t recognize. Go back to your reading guide or the textbook and make sure you can identify & explain them. Observational learning Modeling Imitation Giacomo Rizzolatti Mirror neurons Theory of mind Albert Bandura & the Bobo doll experiment Effects of prosocial models Effects of antisocial models

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