Florida Center for Reading Research Guidelines to Review Reading Intervention Programs

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1 A Correlation of to the Florida Center for Reading Research Guidelines to Review Reading Intervention Programs Grades One - Five T/R-86A

2 Introduction This document is designed to show how Pearson s intensive reading intervention program, Scott Foresman My Sidewalks on Reading Street, aligns to the Florida Center for Reading Research Guidelines to Review Reading Intervention Programs. Correlation page references are to the Teacher s Guide unless otherwise noted. My Sidewalks on Reading Street is based on the foundational research of Scott Foresman Early Reading Intervention (Project Optimize). This research-based program validated components of intervention strategies for Kindergarten students with identified disabilities or those at risk. My Sidewalks on Reading Street incorporates these findings. INSTRUCTIONAL EMPHASIS Emphasizing the essential elements of reading affects outcomes. SPECIFICITY Highly specified instruction accomplishes more that less specific instruction. INTENSITY Fast-paced instruction should be delivered to small groups of two to five students for at least 30 minutes a day in addition to their core instruction. PROGRESS MONITORING Frequent progress monitoring keeps learning on track. Hallmarks of My Sidewalks on Reading Street An acceleration plan prioritizes skills so you teach less, more thoroughly. An abundance of student reading material-four selections each week allows students to spend half their small-group time engaged in reading. An emphasis on oral language, vocabulary, and concept development is central to the instruction. Lessons develop deep meaning of concepts and vocabulary and elicit extended language from children. My Sidewalks on Reading Street addresses the fact that comprehension is tied to vocabulary knowledge. A focus on word-reading strategies for multisyllabic words at Levels C-E helps teach students to decode the words they struggle with the most. Alignment with Scott Foresman Reading Street offers consistent instructional routines and terminology. In addition, the oral language, vocabulary, and concepts developed in My Sidewalks on Reading Street parallel those in Reading Street.

3 Scott Foresman My Sidewalks on Reading Street - Intensive Reading Intervention to the Guidelines to Review Reading Intervention Programs Florida Center for Reading Research Grades One - Five Overall Instructional Design and Pedagogy of the Intervention Characteristic Yes No Comments (e.g., specific examples, strengths, concerns, questions) Is there a clear road map or blueprint for teachers to get an overall picture of the program (e.g., scope and sequence)? At the back of each book is a Scope and Sequence and sequential word list. 1.1: : : : : Are goals and objectives clearly stated? Are there resources available to help the teacher understand the rationale for the instructional approach and strategies utilized in the intervention (e.g., articles, explanations in the teacher manuals, references, reliable websites)? The planning page for each Week lists the Objectives for Vocabulary, Phonics, Text Comprehension, and Fluency. 1.1: : : : : 74 Teacher's Guides provide explicit and systematic instruction. Distinctions Between Levels, Differentiating Instruction and Meeting ELL Needs features (pp. xii xvii) help teachers make connections between research and classroom practices. "Welcome to My Sidewalks" offers effective classroom practices and research-based intervention strategies. 1

4 Is instruction consistently explicit? For every Activity, scaffolded instruction and scripted Models present a stepped-out instructional model that serves as a guide. 1.1: : : : : 91 Is instruction consistently systematic? Is there a prescribed order of introduction to specific skills such as sounds, letters, phonic elements, story difficulty? Is there a coherent instructional design (e.g., are the 5 components of reading clearly linked within as well as across each component)? Are all 5 components of reading included in the intervention? (Some interventions concentrate on one, two or a few of the components.) For every Activity, scaffolded instruction and scripted Models shown in green font are combined with other boldface headings that reflect a stepped-out instructional model that serves as a guide. The Skills Overview for each unit show the order of skills introduction. 1.1: xviii xxii, : xviii xxii, : xviii xxii, : xviii xxii, : xviii xxii, 68 The Skills Overview spread in each Unit and the Daily Lesson Plan pages for each Week show at a glance the links among the five components. Phonemic Awareness Activities found in the back of Volume 2 can be used to adapt the phonemic element for each day. 1.1: xviii xxii, : xviii xxii, : xviii xxii, : xviii xxii, : xviii xxii, The Daily Lesson Plan for each Week shows this at a glance; the Activities for each day show each component in more detail. Phonemic Awareness Activities found in the back of Volume 2 can be used to adapt the phonemic element for each day. 1.1: : : : : 15 2

5 In addition to the 5 components of reading, are the dimensions of spelling, writing, oral language, and listening comprehension addressed? Responses to Literature features provide daily opportunities for students to write. 1.1: : : : : 91 Are there consistent teacher friendly instructional routines? Teacher-led presentations Explanations Demonstrations Correction procedures Scaffolding Are there frequent interactions between teacher and students? Are the lessons highly detailed to ensure implementation accuracy? Stepped-out instructional models with scripted text in green font are provided for each day. 1.1: : : : : 65 Both the scaffolded instruction and scripted, model text ensure frequent interactions and discussions among teachers and students. 1.1: : : : : 7 Detailed To Do and To Say tabs are used to organize visually the scripts and models provided by the program. 1.1: : : : : 19 3

6 Are student materials aligned with instruction? Student Readers in magazine format and consumable Practice Books align with the instruction in the Teacher's Guides. Point-of-use references are included therein. 1.1: : : : : 149 Is there a logical organization to the materials so that it s clear in what order the lesson proceeds? Are all of the necessary materials included? Is each day s lesson format the same? Are the components of reading addressed each day? Are there ample student practice opportunities? Are all of the activities (e.g., centers) reading related? Materials are based on the Teacher's Guide, which is logically ordered by Volume, Unit, Week, Day. The format for each Day fits the same pattern and includes a list of materials. It allows for increased time on task, teacher modeling, multiple opportunities for response, and tasks broken down to smaller steps. The components of reading are addressed consistently throughout the weekly lesson plan. 1.1: : : : : 87 More Practice suggestions are offered in the Teacher's Guide as part of the daily lessons. Practice Books give students additional practice in phonics, comprehension, reading, vocabulary, and writing. 1.1: : : : : 89 Read a Passage Activities include Before, During, Rereading, and After Reading activities. Paired Reading and Oral Reading Activities provide opportunities for Corrective Feedback. 1.1: : : : : 83 4

7 Do the activities in the lessons reflect their corresponding objectives? All Activities are specifically designed to reflect the Weekly Objectives. Are teachers encouraged to give immediate feedback? Corrective Feedback features in each Activity specify what To Do and what To Say at the point of use. 1.1: : : : : 66 Is scaffolding a prominent part of the lessons? Are there specific instructions for scaffolding? Is differentiated instruction prominent? In every Activity, instruction is scaffolded in order to build conceptual understanding. Headings indicating where this occurs and scripted instructions are part of every Activity. 1.1: : : : : 58 Headings indicate where scaffolding occurs and scripted instructions are provided. 1.1: : : : : 64 Differentiating Instruction charts are prominently placed in the beginning of each grade level. 1.1: xiv xv 2.1: xiv xv 3.1: xiv xv 4.1: xiv xv 5.1: xiv xv 5

8 Are there specific instructions for differentiating? If then scenarios help teachers identify how to customize instruction. 1.1: xiv xv 2.1: xiv xv 3.1: xiv xv 4.1: xiv xv 5.1: xiv xv Are there guidelines and materials for flexible grouping? Is the intervention comprehensive? Could it stand alone? Does it accompany a core reading curriculum? (Should students receive instruction in both the core program and the intervention, or is the intervention sufficient?) Does the intervention specify for whom it is appropriate? Students slightly behind their peers? Students more than 1 grade level behind their peers? Pairing students and small group work is called out at the point of use in the Teacher's Guide. 1.1: : : 26, : : 155 The research-based instruction is designed to be intensive and address the needs of Tier III students. This program is designed to stand alone or be used with a comprehensive core reading program. This intervention program is designed for students at the Tier III Tertiary level. It is designed for students who are unable to read and comprehend grade-level material. 6

9 Does the intervention provide instruction for students with limited English proficiency? Meeting ELL Needs charts on pp. xvi xvii give specific instructions for customizing instruction. Integrated instruction allows for English Language Learners to hear and practice oral language, read and write English words and sentences, and experience language devoted to exploring concepts. 1.1: xvi xvii 2.1: xvi xvii 3.1: xvi xvii 4.1: xvi xvii 5.1: xvi xvii Is the intervention taught by a reading specialist, special education teacher, general education teacher, paraprofessional, volunteer, or mentor? Is the intervention taught in a resource room, a computer lab or within the regular classroom? Is there empirical research on the efficacy of this program? This program was developed for use by a reading specialist, special education teacher, or general education teacher. This program can be taught in a resource room, a computer lab, or within the regular classroom. This program is based on a 5-year longitudinal research study investigating the effectiveness of instructional emphasis and specificity on the early reading and vocabulary development of kindergarten children. The research shows that 97% of kindergarten children who were taught with this program experienced faster achievement rates and were able to sustain that level of achievement into second grade. See page iii and vi in the Teacher Guide and the book Research Into Practice for more information. 7

10 Phonological Awareness Instruction With an intervention, the most useful PA activities that lead students to an understanding of the alphabetic principle should be prevalent (Phoneme segmentation, blending, manipulation). Characteristic Yes No Comments (e.g., specific examples, strengths, concerns, questions) Overall, does instruction progress from easier PA activities to more difficult PA activities? (This is essential for K) Does PA start with larger units (words and syllables) and progress to smaller units (phonemes)? Phonemic Activities at the back of Volume 2 are intended for use with the Word Work that is done throughout the program. This Word Work progresses from easier to more difficult. 1.1: : : The progression of many Phonemic Awareness activities within a week, especially those in Level A, includes starting with words and syllables and progressing to sounds. See the Daily Lesson Plan. 1.1: 1 2.1: 67 Does PA start with rhyming and progress to phoneme isolation, blending, segmenting and manipulation? Does PA start with shorter words and progress to longer words? Phonemic Awareness activities in Levels A and B include practice with identifying letter sounds, blending, segmenting, adding, and deleting sounds in words. 1.1: 40, : 39, 71, 72 The Word Lists at the back of the Teacher Guide shows the progression of words taught from week to week. 1.1: : : : : Is PA taught explicitly every day? The Daily Lesson Plan for each Week shows at a glance the focus of the Phonemic Awareness skill for each day. 1.1: : 83 8

11 Is PA only a small portion of the daily lesson (no more than 30 minutes a day)? Each of the daily activities are designed to last only five to ten minutes. 1.1: : 52 Do activities follow the continuum of word types (beginning with short words that contain 2 or 3 phonemes?) Is there teacher modeling of PA as well as guided practice? Does the program include a sound pronunciation guide? Are there instructions to alert the teacher of student readiness pertaining to PA activities? Does the intervention describe what constitutes mastery? Does the intervention begin instruction using auditory PA activities (without use of letters)? The Skills Overview spread in each Unit and the Word Lists show the word types that are introduced each week. 1.1: xviii xxi, : xviii xxi, The Phonemic Awareness activities provide scripting and instructions for modeling and practicing the skill. The sections of the activity are clearly labeled under the heads Model and Teach and Practice. 1.1: : 55 Sound pronunciation notation is provided within the instructional lessons. A Sound Production Cue Chart appears in the "Welcome to My Sidewalks" booklet. The Distinctions Between Levels spread shows required readiness skills along with learning expectations for each level. The Daily Lesson plan identifies the phonemic awareness and phonics skills that are the focus for each day. 1.1: xii xiii, : xii xiii, 83 The activities in Day 5 include ongoing assessments to help identify individual instructional needs and provide appropriate support. 1.1: : 160 Although some analyses suggest that phonological awareness is more effective when taught with letters, this program can be easily adapted to exclude letters at the earlier stages. 9

12 Do PA activities eventually include the use of letters (placing letters in Elkonin boxes for example) to help students make the connection between sounds and print (the alphabetic principle)? All Phonemic Awareness activities suggest ways to use written letters along with oral instruction. 1.1: : 84 Is it clear that the teacher should not begin including letters with PA activities until the student has acquired PA? Are there auditory rhyming activities (recognition and production)? The program can be adapted to meet the needs of individual students and teachers. The introduction of letters can be done at an appropriate point. Phonological Awareness activities at the back of the Teacher Guide suggest ways to use rhyming words in instruction and practice. 1.1: : 280 Are there auditory alliteration activities? There are many opportunities to include alliteration activities, especially with weeks that focus on initial sounds. 1.1: 17, Daily Lesson Plan 2.1: 280 (Same Sound Silly Sentence) Do students count the number of words in spoken sentences? Are there activities that involve counting the number of syllables in a word (blending first and then segmenting)? Are there activities for students to blend onsets and rimes? The prompt can be used with Oral Vocabulary activities in which students listen to and say sentences that use vocabulary words. 1.1: : 69 Students identify the number of syllables in many Phonemic Awareness activities as they blend and segment sounds. 1.2: : 68 Many Blending Strategy activities cover this specification. 1.1: : 50 10

13 Is phoneme isolation in the following order: initial, final and medial? Many Phonemic Awareness activities follow this approach. 1.1: : 119 Is there phoneme blending? The Daily Lesson Plan for each Week identifies Word Work activities that focus on blending. 1.1: : 3 Is there phoneme segmentation? The Daily Lesson Plan for each Week identifies Word Work activities that focus on segmentation. 1.1: : 67 Is there phoneme manipulation? Many Phonemic Awareness activities practice this skill. 1.1: : 132 Are there activities using Elkonin boxes, counters, tiles, fingers, auditory cues? Is PA instruction linked with phonics instruction? Are the words used in PA activities found in later word lists and text readings? Many Phonemic Awareness activities use similar manipulatives, such as alphabet cards and white boards. 1.1: 69, : 4 Each Phonemic Awareness activity is tied to phonics instruction. 1.1: : 39 The words on the Word Lists at the back of the Teacher Guide are read and practiced each week in the students readers and/or in the practice activities. 1.1: :

14 Does each day s lesson focus on only 1 or 2 PA skills (as opposed to several types of skills)? The Daily Lesson Plan for each Week shows that daily instruction focuses on only 1 or 2 phonological awareness skills. 1.1: : 67 Does the program help the teacher determine when oral language PA activities should drop out of the curriculum? If it is a computer program, are the sounds pronounced distinctly, correctly, without distortion? Does the program address sound pronunciation, distortion of stop sounds, holding out continuous sounds? Phonemic awareness activities drop out of the curriculum after level B. NA These concepts are reinforced in the Blending Strategy activities, especially in levels A and B. 1.1: : 116 Phonics Instruction Characteristic Yes No Comments (e.g., specific examples, strengths, concerns, questions) Are letter-sounds introduced explicitly? The Word Work Activity for each Day uses a blending strategy approach, which specifies the letter-sounds. 1.1: : : 5 Are letters that are auditorily and visually similar separated? Are letter-sounds introduced systematically? Similar letter sounds are not treated in the same Activity. Letter sounds are specific in a given Activity. They are introduced in an order that reflects researched conclusions. 12

15 Are letter-sound correspondences taught to mastery and reviewed frequently? Word Work Activities include a Connect feature that encourages students to make connections with their prior understanding. Spiral Review Word Work Activities also help students review what they know and achieve mastery. 1.1: : : 35 Is there immediate, corrective feedback and what is the procedure? Does the sequence of letter-sound introduction reduce confusion and emphasize utility? (For example, are auditorily and visually confusing letters and letter sounds separated (b/d; f/v)? Are useful letter-sounds taught first? Are the most common letter-sound correspondences introduced first? Are short vowels taught before long vowels? Corrective Feedback is a feature in each Word Work Activity. 1.1: : : 103 The sequencing of letters and sounds is designed so that similar visual letters and auditory sounds are taught at points in time that avoid confusion. The Word Lists show the letter-sounds taught in order. 1.1: : : The Word Lists show the letter-sounds taught in order. 1.1: : : The Word Lists show that short vowels are taught before long vowels. 1.1: : :

16 Does the program teach both consonants and vowels? The Word Lists show that both consonants and vowels are taught. 1.1: : : Are several individual letter-sounds taught before digraphs (letter combinations, vowel pairs)? Are digraphs taught as a unit of sound? /sh/, /ch/, /th/, /tch/, /ai/, /ea/ Are spelling patterns (blends, phonograms, word families) taught later in the sequence, after individual letter-sounds and digraphs? Are the individual sounds in a blend taught? Is an explicit strategy taught to decode words by their individual sounds? The Word Lists show that individual letter-sounds are taught before digraphs. 1.1: : : Digraphs are taught as a unit of sound. 1.2: : : : : 138 The Skills Overview pages show the sequence of sounds and patterns taught. 1.1: xviii xxi 2.1: xviii xxi 3.1: xviii xxi 4.1: xviii xxi 5.1: xviii xxi The individual sounds in a blend are taught. 1.1: : : 12 Blending Strategy activities teach how to decode words by their individual sounds. 1.1: : :

17 Once students have mastered a few letter-sounds, do they immediately apply this to reading words, sentences, and texts? In Levels A, B, and first half of C, students learn phonics elements and then immediately read selections that include words with these elements. 1.1: 162, : 122, : 19, 21 Are there frequent and cumulative reviews of previously taught letter-sounds? Does instruction progress from the simple to more complex concepts? Are regular CVC words taught before more difficult word types, incorporating continuous and stop sounds and blends in an appropriate sequence? Initially, are words used that only include letters and sounds the students have already learned? The Word Lists show the variety of previously-taught sounds that are reviewed each week. 1.1: : : : : The Word Lists show the progression from simple to more complex concepts. 1.1: : : : : The Word Lists show the progression of word types from week to week. 1.1: : : : : Words are always related to the letters and sounds that students know. 15

18 Is there ample decodable text to provide students practice in applying their skills with phonic elements (word lists and connected text)? In Levels A, B, and first half of C, students learn phonics elements and then immediately read selections that include words with these elements. 1.1: 162, : 122, : 19, 21 Is the symbol to sound association (decoding) and the sound to symbol association (spelling) taught explicitly? Is spelling taught during word learning so students are able to make the connection of how sounds map onto print? Does the program differentiate between the two different kinds of irregular words? Does the program clarify that high frequency words can be both regular and irregular words? Blending Strategy activities teach symbol to sound association. Spelling is taught in conjunction with phonics and with word structure. 1.1: : : 47, : : 6 Spelling is part of most phonics activities. 1.1: : : : 80, : 32 The high frequency words in the program include both irregular words and regular words that are not decodable at the point of instruction. 1.1: : 107, 139 The high frequency words in the program include both irregular words and regular words that are not decodable at the point of instruction. See "Welcome to My Sidewalks," p : : 56, 75 16

19 Are difficult, irregular and high frequency words reviewed often and cumulatively? High-frequency words are reviewed on multiple days during the week. 1.1: 118, 121, 2.1: 149, 152, 155, 159 (homework) Does the program directly teach high frequency irregular words and encourage students to use decoding strategies for parts of irregular words that are decodable? (Do they point out the letters that do represent their most common sound as well as the irregularities of certain letters?) Are irregular words kept to a minimum in beginning instruction, using only high utility irregular words at first to prevent the student from being confused or overwhelmed? Are irregular words that look highly similar separated? (eg., where-were; of-off) Does the program preteach irregular words prior to reading text? Do beginning passages contain only irregular words that have been previously taught? Instruction of high-frequency words is done on Day 1. Instruction includes identifying known sounds. 1.1: : 69 The Skills Overview pages in Levels A and B show that an average of 4 to 5 highfrequency words are introduced each week. 1.1: xvii xxi 2.1: xvii xxi The Skills Overview pages in Levels A and B show that the high-frequency words introduced each week are diverse. 1.1: xvii xxi 2.1: xvii xxi High-frequency words are introduced on Day 1, before the reading of passages. 1.1: : 69 High-frequency words are introduced on Day 1, before the reading of passages. 1.1: : 69 17

20 Are the irregular words being taught evident in the text they are reading? High-frequency words are evident in the passages. 1.1: 6 (High-frequency word taught is in the title of the passage.) 2.1: 149 Are phonic and structural analysis (advanced phonics skills) taught explicitly, first in isolation and then in words and connected text? Are students explicitly taught to analyze and blend one syllable words and multisyllabic words with larger phonic elements such as prefixes, suffixes, syllables? Is there an emphasis on reading multisyllabic words fluently? Are similar looking affixes separated to limit confusion? In levels A-C, the initial phonics skill instruction uses a Blending Strategy Routine. The Routine provides explicit instruction for the letter sounds and word parts. Then sounds/word parts are introduced with word lists. 1.1: 38, : 68, : 7, 145 In levels A-C, this instruction is included in the Blending Strategy Routine on Day : : : 61, 159 A multisyllabic word strategy model is used throughout the program, Levels C E. 3.1: : 4, 16, : 88 The Word Lists at the back of the Teacher Guide for Level C shows the progression of affixes. 1.1: : : : :

21 As the students advance (late 2nd and 3 rd grade) are harder affixes and longer multisyllabic words introduced? The Word Lists at the back of the Teacher Guide for Level C shows the progression of affixes and longer multisyllabic words. 1.1: : : : : Does the intervention provide teacher modeling of a think-aloud strategy to aid in multisyllabic word analysis? Does the program follow the phases of word learning by Ehri? Are students taught the strategy of chunking when trying to decode multisyllabic words? A multisyllabic word strategy model is used throughout the program in levels C E. It includes a think aloud strategy. 3.1: 74, : : 112 The work of Linnea C. Ehri was used as part of the research base of the program. See "Welcome to My Sidewalks,"page 30. The strategy of chunking is taught in this program. 1.2: : 100, : 88, : : 52 Fluency Instruction Characteristic Yes No Comments (e.g., specific examples, strengths, concerns, questions) Is fluency practice introduced after students are proficient at reading words accurately (in word lists, sentences or passages)? For fluency practice, students reread passages individually after guided reading. 1.1: : : : : 67 19

22 Is fluency instruction integrated into each day s lesson? The Daily Lesson Plan for each lesson shows that fluency instruction occurs each day. 1.1: : : : : 39 Does the intervention address all dimensions of fluency (speed, accuracy, expression)? Are research-based fluency strategies included (e.g., repeated readings, peer reading)? Does the intervention encourage the teacher to model prosody? On Day 4 in Level A, the teacher uses the Student Reader selection to model one aspect of fluent reading, such as rate, accuracy, expression, intonation, attention to punctuation, or characterization. In other levels, Reread for Fluency activities are designed for this purpose. 1.1: : : : : 95 Throughout this program, the fluency strategies are based on research. Rereading activities include choral reading, oral reading, paired reading and reading along with the AudioText. 1.1: : : : : 83 Many of the Read Together activities on Day 4 (Levels A and B) and Read a Passage activities provide opportunities for the teacher to model prosody. 1.1: : : 83 20

23 Does fluency practice involve the teacher giving feedback to students? Corrective Feedback strategies are used in many fluency activities. 1.1: : : 82, : : 83 Is there a guide to help teachers determine how to calculate fluency? Are reading rates assessed in wpm? Is a fluency goal of 41 words correct per minute by the end of first grade emphasized? Is a fluency goal of 91 words correct per minute by the end of second grade emphasized? Is a fluency goal of 111 words correct per minute by the end of third grade emphasized? See Monitoring Fluency. 1.1: : : : : 184 Reading rates are assessed in wpm. See Monitoring Fluency. 1.1: : : : : 184 See Monitoring Fluency. 1.1: 194 See Monitoring Fluency. 2.1: 244 See Monitoring Fluency. 3.1:

24 Does the intervention accurately describe to the teacher how to determine independent, instructional, and frustrational reading levels for individual students? This information is included in the Resources section of the Teacher Guide, in the section titled Matching Students to Text. 1.1: : : : : Are students reading text at their independent level or instructional level to help build fluency? Are letter-sounds taught to mastery and practiced frequently to promote automaticity? Do fluency-building passages include a high percentage of regular words? Is there an explicit strategy taught as students transition from reading words in lists to reading connected text? Guidelines are included in the Resources section of the Teacher Guide, in the section titled Matching Students to Text. 1.1: : : : : The Reread for Fluency activities focus on students' ability to use the Blending Strategy and on oral reading. 1.1: : : : : 137 The passages, especially in Levels A, B, and first half of C, include a high percentage of decodable words. See "Welcome to My Sidewalks," page 19. Routine Cards outline explicit strategies for reading words and passages. Routine Cards are located in the back of the Teacher Guide, 22

25 Does fluency practice involve text the students can read with 95% accuracy? Many fluency activities provide opportunities for monitoring accuracy. Also see Monitoring Fluency in the Resources section of the Teacher Guide. 1.1: 101, : 112, : 80, : 101, : 67, Are ample practice materials and opportunities at appropriate reading levels provided? Is the decoding strategy taught so that it becomes automatic? Are irregular words taught to be recognized by sight? When reading a word list, are the students asked to reread the list after an error correction? Lessons use a variety of appropriate reading-level materials, such as student readers, audiotexts, and reproducibles. 1.1: 5, : : : : 43 Routines and Routine Cards are used throughout the program to teach and use decoding strategies. See Routine Cards at the back of the Teacher Guide. Examples: Blending Strategy and Multisyllabic Word Routine. High-Frequency Words are introduced on Day 1. The model emphasizes recognizing the words by sight and not sounding them out. 1.1: 6 2.1: 37 Throughout this program, Corrective Feedback instruction focuses on error correction. 1.1: : : : : 90 23

26 After error correction during sentence reading, are students asked to reread the word and then reread the sentence? This occurs in Sentence Reading activities. 1.2: : : 56 During passage or story reading, are the students asked to reread the story? When a story or passage is read for the first time, do students read it orally so teachers hear whether or not they apply the skills they are learning? Is there guided oral reading instruction? Are timed readings used as a method to increase speed and motivation? This occurs during the Reread for Fluency activities. 1.1: 4 2.1: : : : 125 This occurs during the Reread for Fluency activities. 1.1: : : : : 89 Guided oral reading instruction is practiced extensively (Levels A C). 1.1: : : 90 During Day 5, Activity 1 focuses on assessing sentence reading and passage reading. Teachers are referred to the Monitoring Fluency pages at the back of the Teacher Guide. 1.1: : : : : 96 24

27 Is reading fluency assessed? During Day 5, teachers assess reading fluency. 1.1: : : : : 132 Are there fluency probes for progress monitoring? During Day 5, teachers assess reading fluency and record progress on the Fluency Progress Chart. 1.1: : : : : 156 Vocabulary Instruction Characteristic Yes No Comments (e.g., specific examples, strengths, concerns, questions) Is vocabulary instruction specifically addressed? Vocabulary is specifically addressed in the Build Concepts activities. See the weekly overviews. 1.1: 1 2.1: : : : 51 Is vocabulary instruction explicit as opposed to implicit? During the weekly lessons, vocabulary words are introduced and reinforced during Build Concepts and Read a Passage activities. 1.1: 19, 20, 23, 25, 26, : 85, 86, 91, 92, : 4, 6, 8, 9, 12, : 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, : 136, 137, 138,

28 Does vocabulary instruction occur before, during, and after the story? In all weekly plans, vocabulary instruction occurs before, during, and after the story. 1.1: 115, : 149, : 4, 6, and : 64, 65, : 88, 89, 90 Are listening, reading, speaking vocabulary addressed? Are useful words, important words, and difficult words chosen to be directly taught? Are students given multiple opportunities to work with the new words in reading sentences, paragraphs, or longer text? In Levels A and B, students participate in an oral language activity during Day 1. In all levels, concept vocabulary is introduced and reviewed throughout the week. 1.1: : : : : 40 Concept vocabulary is taught directly during Day : : : : : 52 Students learn new concepts and preview sentences in the selection during Build Concepts on Day 1. The concepts are reinforced during passage reading. 1.1: 115, : 85, : 158, : 64, : 88, 89 26

29 Are students given opportunities to use the new words in their writing? Students are encouraged to use new words in writing activities. The Daily Lesson Plan outlines the various writing opportunities that are planned each week. 1.1: : : : : 15 Are previously introduced words cumulatively reviewed? Are meanings of prefixes and suffixes taught before connecting them to words? Is a strategy taught to determine word meanings based on prefixes and suffixes? In Levels C-E, vocabulary review and cumulative review occurs on Day 2 and/or Day : : : 140 Meanings of prefixes and suffixes are taught before connecting them to words. 2.2: : : 54, : 54, 114 Strategies for determining word meanings based on prefixes and suffixes are part of the instruction. 2.1: : : 54, : 54,

30 Are the various aspects of word study included, either under vocabulary or word recognition? Concepts and word meanings Multiple meanings Morphemic analysis Synonyms Antonyms Homonyms Etymologies Figurative meanings Some vocabulary activities include various aspects of word study. 1.1: 3 2.1: : 26, : 47, : 64, 83 Are various word learning strategies directly taught to develop word knowledge? Concept definition mapping Frayer model Semantic feature analysis Semantic mapping Are strategies taught over time to ensure understanding of the strategy process? In Levels C-E, vocabulary words are taught using a concept web. 3.1: : : 88 Teachers model the strategy from the Concept Vocabulary Routine Card as new concepts are introduced on Day : : : 88 28

31 Comprehension Instruction Characteristic Yes No Comments (e.g. specific examples, strengths, concerns, questions) Is comprehension instruction specifically addressed? Comprehension instruction is modeled in the Read a Passage activities. 1.1: : : : : 175 Is comprehension monitored? On Day 5, comprehension is monitored using the Read to Connect activities (A C) and Passage Reading activities (D and E). 1.1: : : : : 120 Are both narrative and expository texts (informational texts) used? Do texts contain familiar concepts and vocabulary, with simple sentences at an appropriate readability level? The selections for each week include both narrative and expository texts that are related to a similar theme. Selections and genres are listed in Weekly Overviews. 1.1: : : : : 86 The program uses on-level comprehension skills with text written at a lower reading level. 29

32 Characteristic Yes No Comments (e.g. specific examples, strengths, concerns, questions) Are main ideas and story grammar elements apparent initially in student text and do they gradually become more complex and inferential? Selections gradually become more complex and inferential both within levels and from level to level. See Scope and Sequence at the back of the Teacher Guide and Distinctions Between Levels on pages xii-xiii. 1.1: : : : : Is comprehension instruction explicit (modeling, guided practice, multiple examples)? Is a strategy taught over time to ensure understanding of the strategy process? When a strategy is taught, is it applied frequently so students understand its usefulness? Are the strategies taught such that students can begin to monitor their own thinking processes? Are students taught when, where and why to use a strategy? In the Read a Passage activities, both guided practice and modeling techniques are used. Weekly instruction focuses on one comprehension skill in conjunction with several different varieties of text. 3.1: 62, 64-65, 67, 69, and : , , : 66 67, 68 69, Each level includes Comprehension Strategies Routines that are used repeatedly. See the Routine Cards at the back of the Teacher Guide. Each level includes Comprehension Strategies Routines that are used repeatedly. See the Routine Cards at the back of the Teacher Guide. During Day 2, students begin a graphic organizer that they use to record their thinking as they read the passages. 3.1: : : 66 The Read a Passage activities provide specific strategies to use before, during, and after reading. Boldfaced headings clearly show these sections. 1.1: 4 2.1: : : 9 5.1:

33 Characteristic Yes No Comments (e.g. specific examples, strengths, concerns, questions) Are the strategies being taught matched to what a student is required to do in school? This program focuses on four comprehension strategies: compare and contrast, draw conclusions, main idea and supporting detail, sequence. Are there any before reading strategies (story prediction, activating prior knowledge, setting a purpose)? Are there any during reading strategies (paired reading, main idea-paragraph shrinking, think alouds)? Are there any after reading strategies (story retell, story grammar, summarization)? Is there modeling and systematic review of main idea, retell, and summarization? The Read a Passage activities provide specific strategies to use before, during, and after reading. Boldfaced headings clearly show these sections. 1.1: 6 2.1: : : 9 5.1: 57 The Read a Passage activities provide specific strategies to use before, during, and after reading. Boldfaced headings clearly show these sections. 1.1: 6 2.1: : : 9 5.1: 57 The Read a Passage activities provide specific strategies to use before, during, and after reading. Boldfaced headings clearly show these sections. Examples: Level B, page 76 and Level D page : 6 2.1: : : 9 5.1: 57 In the Read a Passage activities for Day 2, students summarize what they have read. In the Read a Passage activities for Day 3, students talk about main ideas. In the Read a Passage activities for Day 4, students retell the story. This refers to C E. Students also retell, summarize, and review main idea in Levels A and B. 1.1: 6, : 121, : 79, 81, : 7, 9, : 67, 69, 71 31

34 Characteristic Yes No Comments (e.g. specific examples, strengths, concerns, questions) Do teachers use effective questioning techniques to guide and monitor students comprehension? (e.g., Bloom s taxonomy) All Read a Passage activities provide questioning techniques. 1.1: : : : : 91 Does instruction include students generating questions to improve engagement with and processing of text? Are students taught to use graphic organizers to illustrate interrelationships among concepts, ideas, and events in text? (semantic maps, concept maps) With informational text, are students taught how to locate and interpret graphs, maps, charts, diagrams? With both narrative and informational text, are students taught: To compare and contrast To locate facts and details To identify titles, chapter headings, etc. The Read a Passage activities on Day 1 include questions for students to ask themselves while reading. 1.1: : : : : 5 During Day 2, students start a graphic organizer that they use to record their thinking as they read the passages. 3.1: : : 66 Informational texts include graphs, maps, charts, and diagrams. 1.1: : : : 35, 149, and : 58 Both narrative and informational texts are included in each week's instruction. In the Read a Passage activities, students learn to identify the title and other selection features as appropriate. During guided reading, the teacher asks questions that require students to locate facts and details. Compare and contrast is one of the comprehension skills featured in this program. 1.2: : : : : 30 32

35 Assessment Characteristic Yes No Comments (e.g. specific examples, strengths, concerns, questions) Are assessments included that teachers can use to guide student placement and movement through the program? The program uses a 4-step assessment plan that includes diagnosis and placement (Placement Test), Monitoring Progress (forms in teacher guide), evaluating student progress (Day 5 Assessments), and exiting the program (Midyear and End-of-Year Exit Criteria). The following citations relate to Day 5 Assessments. 1.1: : : : : Do the assessments measure progress in the five components of reading? The Day 5 assessments include reading for accuracy, using vocabulary concepts, comprehension, and writing. 1.1: : : : : Professional Development for the Intervention Characteristic Yes No Comments (e.g. specific examples, strengths, concerns, questions) Is there adequate time offered for teachers to learn new concepts and practice what they have learned? Pearson Scott Foresman works with each district to customize the staff development plan that will meet the professional development needs of teachers. Fidelity of implementation requires that adequate time is provided to learn new concepts and to practice what they have learned. Is there a plan for coaches, mentors, peers, or outside experts to provide feedback to teachers and follow up assistance as they put new concepts into practice? Pearson Scott Foresman works with each district to develop a comprehensive plan for coaches, peers, or outside experts to provide feedback to teachers and followup assistance as new concepts are put into practice. Pearson Scott Foresman provides a full staff of trained educational consultants to support successful product implementation. 33

36 Are teachers taught how to administer and interpret assessments that accompany the program? Is PD for the program customized to meet the varying needs of the participants (e.g., first year teachers, coaches, principals)? Does the PD provide support (e.g., principal checklists, follow up in class modeling, a CD for teachers to view model lessons) to facilitate application of content? Fidelity of implementation demands and requires a full understanding of all assessments that accompany the program. Pearson Scott Foresman provides full training of each assessment opportunity as well as how to interpret the data. Pearson Scott Foresman customizes the implementation plan to meet the needs of each district participant. The Pearson Scott Foresman Professional Development plan includes various tools that support fidelity of implementation of the program, such as checklists, opportunities for classroom modeling, and demonstration lessons on CD. 34

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