Objectives. Announcements. Blood type phenotypes. Human blood type example. Blood type genotypes. Eukaryote chromosome structure

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1 Announcements Problem sets due this week at the beginning of lab. Show your work! Write out solutions, helps to think things through. Review study CD that came with text for lab this week (especially mitosis and meiosis). Objectives Understand inheritance of blood type in humans. Know how organisms vary in chromosome number among life stages and among species. to tell chromosomes apart to figure out which chromosomes are homologues. Understand the role of mitosis and meiosis in asexual and sexual reproduction. Distinguish between stages of cell division. Recognize how chromosome movement during meiosis results in Mendel's laws of Segregation and Independent Assortment. Human blood type example One locus determines blood type Three alleles are common Two alleles are dominant to the third and codominant with each other Blood type phenotypes Four phenotypes: A, B, AB, O A, B or no substance coats blood cells Blood type determined by whether antibodies react to substance Blood type genotypes Three alleles present- I a, I b, i I a and I b are codominant i is recessive Possible genotypes I a I a homozygote, I a i heterozygote, I b I b homozygote, I b i heterozygote, ii homozygote, I a I b heterozygote Eukaryote chromosome structure Chromosomes contain DNA & proteins made of centromere- region to which spindle fibers attach during mitosis and meiosis arms region that extends from centromere contain genes 1

2 Figure 12.3 Chromosome duplication and distribution during mitosis Figure 13.x4 Human male chromosomes Figure 13.x5 Chromosomes differ in length and position of centromere Life cycle stages differ in ploidy Ploidy = number of copies of each homologue Common ploidy levels Haploid- one copy (1N) Diploid- two copies (2N) Polyploid- multiple (>2) copies (3N, 4N, etc) Figure 13.5 Three sexual life cycles differing in the timing of meiosis and fertilization (syngamy) How do organisms differ in chromosome number? Ploidy- how does organism spend most of life? Haploid (protists, algae & fungi, moss) Diploid (ferns, flowering plants, insects, vertebrates) Polyploid (many plants, few animals) haploid chromosome number Humans: 23 Fruit flies: 4 Ferns: thousands 2

3 Figure 13.1 The asexual reproduction of a hydra Reproduction in eukaryotes asexual budding or vegetative reproduction offspring genetically identical to parent sexual fusion of two haploid gametes different combinations of genes than in parents Figure 33.7 The life cycle of the hydrozoan Obelia (Layer 3) Cell cycles in eukaryotes Interphase 90% of cell life cell growth occurs chromosomes are copied but not visible Mitotic phase nucleus 'dissolves' chromosomes condense cell divides two daughter cells genetically identical to parent Figure 12.4 The cell cycle Figure 12-09x Mitosis in an onion root 3

4 Mitosis Occurs throughout life of a multicellular organism development growth maintenance Involved with asexual reproduction We define stages (prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase) Figure 12.5 The stages of mitotic cell division: G2 phase; prophase Prophase Nuclear membrane disappears Mitotic spindle forms Microtubule organizing centers (centrosomes) form and migrate to opposite ends of cell Microtubules attach to centromere at kinetochore Duplicated chromosomes (sister chromatids) move toward center of cell Figure 12.5 The stages of mitotic cell division : prophase; prometaphase Figure 12.6 The mitotic spindle at metaphase Metaphase Chromosomes align along metaphase plate Centromeres aligned with each other Kinetochores face centrosomes away from center of the cell 4

5 Figure 12.5 stages of mitotic cell division: metaphase; anaphase Anaphase Sister chromatids are pulled toward opposite ends of cell Stages of mitotic cell division : anaphase; telophase and cytokinesis Telophase Nuclear membrane in each daughter cell starts to form Chromosomes elongate Cell division occurs Significance of Meiosis Gamete cells formed with one copy of each chromosome Meiotic events cause Mendel's laws Segregation- Homologues separate Independent assortment- independent orientation of chromosomes Recombination occurs (independent orientation, crossing over) Prophase I (longest phase) pairing of homologous chromosomes paired homologues consist of 4 chromatids (tetrads) X-shaped configurations form (chiasmata) Crossing over occurs chiasmata move to end of chromosome arms 5

6 What happens during crossing over? exchange of segments at identical positions along homologues no loss or addition of genetic material Metaphase & Anaphase I tetrads moved to metaphase plate homologues pulled apart into different daughter cells sister chromatids remain attached at centromeres chromosome number is now reduced Figure 13.7 The stages of meiotic cell division: Meiosis I Telophase I and Prophase II Chromosomes may uncoil as cell division occurs No chromosome duplication occurs Figure 13.7 The stages of meiotic cell division: Meiosis II Metaphase II, Anaphase II, Telophase II mitotic division repeated, but now sister chromatids separate genetic material reduced, but not chromosome number 6

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