Meiosis is a type of cell division where sex cells or gametes are formed. During meiosis, the number of chromosomes is reduced by half Diploid number

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1 Meiosis

2 Meiosis is a type of cell division where sex cells or gametes are formed. During meiosis, the number of chromosomes is reduced by half Diploid number that refers to 46 chromosomes in somatic cells (2n) Haploid number that refers to 23 chromosomes in sex cells (n)

3 When two haploid sex cells join (when sperm joins with an egg) a diploid cell is formed.

4 Meiosis takes place in the testes and ovaries. Testes produce haploid sperm cells and ovaries produce haploid egg cells.

5 Meiosis involves two nuclear divisions that produce four haploid cells. Stages of Meiosis

6 Interphase As with mitosis, meiosis begin with interphase, however, there is no interphase between meiosis I and meiosis II In this stage: Cells grow rapidly and make structural proteins that repair damaged parts Cells transport nutrients and eliminate wastes Replicate DNA

7

8 Meiosis l Often called reduction division because the diploid, 2n, chromosome number is reduced to the haploid, n, chromosome number. Meiosis l consists of Prophase l, Metaphase l, Anaphase l, Telophase l and cytokinesis.

9 Prophase l As in mitosis, centrioles move to opposite ends of the cell. Centrioles assemble and spindle fibers attach to the centromeres of chromosomes Nuclear membrane starts to dissolve Original chromosome and its duplicate are attached to each other by a centromere (while attached they are known as sister chromatids) Homologous chromosomes (the same shape and carry similar genetic information) come together in pairs. Homologous chromosome pairs are known as tetrads.

10 tetrad Homologous pairs - chromosomes in a biological cell that pair during meiosis, or nonidentical chromosomes that contain information for the same biological features and contain the same genes at the same location but possibly different genetic information For example, two chromosomes may have genes encoding eye color, but one may code for brown eyes, the other for blue. When homologous chromosomes pair up, it is called synapsis.

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12 During synapsis, pieces of chromosomes exchange genetic information with its homologous pair. This is called crossing-over.

13 Metaphase l Homologous chromosomes line up on central line of cell and are attached to spindle fibers. The nuclear membrane completely dissolves. Chromosomes are very dark and attached to spindle fibers

14 Anaphase l The homologous pairs (tetrads) are pulled apart in a process called segregation. Each chromosome stays double-stranded (attached to sister chromatid)

15 Telophase l Nuclear membrane forms around each group of chromosomes. Each cell contains 23 replicated chromosomes (sister chromatids)

16 After telophase, cytokinesis takes place and two distinct cells are formed. The two cells are haploid (23 sister chromatids) and carry different genetic information because of crossing-over.

17 Meiosis ll Occurs at same time in haploid daughter cells. Unlike mitosis, in meiosis there is no replication of chromosomes before meiosis ll (no interphase).

18 Prophase ll Nuclear membrane starts to dissolve Centrioles in two new cells move to opposite poles and new spindle fibers form. Sister chromatids become attached to spindle fibers.

19 Metaphase ll Sister chromatids line up at equatorial plate The nuclear membrane completely dissolves. Chromosomes are very dark and attached to spindle fibers

20 Anaphase ll Sister chromatids of each chromosome separate and move to opposite poles. An identical set of chromosomes move to each pole.

21 Telophase ll Chromosomes lengthen again and intertwine The spindle fibers dissolve Nuclear membrane forms around the chromosomes Cytoplasm separates (cytokinesis), leaving 4 haploid daughter cells (each cell has 23 single chromosomes) The chromosome number has been reduced by half These cells may become gametes

22 Read Handout P.108 and 109

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