So protons are about 2000 times more massive than electrons. 2) (Burdge, 2.13) Explain the meaning of each term in the symbol A ZX.

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1 SOLUTIONS - CHAPTER 2 Problems 1) Protons are far more massive than electrons. Using the information in the textbook, find mp/me, the ratio of the mass of a proton to that of an electron. mp/me = x g = x g So protons are about 2000 times more massive than electrons. 2) (Burdge, 2.13) Explain the meaning of each term in the symbol A ZX. A = Mass number = number of protons + number of neutrons Z = Atomic number = number of protons (usually omitted) X = Symbol for element 3) (Burdge, 2.18) Write the appropriate symbol for each of the following isotopes: a) Z = 11; A = Na = 23 Na b) Z = 28, A = Ni = 64 Ni c) Z = 50, A = Sn = 115 Sn d) Z = 20; A = Ca = 42 Ca 4) There are two common isotopes of bromine, 79 Br and 81 Br. Give the number of protons, the number of neutrons, and the number of electrons for one atom of each of these two isotopes. 79 Br #protons = atomic number = 35 #electrons = #protons = 35 #neutrons = mass number - atomic number = = Br #protons = atomic number = 35 #electrons = #protons = 35 #neutrons = mass number - atomic number = = 46 1

2 5) (Burdge, 2.22) The following radioactive isotopes are used in medicine for imaging organs, studying blood circulation, treating cancer, and so on. Give the number of protons, neutron, and electrons present in each isotope: The number of protons, Z, is found in the periodic table with the symbol for the element. The atoms are neutral, and so the number of electrons is equal to the number of protons. The mass number, A, is given as a superscript to the left of the symbol for the element. The number of neutrons is A - Z. a) 198 Au 79 protons, 119 neutrons, 79 electrons b) 47 Ca 20 protons, 27 neutrons, 20 electrons c) 60 Co 27 protons, 33 neutrons, 27 electrons d) 18 F 9 protons, 9 neutrons, 9 electrons e) 125 I 53 protons, 72 neutrons, 53 electrons f) 131 I 53 protons, 78 neutrons, 53 electrons g) 42 K 19 protons, 23 neutrons, 19 electrons h) 43 K 19 protons, 24 neutrons, 19 electrons i) 24 Na 11 protons, 13 neutrons, 11 electrons j) 32 P 15 protons, 17 neutrons, 15 electrons k) 85 Sr 38 protons, 47 neutrons, 38 electrons l) 99 Tc 43 protons, 56 neutrons, 43 electrons 6) What is meant by the term "radioactive"? The nucleus of an atom is radioactive if it spontaneously emits particles or radiation. 7) (Burdge, 2.31) What is the mass (in amu) of a carbon-12 atom? Why is the atomic mass of carbon listed as amu in the table on the inside front cover of the book? The mass of one 12 C atom, by definition, is exactly 12. amu. The mass for carbon in the periodic table is the average mass of naturally occurring carbon. It is slightly larger than because of the small amount of 13 C and 14 C that occurs in nature. 8) (Burdge, 2.34) The atomic masses of 35 Cl (75.78 percent) and 37 Cl (24.22 percent) are amu and amu, respectively. Calculate the average atomic mass of chlorine. The percentages in parentheses denote the relative abundances. Average mass = (0.7578)( amu) + (0.2422)( amu) = amu 2

3 9) (Burdge, 2.36) There are only two isotopes of the element thallium (Tl) found in nature, 203 Tl and 205 Tl with masses amu and amu, respectively. Calculate the natural abundances (percentages) of these two isotopes. The average atomic mass of thallium is amu. Let x = fraction of 203 Tl. Then (1 - x) = fraction of 205 Tl. So = x ( ) + (1 - x) ( ) = x x = x So = x = x x = ( ) = ( ) So natural abundance is 29.52% 203 Tl and (100.00% %) = 70.48% 205 Tl. 10) Give the symbol for each of the following elements a) boron B b) zinc Zn c) sodium Na d) titanium Ti e) argon Ar f) oxygen O g) phosphorus P h) potassium K 11) For each of the following elements give the name of the element, and classify the elements as either a metal, a nonmetal, or a metalloid. a) As arsenic metalloid b) Fe iron metal c) Pb lead metal d) F fluorine nonmetal e) H hydrogen nonmetal f) Ni nickel metal g) S sulfur nonmetal h) Si silicon metalloid 3

4 12) For each of the following elements give the name of the element, and classify the elements as an alkali metal, an alkaline earth metal, a halogen, a noble gas, or a transition metal. a) V vanadium transition metal b) He helium noble gas c) Br bromine halogen d) Ca calcium alkaline earth metal e) Mg magnesium alkaline earth metal f) Ag silver transition metal g) K potassium alkali metal h) Ne neon noble gas 13) How do metals and nonmetals differ in their conduction of heat and electricity? Metals are good conductors of heat and electricity; nonmetals are usually poor conductors of heat and electricity 14) (Burdge, 2.48) Group the following elements in pairs that you would expect to show similar chemical properties: I, Ba, O, Br, S, Ca. table Pairing is based on the elements being in the same group (column) of the periodic I and Br Ba and Ca O and S 4

5 15) (Burdge, 2.78) Show the location of the a) alkali metals; b) alkaline earth metals; c) halogens; d) noble gases in the given outline of the periodic table. Also draw dividing lines between metals and metalloids and between metalloids and nonmetals. a) alkali metals are all the elements in the 1A column except the first element (which is hydrogen) b) alkaline earth metals are all the elements in the 2A column c) halogens are all the elements in the 7A column d) noble gases are all the elements in the 8A column The red diagonal represents the metalloids. The elements to the right of the red diagonal are nonmetals (along with hydrogen). The elements to the left of the red diagonal are metals (except for hydrogen). 16) How many atoms are there in 5.10 moles of sulfur (S)? # atoms = 5.10 mol S x atoms = 3.07 x atoms of S mol 17) What is the mass in grams of 1.00 x lead (Pb) atoms? Mass = 1.00 x atoms 1 mol g = 3.44 x g x atoms mol 18) A chemist prepares a g pure sample of aluminum metal. How many atoms of aluminum are in the sample of metal? # Al atoms = g Al 1 mol Al x atoms Al g Al 1 mol Al = x atoms Al 5

6 19) (Burdge, 2.83) A cube made of platinum (Pt) has an edge length of cm. The density of Pt is g/cm 3, and the average mass of a single Pt atom is x g. a) Calculate the number of Pt atoms in the cube # atoms = cm g 1 atom = x atoms 1 cm x g b) Atoms are spherical in shape. Therefore, the Pt atoms in the cube cannot fill all of the available space. If only 74 percent of the space inside of the cube is taken up by Pt atoms, calculate the radius (in pm = picometers) of a Pt atom. Recall that for a sphere with radius r is V = 4 /3 r 3. Since only 74% of the space inside the cube is occupied the atoms, then the volume per atom is V (per atom) = (0.74) (1.000 cm 3 ) = x cm x atoms Since V = 4 /3 r 3 r = [ 3V/4 ] 1/3 = [ 3 (1.118 x cm 3 ) / 4 ] 1/3 = (2.668 x cm 3 ) 1/3 In terms of picometers = 1.39 x 10-8 cm r = 1.39 x 10-8 cm 1 m pm = 139. pm 100 cm 1 m 6

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