POWERTRAIN STRATEGIES FOR THE 21 ST CENTURY

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1 POWERTRAIN STRATEGIES FOR THE 21 ST CENTURY July 22, 2015 Paul Whitaker AVL Powertrain Engineering Inc.

2 AVL Anstalt Fuer Verbrennungskraftmaschinen List (Institute For Combustion Engines) Three Divisions One Globally Unique Company Expertise Powertrain Engineering Integrated Powertrain Solutions Advanced Simulation Technologies Instrumentation & Test Systems 2

3 AVL POWERTRAIN ENGINEERING AT A GLANCE

4 Increased Powertrain Diversity: The Five Basic Elements of the Future Powertrain Storage capacity Energy density Recharge time... IC Engine Gasoline/diesel Valvetrain PFI/GDI NA/Boosted Battery Transmission CVT DCT 8/9/10 Speed Torque output Voltage requirements Efficiency Electric Motor Control System ECU Complexity TCU Complexity 4

5 Increased Powertrain Diversity: The Five Basic Elements of the Future Powertrain Storage capacity Energy density Recharge time... IC Engine Gasoline/diesel Valvetrain PFI/GDI NA/Boosted Battery Transmission CVT DCT 8/9/10 Speed Torque output Voltage requirements Efficiency Electric Motor Control System ECU Complexity TCU Complexity 5

6 Increased Powertrain Diversity: The Five Basic Elements of the Future Powertrain NA PFI Engine with 9 Speed Automatic Transmission IC Engine Battery Transmission Electric Motor Control System 6

7 Fuel Economy Improvement By Transmission Measures NA PFI 6 speed AT BSFC < 240 g/kwh Traction Force - N Energy consumed (WLTC) 7 7

8 Fuel Economy Improvement By Transmission Measures NA PFI 6 speed AT BSFC < 240 g/kwh NA PFI 9 speed AT BSFC < 240 g/kwh Traction Force - N Energy consumed (WLTC) Increased no. of gears 8 8

9 Increased Powertrain Diversity: The Five Basic Elements of the Future Powertrain Turbo GDI Engine with 6 Speed Automatic Transmission Battery IC Engine Transmission Electric Motor Control System 9

10 Regional Market Share of Turbocharged Gasoline Engines Share of Charged Engines - % Europe Share of boosted Gasoline engines will dramatically increase especially in Europe China higher share than US China North America Japan Korea Source: IHS Q2/2013 Various GDTI launches also in Japan Downsizing / downspeeding based on boosted engines is already the mainstream technology for FE improvement 10

11 Regional Market Share of GDI Engines Share of GDI Engines - % Europe China Korea North America Japan Share of GDI will significantly increase in most major markets In Europe and US GDI will become dominating China, Korea and Japan expected to gain app. 40% by 2020 Source: IHS Q2/

12 Fuel Economy Improvement With Gasoline Engines - Turbocharging BMEP limit of NA CHARGING Turbocharged Engines BSFC NA State-of-art Charged Extending area of low BSFC by Boosting and Downsizing Schematic BMEP 12

13 Fuel Economy Improvement With Gasoline Engines - Turbocharging NA PFI 6 speed AT Gen 2 TGDI 6 speed AT Traction Force - N BSFC < 240 g/kwh Energy consumed (WLTC) CHARGING BSFC < 240 g/kwh 13

14 Increased Powertrain Diversity: The Five Basic Elements of the Future Powertrain Turbo GDI Engine + 6 Speed Automatic Transmission IC Engine Battery Transmission Advanced Turbo GDI Engine + 9/10 Speed Automatic Transmission + BSG with start/stop IC Engine Electric Motor NA PFI Engine with VCT + 9 Speed Automatic Transmission Battery Control System IC Engine Battery Electric Motor Control System Transmission Transmission Electric Motor Control System and beyond 14

15 8 Evolution Of Turbocharged GDI BSFC < 240 g/kwh BSFC Next generations of TGDI significantly extend sweet spot area Gen 2 TGDI BMEP 4 cyl [kpa] BMEP Schematic BMEP Gen 3 TGDI Miller Cycle BSFC [g/kwh] N [1/min] Engine Speed 15

16 Miller TGDI Democar Golf 7 HiEff 1,6l TGDI; 104 kw/4500 rpm Cooled Exhaust Manifold Increased Compression Ratio Miller Cycle Cooled Forced EGR (HP) High Pressure EGR Engine min. BSFC <210 g/kwh 90 g/km CO2 in NEDC Electric Supercharger Non return valve Boost pressure sensor Air mass flow meter Throttle body EGR valve EGR cooler Turbocharger Lambda sond EGR / air feed pipe EGR / Air Rail EGR / air rail AVL Patent Application Throttle body flange 16

17 Evolution Of Turbocharged GDI Miller TGDI 6 speed AT BSFC < 240 g/kwh Energy consumed (WLTC) Gen 2 TGDI 6 speed AT BSFC < 240 g/kwh refined engine technology 17

18 Fuel Economy Improvement - Hybridization Recharging + Hybridization allows electric driving at low power requirements where the ICE would otherwise operate inefficiently 18

19 Development Trends TGDI Specific Power vs. Production Volumes GASOLINE Turbo DI Global Engine Production vs. Specific Power Spec. Power [kw/l] Mio Units produced

20 Development Directions Gasoline Engines Gasoline Engine FE-Concepts Miller+High CR+ext.EGR BSFC min 200 *) g/kwh P = kw /l BMEP = bar Mainstream 2013 BSFCmin 235 *) g/kwh P = kw /l BMEP = bar Image / Top Performance Concepts BSFC min >230 *) g/kwh P = kw /l BMEP = bar either - or *) 2l displacement 20

21 AVL 2013 High Performance TGDI R&D 200 hp/l Alfa Giulietta 1.75l GDI TC Fam B engine reinforced Longer exhaust camshaft K16 Monoscroll TC Valeo Electric Supercharger (12V) Flap Exhaust System 350 HP / 6500 rpm (148 kw/l) 410 Nm / 3500 rpm BMEP - bar Engine Speed - rpm Power - HP BMEP AMG BMEP FPT E-Boost BMEP FPT Low Power AMG FPT E-Boost FPT Low Power Boost pressure 21

22 AVL 2015 High Performance TGDI R&D 200KW/L 1.75l GDI TC Fam B engine Reinforced crankshaft, conrods, pistons Revised valvetrain Biturbo charging with dual compressor Electric Supercharger (48V) Flap Exhaust System 474 HP / 8000 rpm (200 kw/l) 416 Nm / 8000 rpm CAC aftercooling -Air, water, icac: tbd with package BMEP - bar Engine Speed - rpm Power - HP BMEP Power Boost on demand (trans.) -esc (pre TC) Main CAC BlowBy / PCV -Constant crankcase pressure control valve AVL patent e-m interstage CAC Bi-turbo -1 stage expansion FG-turbine -2 stage compressors -Interstage cooling (LT-circ.) Catalyst RDE-safe -Small section / cat heating, low load -Big section / high power & speeds Flap controlled AVL patent EX-line controlled flow -Acoustics vs. backpressure PK 22

23 Variable Compression Ratio Switchable Con Rod AVL patent application 23

24 Light-Duty Diesel U.S. application will only become tougher due to more stringent emissions! Cooled EGR bar FIE VGT Urea solution UREA Fuel injection T T p T NOx DOC DPF SCR NH 3 Cat NOx NH 3 LEV III Fleet Average NMOG+NOx Standards Diesel has always been the benchmark for efficiency Tier 3/LEV 3 emissions will make diesel even more difficult to implement in the US Costs will increase Efficiency may reduce 24

25 Increased Powertrain Diversity: The Five Basic Elements of the Future Powertrain Gasoline Powersplit Hybrid Electric Vehicle IC Engine IC Engine Battery Battery Transmission Transmission Electric Motor Control System Range Extended Electric Vehicle IC Engine Electric Motor Control System Battery Transmission Electric Motor Control System 25

26 CO2 Reduction Sedan in WLTP Base Engine: 1.4L, 4-cyl, TGDI, Start/stop, smart alternator control CO2 g/km TGDI State of Art 88 US 2025* 75 EU 2025** 200 g/kwh 170 g/kwh Engine needs to be operated as close as possible to BSFC min BSFC min needs to be improved Additional measures required on the vehicle side Significant technical challenges lie ahead *passenger car **proposed upper limit 26

27 Thank You for Your Attention 27

28 28

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