PASSIVE house ZERO ENERGY

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2 Passive House Passivhaus. Standards. Recommendations. Costs. Advantages and Disadvantages. Design and Construction. Zero Energy House Concept. Definitions. Energy harvest. Advantages and Disadvantages. Design and Construction.

3 Passive House Passivhaus. Passive House is a term which has been used in the last ten years to refer to a standard for energy efficiency in buildings. It results in ultra-low energy buildings that require little energy for space heating or cooling. A Passive System provides an indoor environments with heat, cold, ventilation or light by using and controlling the natural energy flows which surround a building, such as solar radiation and wind. First Passivhaus. Darmstadt, Germany (1990)

4 Passive House Standards. Recommendations. The building must be designed to have an annual heating demand as calculated with the Passivhaus Planning Package of not more than 15 kwh/m² per year in heating and 15 kwh/m² per year cooling energy OR to be designed with a peak heat load of 10W/m² Total primary energy (source energy for electricity and etc.) consumption (primary energy for heating, hot water and electricity) must not be more than 120 kwh/m² per year The building must not leak more air than 0.6 times the house volume per hour (n / hour) at 50 Pa (N/m²) as tested by a blower door Recommended: Further, the specific heat load for the heating source at design temperature is recommended, but not required, to be less than 10 W/m² per hour. Costs. The cost savings from dispensing with the conventional heating system can be used to fund the upgrade of the building envelope and the heat recovery ventilation system. On average, however, passive houses are still up to 14% more expensive upfront than conventional buildings. The costs of meeting the Passivhaus standard increase significantly when building in Northern Europe above 60 latitude.

5 Passive House Design and Construction. Passive solar design Compact in shape to reduce their surface area, with windows oriented towards the equator (south in the northern hemisphere and north in the southern hemisphere) to maximize passive solar gain. Thermal mass is normally incorporated to reduce summer peak temperatures, maintain stable winter temperatures, and prevent possible over-heating. Superinsulation Reduce the heat transfer through the walls, roof and floor compared to conventional buildings. Low U-values, typically in the 0.10 to 0.15 W/(m².K) range. Advanced window technology High R-values (low U-values, typically 0.85 to 0.70 W/(m².K) for the entire window including the frame).

6 Passive House Design and Construction. Airtightness Extremely airtight compared to conventional construction. Air barriers, careful sealing of every construction joint in the building envelope, and sealing of all service penetrations. Airtightness minimizes the amount of warm (or cool) air that can pass through the structure. Ventilation Mechanical heat recovery ventilation systems, with a heat recovery rate of over 80% and high-efficiency electronically commutated motors. Although not compulsory, earth warming tubes are often buried in the soil to act as earth-to-air heat exchangers and pre-heat (or pre-cool) the intake air for the ventilation system. Space heating 800 to 1,500 Watt heating and/or cooling element integrated with the supply air duct of the ventilation system. A well designed Passive house in the European climate should not need any supplemental heat source if the heating load is kept under 10W/m². Lighting and electrical appliances Low-energy lighting (compact fluorescent lamps or solid-state lighting [LED]), and high-efficiency electrical appliances.

7 Passive House Advantages and Disadvantages. - No need of extra-external walls. - Are no radiators, there is more space on the rooms' walls. - Inside temperature is homogeneous. - With ventilation and heating systems switched off, a passive house typically loses less than 0.5 C per day. - After the windows are closed, the air very quickly returns to the "normal" temperature. Traditional sod roofs in the Faroe Islands.

8 Zero Energy House Concept. Does not use more energy than it creates Requires the use of onsite renewable energy technologies Can be used off-the-grid Energy can be harvested on-site. Beddington Zero Energy Development. Hackbridge, London, England (2002)

9 Zero Energy House Definitions. Net zero site energy The amount of energy provided by on-site renewable energy sources is at least equal to the amount of energy used by the building. Net zero source energy Generates the same amount of energy as is used, including the energy used to transport the energy to the building. Net zero energy emissions Carbon emissions generated from fossil fuel use are balanced by the amount of onsite renewable energy production. Net zero energy cost The cost of purchasing energy is balanced by income from sales of electricity to the grid of electricity generated on-site. Off-the-grid Stand-alone ZEBs that are not connected to an off-site energy utility facility. They require distributed renewable energy generation and energy storage capability.

10 Zero Energy House Energy harvest. Case of individual houses, various microgeneration technologies may be used to provide heat and electricity to the building, using solar cells or wind turbines for electricity, and biofuels or solar collectors. Zero energy buildings are frequently connected to the electricity grid, export electricity to the grid when there is a surplus, and drawing electricity when not enough electricity is being produced. More effective (in cost and resource utilization) when done on a local but combined scale, for example, a group of houses. Design and Construction. To achieve efficient energy use, zero energy design departs significantly from conventional construction practice. Successful zero energy building designers typically combine time tested passive solar, or natural conditioning, principles that work with the on-site assets.

11 Zero Energy House Advantages and Disadvantages. Advantages - Isolation for building owners from future energy price increases. - Increased comfort due to more-uniform interior temperatures. - Reduced total cost of ownership due to improved energy efficiency. - Reduced total net monthly cost of living. - Extra cost is minimized for new construction compared to an afterthought retrofit. - The value of a ZEB building relative to similar conventional building should increase every time energy costs increase. - Future legislative restrictions, and carbon emission taxes/penalties may force expensive retrofits to inefficient buildings. Disadvantages - Initial costs can be higher - effort required to understand, apply, and qualify for ZEB subsidies. - Very few designers or builders have the necessary skills or experience to build ZEBs. - Possible declines in future utility company renewable energy costs may lessen the value of capital invested in energy efficiency. - Challenge to recover higher initial costs on resale of building. - Climate-specific design may limit future ability to respond to risingor-falling ambient temperatures (global warming). - Without an optimised thermal envelope the embodied energy, heating and cooling energy and resource usage is higher than needed. ZEB by definition do not mandate a minimum heating and cooling performance level thus allowing oversized renewable energy systems to fill the energy gap. - Solar energy capture using the house envelope only works in locations unobstructed from the South. The solar energy capture cannot be optimized in South facing shade or wooded surroundings.

12 - Passivhaus Institut - Zero Energy Design - CEPHEUS - Vauban Passivhaus - Solar Decathlon - Europe Solar Decathlon - STEPHENS, Don ANNUALIZED GEO-SOLAR HEATING AS A SUSTAINABLE RESIDENTIAL-SCALE SOLUTION FOR TEMPERATE CLIMATES WITH LESS THAN IDEAL DAILY HEATINGSEASON SOLAR AVAILABILITY - The Passive House Magazine - NED NISSON, J. D. ; and DUTT Gautam, The Superinsulated Home Book, John Wiley & Sons, TORCELLINI P., PLESS S., and DERU M. Conference paper:zero Energy Buildings: A Critical Look at the Definition 2006, D. Crawley U.S. Department of Energy, National Renewable Energy Laboratory

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