Building passive design and hotel energy efficiency

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1 Building passive design and hotel energy efficiency B. Su School of Architecture, UNITEC Institute of Technology, Auckland New Zealand School of Architecture, Shenyang Jianzhu University, Shenyang, China Q. Wang School of Architecture, Shenyang Jianzhu University, Shenyang, China Challenges, Opportunities and Solutions in Structural Engineering and Construction Ghafoori (ed.) 2 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN ABSTRACT: This pilot study seeks to identify the relationships between real energy consumption data and building design data and introduces a method to use real energy consumption data of a large hotel to calculate the extra energy use related to winter indoor thermal conditions, which roughly represents the space heating energy. This study not only presents and identifies relationships between the increasing or decreasing trend in space heating energy and the increase of building design data of the sample hotels, but also establishes the start point and feasibility for further study with a large number of sample hotels to identify, in more detail, the quantitative relationships between building design data and space heating energy data for further developing passive design guides for hotel energy efficiency. INTRODUCTION The first and best place to consider building energy efficiency is during the design of the building, not when the building has been completed and is in operation. Previous study suggests that the better design of new buildings would result in a 4 75% reduction in their energy consumption to compare with 2 levels. Large hotels are big energy users in a city. To minimize the influence of differences in hotels facilities, the study randomly collected the monthly real energy consumption data, monthly occupancy and building design data of a number of 4 5 stars large hotel (over guestrooms) in Auckland city of New Zealand in a temperate climate with mild winter and in Shenyang city of China with a cold climate. Figure and Figure 2 show monthly minimum, maximum and mean temperatures of Auckland and Shenyang. Figure 3 shows monthly mean energy consumptions per room per day of Auckland sample hotels. Figure 4 shows monthly mean energy consumptions per unit volume (m 3 ) of indoor space per day. To compare the energy used in the seven large hotels the mean energy used per room per day in Hotel 6 is lower than the other hotels but the mean energy used per m 3 per night could be higher than the other hotels. Using different units to compare the energy used in different hotels may lead to different results. The question is what energy unit is appropriate to be used to present or compare energy consumptions or energy efficiency related to the different hotel building designs, especially to compare the energy used for internal space heating and cooling. The national and international energy surveys for the hotel sector commonly use kwh/room/year as the units to present the energy used in the hotels.the mean energy data use per room in the national energy survey can be used to show the general profile of energy used in the hotel business. The mean energy used for space heating and cooling per unit of the volume actually used in the hotel (not including the volume of the vacant rooms) is more appropriately used for the comparison of building design. Temperature (deg.c) Max Tem. Mean Tem. Min Tem. 5 5 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Figure. Temperature (deg.c) Figure 2. Monthly temperatures in Auckland. Max. tem. Mean tem. Min. tem. Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Monthly temperatures in Shenyang. 85

2 Mean energy (kwh/room/day) Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Hotel Hotel 2 Hotel 3 Hotel 4 Hotel 5 Hotel 6 Hotel 7 Ratio of heaing energy to winter energy 3% 25% 2% 5% % 5% % Hotels Figure 3. Monthly mean energy consumptions per room per day of Auckland sample hotels. Figure 5. Ratio of heating energy to winter energy of Auckland sample hotels. Mean energy (kwh/m 3 /day) Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Hotel Hotel 2 Hotel 3 Hotel 4 Hotel 5 Hotel 6 Hotel 7 Figure 4. Monthly mean energy consumptions per m 3 per day of Auckland sample hotels. Ratio of heating energy and winter energy 8% 7% 6% 5% 4% 3% 2% % % Hotels Figure 6. Ratio of heating energy to winter energy of Shenyang sample hotels. During the winter, a hotel mainly uses its energy on water heating, space heating, refrigeration, cooking, lighting and other building services. Comparatively, the energy used for the indoor space heating is more closely related to the hotel building thermal performance and its indoor thermal conditions. For a hotel with a central air conditioning system, the space heating can be supplied by a boiler. The boiler also supplies the hot water for the whole hotel. It is difficult to identify how much energy is only used for space heating according to energy consumption data from the meters in the current central air conditioning system and it is time consuming and expensive to install meters on the existing central air conditioning systems to only record the actual energy used for the space heating. The study introduces a method to use real monthly energy consumption data of a hotel to calculate the extra energy consumption resulted from the impact of winter indoor thermal conditions of the sample hotel, which can be used to roughly present space heating energy and compare different designs of hotels for energy efficiency. The study uses the difference between mean daily energy usages per unit volume of occupied indoor space (kwh/m 3 day) of a hotel in the winter months and the other months of the year as the basic and mean energy consumption unit, which mainly comprises space heating energy and other extra energy for hot water heating and all appliances, which are impacted by the winter indoor thermal conditions of a hotel. The smaller difference between mean daily usage in winter months and the other months can roughly represent the better indoor space thermal conditions responded to the winter climate conditions. Figure 3 and Figure 4 show ratios mean space heating energy to winter energy of Auckland and Shenyang sample hotels. The study uses the following main architectural features as sample design data to investigate the relationships to winter indoor space heating energy: Ratio of building surface to volume Ratio of total window to wall area Ratio of north (south) wall area to building volume Ratio of total north (south), east, west wall area to building volume Ratio of total wall area to building volume Building volume Building height 2 DATA ANALYSIS 2. Ratio of building surface to volume The ratios of building surface to volume of sample hotels in Auckland and Shenyang are in the ranges of.9 to.24 and. to.5 respectively. An increasing trend in differences between mean daily energy usages per unit volume of occupied indoor space (kwh/m 3 day, roughly present mean space heating energy) of Auckland and Shenyang sample hotels in the winter months and the other months of the year are both associated with increasing in ratios of building surface to volume (see Figs 7 8). A building with a low 852

3 ratio of building surface to volume has a small external surface area per unit of indoor space from which to lose heat to the outdoors, and uses less energy for space heating, hot water and other appliances, which can be affected by indoor thermal conditions during the winter. The ratio of building surface to volume of the multi-storey residential building with the permanent heating should be.3 or less for saving the energy for space heating (Liu 2). Normally the building with smaller ratio of building surface area to building volume uses less energy for space heating. Wall of a multi-storey hotel building is more important than roof to impact building thermal performance and indoor thermal conditions to compare with a house. The ratios of total wall area to building volume of sample hotels in Auckland and Shenyang are in the ranges of.6 to.7 and.9 to.4 respectively. An increasing trend in mean space heating energy of Auckland and Shenyang sample hotels are both associated with increasing in ratios of total wall area to building volume (see Figs. 9 ). 2.2 Ratio of total window area to wall area The ratios of total building window area to wall area of sample hotels in Auckland and Shenyang are in the ranges of.5 to.3 and.4 to.38 respectively. An increasing trend in mean space heating energy of Auckland and Shenyang sample hotels are both strongly associated with increasing in ratios of total window area to wall area (see Figs 2). The windows are commonly the weak elements for building thermal performance. For a large hotel design in Auckland and Shenyang to increase the ratio of total window area to wall area will increase space heating energy when the rest of the design data are unchanged. Generally a small ratio of total window area to wall Ratio of building surface to volume Ratio of total wall area to building volume.4 Figure 7. Ratio of building surface to volume and space heating energy of Auckland sample hotels. Figure. Ratio of total wall area to building volume and space heating energy of Shenyang sample hotels Ratio of building surface to volume Ratio of window area to wall area.32 Figure 8. Ratio of building surface to volume and space heating energy of Shenyang sample hotels. Figure. Ratio of window area to wall area and space heating energy of Auckland sample hotels Ratio of total wall area to building volume Ratio of window area to wall area.4 Figure 9. Ratio of total wall area to building volume and space heating energy of Auckland sample hotels. Figure 2. Ratio of window area to wall area and space heating energy of Shenyang sample hotels. 853

4 area is good for saving the space heating energy in the Auckland and Shenyang hotels. 2.3 Ratio of total north (or south), east, west wall area to building volume Ratios of total North (or south), West and East wall areas to building volume of Auckland sample hotels and ratios of total north (or south), west and east wall areas, which can get direct solar radiation heat, to building volume of Shenyang sample hotels are in the ranges of.4 to. and.6 to. respectively. A decreasing trend in mean space heating energy of Auckland and Shenyang sample hotels are both associated with increasing in ratios (see Figs 3 4). During winter, the hotel, with the orientation facing to the equator and a bigger ratio, potentially receive more direct sun. The more area of walls is exposed to the sun; the less the energy is used for the space heating in the Auckland and Shenyang hotels Ratio of N, E, W wall area to building volume Figure 3. Ratio of N, E, W wall area to building volume of Auckland sample hotels. 2.4 Ratio of north (or south) wall area to building volume The ratios of north (or south) wall area to building volume of sample hotels in Auckland and Shenyang are in the ranges of.5 to.53 and.2 to.28 respectively. A hotel with good orientation usually has a high ratio of north wall area to building volume. Good orientation should improve indoor thermal conditions and energy efficiency, but the increase of ratios of north (south) wall area to building volume is not associated with an decreasing trend of space heating energy of Auckland (Shenyang) sample hotels (see Figs 5 6). Windows of Auckland sample hotel are single-glazed and the glazed window areas of hotels are commonly low R-value area. The mean ratio of north-facing window area to north wall area and the mean ratio of south-facing window area to south wall area for Auckland and Shenyang sample hotels are higher than the ratios of east-facing and west-facing windows. The negative effect of increasing the ratio of north-facing window area (south-facing wall area) to north wall area (south-facing wall area) could be stronger than the positive effect of increasing the ratio of north wall area (south wall area) to building volume on winter indoor thermal conditions of Auckland (Shenyang) sample hotels. 2.5 Building volume Building volume of sample hotels in Auckland and Shenyang are in the ranges of 529 to 353 m Ratio of S, E, W wall area to building volume. Figure 4. Ratio of S, E, W wall area to building volume of Auckland sample hotels. Figure 6. Ratio of south wall area to building volume of Shenyang sample hotels Ratio of north wall area to building volume Building volume (m 3 ) 4 Figure 5. Ratio of north wall area to building volume of Auckland sample hotels. Figure 7. Building volume and space heating energy of Auckland sample hotels. 854

5 Building volume ( m 3 ) Figure 8. Building volume and space heating energy of Shenyang sample hotels. and 454 to 278 m 3 respectively. An decreasing trend in mean space heating energy of Auckland and Shenyang sample hotels are both associated with increasing in the ratios of building surface to volume (see Figs 7 8). 3 CONCLUSIONS This study introduced a method to use actual 2- months energy consumption, occupancy, building design data to calculate their extra energy consumptions related to the winter indoor thermal conditions, which can roughly represent space heating energy, for comparing different hotel building designs. This method could also be applied to other building types and other climate conditions. For a climate with a hot summer and comfortable winter such as a hot-humid climate, the difference between mean daily electricity usage in the summer months and the other months of the year can be used to evaluate and compare different building designs focusing on the summer thermal performance. For a climate with both stressful summer and winter, the difference between mean daily electricity usage in the summer months or the winter months and the other months excluding the winter months or the summer months of the year can be used to evaluate and compare different building designs focusing on both the summer and the winter thermal performances. Although different design data related to the main architectural features can affect the extra energy consumption related to winter indoor thermal conditions differently and simultaneously, this study shows that the relationship between the increasing trend or decreasing trend in space heating energy and the increase of the design datum can still be identified. This preliminary study forms the basis of, and confirms the feasibility for, a further study using a much larger sample, which can identify the quantitative relationships between the space heating energy and a design datum. With a sufficient number of sample buildings, the gradient of the trend line of the design datum s variation could be used to evaluate the strength of impact on space heating energy, and estimate the increase or decrease of space heating energy when a design datum is changed within a range and the other design data also impact the extra energy consumption differently and simultaneously. If the building code or design handbook can indicate the relationship between the design datum and the space heating energy, architects could make a significant difference to building energy efficiency through building passive design and take responsibility for it. REFERENCES Clarke, J. 2. Energy simulation in building design. UK: Butterworth Heinemann. Isaacs, N. and Crocker, N Commercial Building Energy Survey: Hotels, Centre for Building Performance Research, Victoria University of Wellington. Becken, S. 2. Energy Use in the New Zealand Accommodation Sector report of a survey, Lincoln University. Ministry of Commerce, 2. Energy data file. Wellington: Ministry of Commerce. Liu, J.P. 2. Architecture Physicals. Beijing: China Construction Industry Publication. Energy Efficiency and Conservation Authority, 996. Energy- Wise Monitoring Quarterly: hotel sector. Issue 4, June 996. Su, B. 24. Architectural Design of Large Hotel and Energy Use for Internal Space Thermal Control. Proceedings of the st International Conference on Sustainability Engineering and Science, Auckland, July 6 9, 24. Su, B. 24. Mean Energy Used for Central Air-conditioning System related to Hotel Building Design. Proceedings of the 38th Annual Conference of the Architectural Science Association and the International Building Performance Simulation Association Australasia Conference, Launceston, 2 November 24. Su, B. & Aynsley, R. 26. A case study on roof thermal performance of naturally ventilated houses in hot-humid climates under summer condition. Architectural Science Review 49(4): Su, B. 27. Building passive design and housing energy efficiency. Architectural Science Review 5(3):

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