Unit 5: Civil War and Reconstruc5on. Part 11: Radical Reconstruc5on

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1 Unit 5: Civil War and Reconstruc5on Part 11: Radical Reconstruc5on

2 Objec&ves: 1. Describe the goals of the Radical Republicans. ( ) 2. Describe how Congress reacted to the black codes passed in the South. ( ) 3. Describe the 14 th and 15 th Amendments and cite reasons for their crea&on. ( ) 4. Explain why Congress tried to impeach President Johnson.

3 I. The South Establishes Black Codes A. Following the Civil War, most southern states had ra5fied the Thirteenth Amendment which banned slavery. However, new laws, known as black codes, began to be passed in the South that severely restricted the rights of the new freedmen.

4 I. The South Establishes Black Codes (con t) B. How did black codes affect freedmen? 1. Black codes granted some rights. African Americans could marry legally and own some property. 2. Black codes kept freedmen from gaining poli5cal and economic power. They forbade freedmen to vote, own guns, or serve on juries. 3. In some states, African Americans could work only as servants or farm laborers. In others, they had to sign contracts for a year s work.

5 I. The South Establishes Black Codes (con t) C. How did Congress react to black codes? 1. Congress was angered by black codes, Republicans charged that Johnson s lenient Reconstruc5on plan had encouraged the codes. 2. Republicans were also angered by southern white violence against freedmen.

6 I. The South Establishes Black Codes (con t) 3. The Joint CommiUee on Reconstruc5on accused the South of trying to preserve slavery... as long as possible. 4. When President Johnson ignored the report of the Joint CommiUee, members of Congress who were called Radical Republicans vowed to take control of Reconstruc5on. A radical is a person who wants to make dras5c changes in society.

7 II. Radical Republicans Gain Control Thaddeus Stevens of Pennsylvania A. The leading radicals were Thaddeus Stevens in the House of Representa5ves and Charles Sumner in the Senate. These two men led the opposi5on to President Johnson s Reconstruc5on plans. Charles Sumner of MassachuseUs

8 II. Radical Republicans Gain Control (con t) B. Radical Republicans had two main goals. 1. Break the power of wealthy planters who had long ruled the South. Northerners had longed blamed these people for star5ng the Civil War. 2. Ensure that freedmen received the right to vote.

9 II. Radical Republicans Gain Control (con t) C. Radical Republicans needed the support of moderate Republicans. Most southerners were Democrats. Republicans could control both houses if southerners were barred from Congress. D. To combat the black codes, Congress passed the Civil Rights Act in April It gave ci5zenship to African Americans. Johnson vetoed the bill and Congress overrode his veto.

10 II. Radical Republicans Gain Control (con t) E. Republicans feared the U.S. Supreme Court would declare the Civil Rights Act uncons5tu5onal because the Dred ScoU case said African Americans were not ci5zens. To combat this, radicals proposed the Fourteenth Amendment, which granted ci5zenship to all persons born in the United States. It guaranteed ci5zens equal protec5on of the laws and said that no state could deprive any person of life, liberty, or property without due process of law.

11 II. Radical Republicans Gain Control (con t) F. In the Elec5on of 1866, President Johnson opposed the Fourteenth Amendment and urged voters to reject the Radicals. Southern violence convinced many northerners that strong measures were needed, so they backed the Republicans. Republicans won majori5es in both houses of Congress.

12 II. Radical Republicans in Control (con t) G. The period that followed the elec5on is o_en called Radical Reconstruc5on. Congress passed the first Reconstruc5on Act in March It threw out state governments that had refused to ra5fy the Fourteenth Amendment. H. The Act divided the South into five military districts controlled by the U.S. Army. The military governed the South un5l new state governments were created.

13 Radical Republicans in Control (con t) I. Disgusted white voters in the South refused to vote in the Elec5on of At the same 5me, freedmen turned out to exercise their new vo5ng rights in large numbers suppor5ng Republicans. As a result, Republicans gained control of all of the new southern state governments.

14 Review of Reconstruc5on Plans Plan Ten Percent Plan Wade-Davis Bill Johnson Plan Reconstruc8on Act Proposed by President Abraham Lincoln (1863) Republicans in Congress (1864) President Andrew Johnson (1865) Radical Republicans (1867) Condi5ons for Former Confederate States to Rejoin Union 10 percent of voters must swear loyalty to Union Must abolish slavery Majority of white men must swear loyalty Former Confederate volunteers cannot vote or hold office Majority of white men must swear loyalty Must ratify Thirteenth Amendment Former Confederate officials may vote and hold office Must disband state governments Must write new constitutions Must ratify Fourteenth Amendment African American men must be allowed to vote

15 III. The President is Impeached A. Republicans feared that because President Andrew Johnson tried to limit the effect of Radical Reconstruc5on he would not carry out these new laws. To ensure this, Congress tried to remove him from office. B. On February 24, 1868, the House of Representa5ves voted to impeach, or bring formal charges against, Johnson.

16 III. The President is Impeached (con t) C. According to the Cons5tu5on, the House of Representa5ves can impeach the President for high crimes and misdemeanors. The House states the crimes and the Senate holds the trial. If 2/3 of the senators find the President guilty, he/she may be removed from office.

17 III. The President is Impeached (con t) D. During Johnson s trial, it became clear that he was not guilty of high crimes and misdemeanors. Even many Republicans opposed Johnson s impeachment. E. In the end, the Senate vote was 35 to 19 against Johnson just one vote shy of the two thirds needed to convict him. Johnson would finish out the remaining few months of his term.

18 IV. A New President, Another Amendment A. In 1868, Ulysses S. Grant, a Republican, was voted in as U.S. President. Under Grant s leadership Radical Reconstruc5on would con5nue.

19 IV. A New President, Another Amendment (con t) B. In 1870, the Fi_eenth Amendment was ra5fied to the U.S. Cons5tu5on. This amendment forbade any state to deny African Americans the right to vote on the basis of race.

20 Civil War Amendments Reviewed Thirteenth Amendment Fourteenth Amendment Bans slavery throughout the United States. Grants ci8zenship to all persons born in the United States. Guarantees ci8zens equal protec8on of the laws. No state can deprive any person of life, liberty, or property with due process of law. FiJeenth Amendment Forbids any state to deny any ci8zens the right to vote because of race.

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