Chapter 15 Toward the Civil War ( ) Section 1 Slavery and the West

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1 Chapter 15 Toward the Civil War ( ) Section 1 Slavery and the West

2 n Did the compromises that Congress made effectively address slavery and sectionalism?

3 Missouri Missouri applied for statehood Slavery was legal in Missouri This sparked an angry debate in Congress There were 22 states in the Union 11 slave states/ 11 free states Each state got two votes (Senate) Adding another state would tip the balance between slave states and free states

4 North and South The North and South had different economies and were competing for new land in the West At the same time, many Northerners wanted to restrict or ban slavery Southerners opposed these antislavery efforts (even those that disliked slavery) Southerners resented the interference by outsiders in Southerners affairs This grew into sectionalism between the North and South

5 What to do with Missouri Senate suggested allowing Missouri join as a slave state and Maine join as a free state The Senate wanted to settle the issue of slavery in the territories for good Senate proposed banning slavery in the rest of the Louisiana Purchase north of 36 30' N latitude Speaker of the House Henry Clay guided the bill through the House of Representatives (passed by a close vote) Maine was the 23 rd state and Missouri was 24 th The Missouri Compromise preserved the balance between slave and free states This was a temporary solution in the debate over slavery

6 Who drafted the Missouri Compromise? A. Henry Clay B. James Monroe C. James Polk D. Thomas Jefferson A. A B. B C. C D. D

7 Which of the following was a proposal to ban slavery in any lands acquired from Mexico? A. The Compromise of 1850 B. The Wilmot Proviso C. The Missouri Compromise D. The Freeport Doctrine A. A B. B C. C D. D

8 Post Mexican American War There were three position on the issue of slavery in the new territories acquired from Mexico. Wilmot Proviso 1846 No slavery in new lands, congress as the right to decide this. Calhoun Resolution 1847 Slavery must be allowed the constitution allows it. Popular Sovereignty 1848 Let settlers in the new territories decide on slavery.

9 Southerners Response Southerners protested the Wilmot Proviso Southerners felt this endangered slavery everywhere They wanted New Mexico and California open to slavery John C. Calhoun (SC) countered with another proposal It said that neither Congress nor any territory had the authority to ban slavery from a territory or regulate it Neither proposal passed, but caused bitter debate By the next election, the US gained New Mexico and California, but took no action on slavery

10 Election of The Whigs selected Zachary Taylor as their candidate Taylor was a Southerner and a hero of the Mexican War The Democrats chose Senator Lewis Cass of Michigan Both candidates ignored the issue of slavery The failure to take a stand angered voters

11 Election of 1848 Continued Many opponents of slavery left their parties and formed the Free-Soil Party Free Soil, Free Speech, Free Labor, and Free Men The Free-Soil Party chose former president Van Buren as their candidate Taylor won, but the Free- Soil Party gained several seats in Congress

12 California applied for statehood in 1849 (After the Gold Rush) Meanwhile, antislavery forces wanted to ban slavery in Washington, D.C. Southerners also wanted a national law that required states to return fugitive enslaved people The key issue was the balance of power in the Senate (30 states 15/15) Southerners talked about seceding from the Union Issues in the US

13 Compromising Senator Henry Clay proposed that California enter as a free state The rest of the new territories would have no limits on slavery The slave trade (Not slavery itself) would be banned in Washington D.C. Clay also pushed for a stronger fugitive slave law Senator John C. Calhoun opposed the plan Calhoun felt that the Union could be saved only by protecting slavery Senator Webster supported the plan Webster said that slavery had little chance in the new territories because the land was not suited for plantations

14 The Compromise of 1850 President Taylor was an opponent of Clay s plan But Taylor died unexpectedly and Millard Fillmore took over as president Fillmore favored the compromise To end the crisis, Illinois Senator Stephen A. Douglas divided Clay s plan into 4 parts Each part would be voted on separately Fillmore had several Whigs abstain on parts they opposed The 5 parts passed and became known as the Compromise of 1850

15 The Parts of the Compromise of California would be admitted as a free state. 2. The new Mexico territory would have no restrictions on slavery. 3. The new Mexico- Texas border dispute would be settled in favor of new Mexico. 4. The slave trade but not slavery it self would be abolished in the district of Colombia. 5. Stronger fugitive state law.

16 n Did the compromises that Congress made effectively address slavery and sectionalism? -Compromises dealt primarily with immediate issues -Admittance of new states -Maintaining balance in Congress -The compromises did not address slavery at the national level

17 Chapter 15 Section 1 Quiz

18 By admitting a free state and Missouri, a slaveholding state, to the Union at the same time, the Senate could remain balanced. A. True B. False

19 The Wilmot Proviso allowed California to enter the Union as a free state. A. True B. False

20 John C. Calhoun countered David Wilmot's proposal. A. True B. False

21 Zachary Taylor adopted a proslavery platform for the 1848 presidential election. A. True B. False

22 President Fillmore was in favor of the Compromise of A. True B. False

23 An exaggerated loyalty to a particular region of the country is called A. abolitionism. B. fugitive slave law. C. Free-Soil Party. D. sectionalism.

24 The plan that preserved the balance between slave and free states in the Senate was the A. North-South Compromise. B. Missouri Compromise. C. Maine Compromise. D. Slavery Compromise.

25 The main issue in the presidential election of 1844 was the A. annexation of Texas. B. annexation of Maine. C. annexation of New Mexico. D. annexation of Missouri.

26 Who proposed that neither Congress nor local governments had the authority to ban slavery from a territory? A. Daniel Webster B. John C. Calhoun C. Henry Clay D. Zachary Taylor

27 President Millard Fillmore persuaded several Whig representatives to not cast votes, or to A. secede. B. become a fugitive. C. abstain. D. increase sectionalism.

28 The Fugitive Slave Act As part of the Compromise of 1850, Senator Henry Clay convinced Congress to pass the Fugitive Slave Law This was to pacify slaveholders This required all citizens to help catch runaway slaves Anyone who aided a fugitive could be fined or imprisoned Southerners believed the law would force Northerners to recognize the rights of Southerners Instead, the enforcement of the law convinced more people of the evils of slavery

29 What resulted from the Fugitive Slave Act? A. Passage of the law quieted widespread violence in Kansas and Nebraska. B. Most Northerners believed Southern slaveholders rights should be upheld. C. Abolitionists were jailed in the North. A. A B. B C. C D. The law angered the North, convincing many of the evils of slavery. D. D

30 The Fugitive Slave Act Continued After the passage, slaveholders stepped up their efforts to catch runaways Even tried to catch runaways who lived in freedom in the North for years Sometimes they forced African Americans who were not trying to escape into slavery Some Northerners refused to cooperate with the law They justified it on moral grounds 1849 Henry David Thoreau wrote Civil Disobedience If the law requires you to be the agent of injustice to another, then I say, break the law

31 Helping Runaway Slaves The Underground Railroad- A network of free African Americans and whites helped runaways to freedom Antislavery groups tried to rescue African Americans being chased and tried to free those that were captured In Boston, an antislavery group shouted Slave hunters- there go the slave hunters People put their money together to buy slaves freedom Northern juries refused to convict those accused of violating the Fugitive Slave Act

32 The Kansas-Nebraska Act President Franklin Pierce intended to enforce the Fugitive Slave Act Illinois senator Stephan A. Douglas introduced a bill in Congress Douglas proposed organizing the region west of Missouri and Iowa as the territories of Kansas and Nebraska Because of their location, they both seemed likely to be Free states Both were north of 36 30' north (Missouri Compromise) Douglas knew the South would object because it would give the free states more votes in the Senate Douglas called for eliminating the Missouri Compromise and for popular sovereignty (allow the people to decide)

33

34

35 Passage of the Act Northerners protested This plan would allow slavery into areas that had been free for more than 30 years Southerners supported the bill Southerners expected Kansas to be settled mostly by slaveholders from Missouri who would vote to keep slavery legal Congress passed the Kansas-Nebraska Act in 1854

36 Conflict in Kansas When the law passed, proslavery and antislavery groups rushed into Kansas When elections took place, a pro-slavery legislature was elected Only 1,500 voters lived in Kansas at the time But there were more than 6,000 ballots cast 1,000s of pro-slavery supporters from Missouri crossed the border just to vote in the election These Missourians traveled in armed groups and became known as border ruffians Voters Votes

37 Conflict in Kansas Continued The new Kansas legislature passed laws supporting slavery One law even restricted political office to proslavery candidates The antislavery people refused to accept these laws They armed themselves, held their own elections, and adopted their own constitution that banned slavery By Rival governments existed in Kansas One for slavery and one against slavery The city of Topeka, shown here on a panoramic map from 1869, housed the Free Soil Kansas legislature.

38 Pro-slavery Attacks Both sides were armed and violence was inevitable May slavery supporters attacked Lawrence, a stronghold of antislavery settlers The attackers burned the Free State Hotel and destroyed two newspaper offices and many homes Anti Slavery force retaliated

39 Antislavery Attacks Abolitionist John Brown (from Hudson, Ohio) believed God chose him to end slavery Brown heard of the attack on Lawrence and vowed to strike terror in the hearts of the proslavery people Brown led a group and killed 5 supporters of slavery Armed bands soon roamed the territory

40 Bleeding Kansas Newspapers referred to Bleeding Kansas and the Civil War in Kansas In October 1856, the territorial governor sent federal troops to stop the bloodshed Violence also broke out in Congress Massachusetts senator Charles Sumner lashed out against pro-slavery forces in Kansas, such as Andrew P. Butler from South Carolina 2 days later, Butler s cousin, Representative Preston Brooks, walked into the Senate and hit Sumner with a cane Sumner fell unconscious and bleeding

41 n 2 What was the main cause of the Civil War in Kansas? A. Dual governments set up by pro- and antislavery groups B. Passage of the Fugitive Slave Act C. John Brown s attack on Pottawatomie Creek A. A B. B C. C D. Invasion of Kansas by border ruffians D. D

42 n How did popular sovereignty lead to violence in Kansas? -Outsiders corrupted the election, and fighting broke out over the results

43 Enforcement of the Fugitive Act A. compromise. B. more anger in the North. C. recognition of Southerners' rights. D. an end to the struggle. led to

44 Stephen A. Douglas proposed letting the people decide about slavery through A. popular sovereignty. B. states' choice. C. free choice. D. people's choice.

45 Missourians who traveled in armed groups to cross the border and vote in elections became known as A. border ruffians. B. border voters. C. border patrol. D. Missouri voters.

46 The law that required all citizens to help catch runaway enslaved people was the A. Removal Act. B. Fugitive Slave Act. C. Runaway Act. D. Slave Owners Act.

47 What did Senator Stephen A. Douglas propose should be replaced by popular sovereignty? A. Missouri Maine Act B. Texas Maine Act C. Kansas Nebraska Act D. Missouri Compromise

48 According to the, a person could be fined or imprisoned for aiding fugitives. A. Southern Slave Act B. Owners-Right Act C. Fugitive Slave Act D. Runaway Slave Act

49 A war between citizens of the same country is called A. a cold war. B. an undeclared war. C. a civil war. D. a country war.

50 Who vowed to strike terror in the hearts of pro-slavery people? A. Andrew P. Butler B. Preston Brooks C. Charles Sumner D. John Brown

51 Rival proslavery and antislavery governments existed in A. Missouri. B. California. C. Texas. D. Kansas.

52 What was the first territory to shed blood in a civil war over slavery? A. Texas B. Kansas C. Missouri D. South Carolina

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