Today s Objective: Conflict and Compromise

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1 Today s Objective: Conflict and Compromise

2 Missouri Compromise By 1804, Northern states had abolished slavery. From that point politicians in Congress attempted to keep a sectional balance between Free and Slave states. Even though the North had a majority in the House of Representatives, votes between free and slave states in the Senate were equal. As long as the balance remained, southern senators could block legislation that threatened their interest. In 1819, the first area of the Louisiana Purchase to apply for statehood was Missouri. This worried the North because Missouri wanted to be a slave state and that would upset the balance between free and slave states. Even though southerners support Missouri as a state, they too were worried about the future status of territories applying for statehood in the area from the Louisiana Purchase. Would they be slave or free? After months of heated debate in Congress, the Great Compromiser, Henry clay won support for three bills that would provide a compromise: (1) Missouri would be admitted as a slaveholding state. (2) Maine would be admitted as a free state. (3) In the rest of the Louisiana Territory the line would mark a boundary above which would be free, below which would be slave. Congress agreed to the compromise and in March 1820 President Monroe signed the bill. The Missouri Compromise preserved the sectional balance for over 30 years, providing the nation more time to mature. Topic Teach Sheet Key vocabulary Bullet main points Why is it significant? What does it lead to?

3 Today s Objective: Conflict and Compromise

4 Annexation of Texas By 1830, Americans (both white and black) outnumbered the Mexicans in Mexican owned Texas by three to one. Conflict developed between the Texans and Mexico however because the Americans living there did not follow Mexico s laws, like no slavery and you must convert to Catholicism. By 1836, Texas had fought and won independence from Mexico and called themselves the Lone-Star Republic. Sam Houston, the first president of the Republic of Texas, applied to the US government for his country to be annexed (to incorporate into the country). The political opposition from the North was so strong, that for eight years the request for annexation was put off. In 1844, president John Tyler worked to annex Texas, but the US Senate rejected his treaty of annexation. In the Election of 1844, president John Tyler (a southern Wig) loss his reelection to James K. Polk (a Democrat). Polk ran on a campaign for the acquisition of Texas and Oregon. His win made annexation of Texas seem inevitable. Eager to leave office in triumph, Tyler pushed the annexation of Texas through Congress. Instead of going back to the Senate with a treaty for annexation he persuaded the House of Representatives to pass a joint resolution for annexation. The resolution only required a simple majority in both houses and in 1845; Texas entered the US as a slave state. Topic Teach Sheet Key vocabulary Bullet main points Why is it significant? What does it lead to?

5 Today s Objective: Conflict and Compromise

6 Wilmot Proviso Mexico had never officially recognized Texas as an independent country. When the US annexed (incorporated into our country) Texas, it quickly led to problems with Mexico. The fight over the border between Texas and Mexico led to the Mexican American War that lasted from 1846 to the beginning of 1848 and resulted in the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in which the US bought the Mexican Cession (from Texas to the west coast) for $15 million. Some opposed the treaty however because slavery might expand into the new territory. The slavery issue overshadowed all others in the debate over the Mexican War. Southerners hoped slavery could expand into the new lands and northerners feared that it might. The slavery issue came to ahead even before the war had ended. A Pennsylvania Democrat named David Wilmot, offered a solution known as the Wilmot Proviso. Since Mexico had forbid slavery, he suggested that any territories that we acquired from Mexico should also forbid slavery. While the House of Representatives passed the Wilmot Proviso it was defeated in the Senate. The Wilmot Proviso framed the national debate over slavery for the next 15 years. It marked an increasing division between free and slave states. Eventually a new political party was formed that adopted the Wilmot Proviso s provision. The Free- Soil Party vowed to keep the new territories free with its platform, free soil, free speech, free labor, free men. Teach Sheet Topic Key vocabulary Bullet main points Why is it significant? What does it lead to?

7 Today s Objective: Conflict and Compromise

8 Compromise of 1850 In 1849 the Gold Rush in California brought about 100,000 settlers the West and created the need for laws and order. In 1849, California drafted a constitution (which banned slavery) and applied for statehood. Adding California as a free state would upset the balance between free and slave states in Congress. The conflict before Congress was how to deal with California while protecting and preserving the country. The Great Compromiser, Henry Clay once again proposed a compromise, much like he did 30 years earlier with the Missouri Compromise. The Compromise of 1850 had four main parts: (1) admit California to the Union as a free state, (2) allow for popular sovereignty (the people get to vote on slavery) in the rest of the territory, (3) ban the slave trade in DC (it did not ban slavery though), and (4) adopt and enforce a strict Fugitive Slave Law (required people in the North to return escaped slaved to the South). Some parts of the compromise were seen as a Northern victory like California entering as a free state. Other parts were seen as Southern victories like the strict Fugitive Slave law. The passage of the Compromise of 1850 once again bought the US time before it would have to deal with the issue of slavery once and for all. Teach Sheet Topic Key vocabulary Bullet main points Why is it significant? What does it lead to?

9

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