Mitochondrial Structure and Aerobic Respiration. Biology Exploring Life section 7.5 Modern Biology section 7-2

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1 Mitochondrial Structure and Aerobic Respiration Biology Exploring Life section 7.5 Modern Biology section 7-2

2 Mitochondrial Structure and Aerobic Respiration Objectives: Diagram and explain the function of the structure of a mitochondrion. Outline the process of aerobic respiration in terms of its three main stages or steps. Describe the reactants, main reactions, and products of the Krebs Cycle. Describe the function and purpose of the electron transport chain in aerobic respiration. Explain how ATP is produced through aerobic respiration and describe the efficiency and net yield of the process.

3 Mitochondrial Structure The structure of a mitochondrion Similar to the structure of chloroplasts, an envelope of two membranes encloses the mitochondrion. The purpose of the outer membrane is to maintain the overall structure of the organelle. The inner membrane is highly folded, again like chloroplasts, and serves the following functions: Many of the molecules involved in cellular respiration (an electron transport chain) are built into the inner membrane. The membrane encloses a thick fluid called the matrix which contains enzymes involved in respiration.. The complex folding pattern (called cristae) of this membrane allows for many sites where chemical reactions can occur There is a space between the outer and inner membranes. This is called the intermembrane space and provides a space for the build up of a concentration gradient of hydrogen ions to be used during ATP synthesis (chemiosmosis).

4 Mitochondrial Structure The structure of a mitochondrion Mitochondria also contain their own separate DNA and ribosomes. Mitochondrial DNA contains 37 genes. 13 genes are instructions for replicating enzymes involved in respiration, 24 genes contain instructions for making trna and rrna. Mitochondrial ribosomes differ from other human cellular ribosomes in significant ways: Mitochondrial ribosomes contain less rrna and more proteins than those found in cells. Mitochondrial ribosomes are physically larger than those found in cells.

5 Stages in Aerobic Respiration There are three main stages in aerobic respiration. Stage 1: Glycolysis The first step in both aerobic and anaerobic respiration. Takes place outside the mitochondria in the cytoplasm of the cell. One glucose molecule is converted into two molecules of pyruvic acid. Two molecules of NAD+ have been converted to NADH. Two molecules of ATP are consumed but four are produced for a net gain of two molecules of ATP.

6 Stages in Aerobic Respiration There are three main stages in aerobic respiration. Stage 2: The Krebs Cycle After glycolysis, pyruvic acid diffuses across the double membranes of the mitochondria and enters the mitochondrial matrix. Once inside a mitochondrion, it reacts with a molecule called co-enzyme A and gives up a carbon atom forming a molecule of CO 2. This reaction reduces (adds an electron to) NAD+ producing NADH and one H+ ion. The resulting two carbon molecule is called acetyl CoA and is now ready to enter the Krebs Cycle.

7 Chemical Reaction CO 2 Released

8 Stages in Aerobic Respiration There are three main stages in aerobic respiration. Stage 2: The Krebs Cycle Step 1: Acetyl Co A releases its two carbon atoms to combine with oxaloacetic acid (4 carbons) to form a sixcarbon molecule of citric acid. Coenzyme A is restored by this step.

9 Step 1

10 Stages in Aerobic Respiration There are three main stages in aerobic respiration. Stage 2: The Krebs Cycle Step 1: Acetyl Co A releases its two carbon atoms to combine with oxaloacetic acid (4 carbons) to form a six-carbon molecule of citric acid. Coenzyme A is restored by this step. Step 2: Citric acid releases a CO 2 molecule and then is oxidized losing a hydrogen atom (electron and a proton) to NAD+ reducing it to NADH.

11 Step 2

12 Stages in Aerobic Respiration There are three main stages in aerobic respiration. Stage 2: The Krebs Cycle Step 3: The five-carbon molecule that resulted from step 2 releases another CO 2 molecule and is further oxidized as NAD+ is reduced to NADH. One molecule of ATP is also produced in this step.

13 Step 3

14 Stages in Aerobic Respiration There are three main stages in aerobic respiration. Stage 2: The Krebs Cycle Step 3: The five-carbon molecule that resulted from step 2 releases another CO 2 molecule and is further oxidized as NAD+ is reduced to NADH. One molecule of ATP is also produced in this step. Step 4: The four-carbon molecule produced in step 3 is again oxidized by giving up a hydrogen atom (proton and electron) to a different electron acceptor called FAD. In this step FAD is reduced to FADH 2. FAD FADH 2

15

16 Step 4

17 Stages in Aerobic Respiration There are three main stages in aerobic respiration. Stage 2: The Krebs Cycle Step 5: The final oxidation of the four carbon compound is accomplished once again by NAD+ which accepts one more hydrogen atom (both a proton and electron) and is reduced to NADH. The molecule that results is oxaloacetic acid that acted as the receiver for acetyl CoA in step 1.

18 Step 5

19

20 Stages in Aerobic Respiration There are three main stages in aerobic respiration. Stage 3: The Electron Transport Chain and Chemiosmosis The electron transport chain makes up the Third Stage of Aerobic Respiration. In eukaryotic cells the Electron Transport chain lines the inner membrane of the mitochondrion. In Prokaryotes, the electron transport chain lines the CELL MEMBRANE.

21 Stages in Aerobic Respiration There are three main stages in aerobic respiration. Stage 3: The Electron Transport Chain and Chemiosmosis ATP is produced by the Electron Transport Chain when NADH and FADH 2 RELEASES Hydrogen Atoms, REGENERATING NAD+ and FAD, which return to the Krebs Cycle to be reused. The electrons in the hydrogen atoms from NADH and FADH 2 are at a High Energy Level. These High Energy Electrons are PASSED Along a Series of Molecules. As they move from Molecule to Molecule down the chain, the Electrons LOSE some of their Energy.

22 Stages in Aerobic Respiration There are three main stages in aerobic respiration. Stage 3: The Electron Transport Chain and Chemiosmosis The Energy they LOSE is used to PUMP Protons of the Hydrogen Atoms from the Mitochondrial Matrix to the space between the inner and outer Mitochondrial Membrane. The Pumping builds up a High Concentration (Concentration Gradient) of Protons in the space Between the INNER and OUTER Mitochondrial Membranes.

23 Stages in Aerobic Respiration There are three main stages in aerobic respiration. Stage 3: The Electron Transport Chain and Chemiosmosis ATP Synthase (enzyme) Molecules are located in the Inner Mitochondrial Membrane. As Protons move down their Concentration Gradient into the Mitochondrial Matrix through the enzyme, ATP Synthase MAKES ATP from ADP by the process of chemiosmosis. This is where the bulk of the ATP produced by aerobic respiration comes from.

24

25 THE ROLE OF OXYGEN ATP can be synthesized by Chemiosmosis only if Electrons continue to move from molecule to molecule in the Electron Transport Chain. Oxygen SERVES as the FINAL Acceptor of Electrons. By Accepting Electrons from the last molecule in the Electron Transport Chain, Oxygen allows additional electrons to pass along the chain. Allowing ATP to continue to be synthesized. Oxygen also accepts Protons that were once part of the Hydrogen Atoms supplied by NADH and FADH 2. By combining with both Electrons and Protons, Oxygen forms WATER: O 2 + 4E - + 4H + 2H 2 O

26 ENERGY YIELD Through Aerobic Respiration a Maximum Yield of 38 ATP Molecules can be produced. A. 2 Glycolysis B. 2 Krebs cycle C. 34 Electron Transport Chain The actual number of ATP Molecules generated through Aerobic Respiration varies from Cell to Cell. Most Eukaryotic Cells Produce only about 36 ATP Molecules per Glucose Molecule. If a cell produces 38 ATP Molecules the Efficiency would be 66%.

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