Mitochondrial Structure and Aerobic Respiration. Biology Exploring Life section 7.5 Modern Biology section 7-2

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Mitochondrial Structure and Aerobic Respiration. Biology Exploring Life section 7.5 Modern Biology section 7-2"

Transcription

1 Mitochondrial Structure and Aerobic Respiration Biology Exploring Life section 7.5 Modern Biology section 7-2

2 Mitochondrial Structure and Aerobic Respiration Objectives: Diagram and explain the function of the structure of a mitochondrion. Outline the process of aerobic respiration in terms of its three main stages or steps. Describe the reactants, main reactions, and products of the Krebs Cycle. Describe the function and purpose of the electron transport chain in aerobic respiration. Explain how ATP is produced through aerobic respiration and describe the efficiency and net yield of the process.

3 Mitochondrial Structure The structure of a mitochondrion Similar to the structure of chloroplasts, an envelope of two membranes encloses the mitochondrion. The purpose of the outer membrane is to maintain the overall structure of the organelle. The inner membrane is highly folded, again like chloroplasts, and serves the following functions: Many of the molecules involved in cellular respiration (an electron transport chain) are built into the inner membrane. The membrane encloses a thick fluid called the matrix which contains enzymes involved in respiration.. The complex folding pattern (called cristae) of this membrane allows for many sites where chemical reactions can occur There is a space between the outer and inner membranes. This is called the intermembrane space and provides a space for the build up of a concentration gradient of hydrogen ions to be used during ATP synthesis (chemiosmosis).

4 Mitochondrial Structure The structure of a mitochondrion Mitochondria also contain their own separate DNA and ribosomes. Mitochondrial DNA contains 37 genes. 13 genes are instructions for replicating enzymes involved in respiration, 24 genes contain instructions for making trna and rrna. Mitochondrial ribosomes differ from other human cellular ribosomes in significant ways: Mitochondrial ribosomes contain less rrna and more proteins than those found in cells. Mitochondrial ribosomes are physically larger than those found in cells.

5 Stages in Aerobic Respiration There are three main stages in aerobic respiration. Stage 1: Glycolysis The first step in both aerobic and anaerobic respiration. Takes place outside the mitochondria in the cytoplasm of the cell. One glucose molecule is converted into two molecules of pyruvic acid. Two molecules of NAD+ have been converted to NADH. Two molecules of ATP are consumed but four are produced for a net gain of two molecules of ATP.

6 Stages in Aerobic Respiration There are three main stages in aerobic respiration. Stage 2: The Krebs Cycle After glycolysis, pyruvic acid diffuses across the double membranes of the mitochondria and enters the mitochondrial matrix. Once inside a mitochondrion, it reacts with a molecule called co-enzyme A and gives up a carbon atom forming a molecule of CO 2. This reaction reduces (adds an electron to) NAD+ producing NADH and one H+ ion. The resulting two carbon molecule is called acetyl CoA and is now ready to enter the Krebs Cycle.

7 Chemical Reaction CO 2 Released

8 Stages in Aerobic Respiration There are three main stages in aerobic respiration. Stage 2: The Krebs Cycle Step 1: Acetyl Co A releases its two carbon atoms to combine with oxaloacetic acid (4 carbons) to form a sixcarbon molecule of citric acid. Coenzyme A is restored by this step.

9 Step 1

10 Stages in Aerobic Respiration There are three main stages in aerobic respiration. Stage 2: The Krebs Cycle Step 1: Acetyl Co A releases its two carbon atoms to combine with oxaloacetic acid (4 carbons) to form a six-carbon molecule of citric acid. Coenzyme A is restored by this step. Step 2: Citric acid releases a CO 2 molecule and then is oxidized losing a hydrogen atom (electron and a proton) to NAD+ reducing it to NADH.

11 Step 2

12 Stages in Aerobic Respiration There are three main stages in aerobic respiration. Stage 2: The Krebs Cycle Step 3: The five-carbon molecule that resulted from step 2 releases another CO 2 molecule and is further oxidized as NAD+ is reduced to NADH. One molecule of ATP is also produced in this step.

13 Step 3

14 Stages in Aerobic Respiration There are three main stages in aerobic respiration. Stage 2: The Krebs Cycle Step 3: The five-carbon molecule that resulted from step 2 releases another CO 2 molecule and is further oxidized as NAD+ is reduced to NADH. One molecule of ATP is also produced in this step. Step 4: The four-carbon molecule produced in step 3 is again oxidized by giving up a hydrogen atom (proton and electron) to a different electron acceptor called FAD. In this step FAD is reduced to FADH 2. FAD FADH 2

15

16 Step 4

17 Stages in Aerobic Respiration There are three main stages in aerobic respiration. Stage 2: The Krebs Cycle Step 5: The final oxidation of the four carbon compound is accomplished once again by NAD+ which accepts one more hydrogen atom (both a proton and electron) and is reduced to NADH. The molecule that results is oxaloacetic acid that acted as the receiver for acetyl CoA in step 1.

18 Step 5

19

20 Stages in Aerobic Respiration There are three main stages in aerobic respiration. Stage 3: The Electron Transport Chain and Chemiosmosis The electron transport chain makes up the Third Stage of Aerobic Respiration. In eukaryotic cells the Electron Transport chain lines the inner membrane of the mitochondrion. In Prokaryotes, the electron transport chain lines the CELL MEMBRANE.

21 Stages in Aerobic Respiration There are three main stages in aerobic respiration. Stage 3: The Electron Transport Chain and Chemiosmosis ATP is produced by the Electron Transport Chain when NADH and FADH 2 RELEASES Hydrogen Atoms, REGENERATING NAD+ and FAD, which return to the Krebs Cycle to be reused. The electrons in the hydrogen atoms from NADH and FADH 2 are at a High Energy Level. These High Energy Electrons are PASSED Along a Series of Molecules. As they move from Molecule to Molecule down the chain, the Electrons LOSE some of their Energy.

22 Stages in Aerobic Respiration There are three main stages in aerobic respiration. Stage 3: The Electron Transport Chain and Chemiosmosis The Energy they LOSE is used to PUMP Protons of the Hydrogen Atoms from the Mitochondrial Matrix to the space between the inner and outer Mitochondrial Membrane. The Pumping builds up a High Concentration (Concentration Gradient) of Protons in the space Between the INNER and OUTER Mitochondrial Membranes.

23 Stages in Aerobic Respiration There are three main stages in aerobic respiration. Stage 3: The Electron Transport Chain and Chemiosmosis ATP Synthase (enzyme) Molecules are located in the Inner Mitochondrial Membrane. As Protons move down their Concentration Gradient into the Mitochondrial Matrix through the enzyme, ATP Synthase MAKES ATP from ADP by the process of chemiosmosis. This is where the bulk of the ATP produced by aerobic respiration comes from.

24

25 THE ROLE OF OXYGEN ATP can be synthesized by Chemiosmosis only if Electrons continue to move from molecule to molecule in the Electron Transport Chain. Oxygen SERVES as the FINAL Acceptor of Electrons. By Accepting Electrons from the last molecule in the Electron Transport Chain, Oxygen allows additional electrons to pass along the chain. Allowing ATP to continue to be synthesized. Oxygen also accepts Protons that were once part of the Hydrogen Atoms supplied by NADH and FADH 2. By combining with both Electrons and Protons, Oxygen forms WATER: O 2 + 4E - + 4H + 2H 2 O

26 ENERGY YIELD Through Aerobic Respiration a Maximum Yield of 38 ATP Molecules can be produced. A. 2 Glycolysis B. 2 Krebs cycle C. 34 Electron Transport Chain The actual number of ATP Molecules generated through Aerobic Respiration varies from Cell to Cell. Most Eukaryotic Cells Produce only about 36 ATP Molecules per Glucose Molecule. If a cell produces 38 ATP Molecules the Efficiency would be 66%.

IB BIOLOGY: Respiration Notes. Draw and annotate a molecule of ATP to show how it stores and releases energy.

IB BIOLOGY: Respiration Notes. Draw and annotate a molecule of ATP to show how it stores and releases energy. IB BIOLOGY: Respiration Notes Draw and annotate a molecule of ATP to show how it stores and releases energy. Contrast oxidation and reduction from the perspectives of (a) the gain or loss of electrons

More information

The Citric Acid Cycle and Oxidative Phosphorylation

The Citric Acid Cycle and Oxidative Phosphorylation Honors Biology Chapter 6.8 6.12 Study Sheet The Citric Acid Cycle and Oxidative Phosphorylation PYRUVATE OXIDATION DRAW THE DETAILED REACTION BELOW: REACTION SUMMARY: SUBSTRATES: PRODUCTS: THE CITRIC ACID

More information

Chapter 6: CELLULAR RESPIRATION

Chapter 6: CELLULAR RESPIRATION Chapter 6: CELLULAR RESPIRATION 1. Overview of Respiration 2. Glycolysis 3. The Citric Acid Cycle 4. Oxidative Phosphorylation 1. Overview of Respiration What is Cellular Respiration? It is the process

More information

What are the basic steps in glycolysis, the TCA cycle, and the electron transport system? An Introduction to Cellular Metabolism.

What are the basic steps in glycolysis, the TCA cycle, and the electron transport system? An Introduction to Cellular Metabolism. What are the basic steps in glycolysis, the TCA cycle, and the electron transport system? An Introduction to Cellular Metabolism Figure 25 1 1 Carbohydrate Metabolism Generates ATP and other high-energy

More information

9-2 The Krebs Cycle and Electron Transport

9-2 The Krebs Cycle and Electron Transport Biology 1 of 37 2 of 37 1 Oxygen is required for the final steps of cellular respiration. Because the pathways of cellular respiration require oxygen, they are aerobic. 3 of 37 In the presence of oxygen,

More information

Oxidative Phosphorylation

Oxidative Phosphorylation Why? Oxidative Phosphorylation How are the electrons in NADH and FADH 2 used to make ATP during cellular respiration? The final phase of cellular respiration is oxidative phosphorylation. Both the electron

More information

1. Overview of Respiration

1. Overview of Respiration Chapter 6: CELLULAR RESPIRATION 1. Overview of Respiration 2. Glycolysis 3. The Citric Acid Cycle 4. Oxidative Phosphorylation 1. Overview of Respiration What is Cellular Respiration? It is the process

More information

Chapter 6: CELLULAR RESPIRATION

Chapter 6: CELLULAR RESPIRATION Chapter 6: CELLULAR RESPIRATION 1. Overview of Respiration 2. Glycolysis 3. The Citric Acid Cycle 4. Oxidative Phosphorylation 1. Overview of Respiration What is Cellular Respiration? It is the process

More information

Cellular Respiration. Biology 20 Aerobic Cellular Respiration

Cellular Respiration. Biology 20 Aerobic Cellular Respiration Cellular Respiration Biology 20 Aerobic Cellular Respiration Stages Stage 1: Glycolysis- 10 steps; cytoplasm Stage 2: Pyruvate Oxidation- 1 step; mitochondria Stage 3: The Krebs Cycle- 8 step cyclic; mitochondria

More information

Chapter 7 Cellular Respiration

Chapter 7 Cellular Respiration Phases of aerobic cellular respiration 1. Glycolysis 2. Transition or Acetyl-CoA reaction 3. Krebs cycle 4. Electron transport system Chapter 7 Cellular Respiration These phases are nothing more than metabolic

More information

Target. SWBAT describe both parts of the last step of cellular respiration aerobic respiration.

Target. SWBAT describe both parts of the last step of cellular respiration aerobic respiration. Aerobic Respiration Target SWBAT describe both parts of the last step of cellular respiration aerobic respiration. Two Major Stages Krebs Cycle Electron Transport Chain Chart: Page 66 Glycolysis Without

More information

9.2 The Process of Cellular Respiration

9.2 The Process of Cellular Respiration 9.2 The Process of Cellular Respiration Oxygen Carbon 2 2 Dioxide 34 Water Glycolysis Glycolysis is the first stage of cellular respiration. During glycolysis, glucose is broken down into 2 molecules of

More information

Ch. 6 Cellular Respiration Period

Ch. 6 Cellular Respiration Period Ch. 6 Cellular Respiration Name Period California State Standards covered by this chapter: Cell Biology 1. The fundamental life processes of plants and animals depend on a variety of chemical reactions

More information

Cellular respiration Workshop. Key points regarding the following processes 1.Glycolysis 2.Krebs cycle 3.Oxidative phosphorylation

Cellular respiration Workshop. Key points regarding the following processes 1.Glycolysis 2.Krebs cycle 3.Oxidative phosphorylation Cellular respiration Workshop Key points regarding the following processes 1.Glycolysis 2.Krebs cycle 3.Oxidative phosphorylation The purpose of cellular respiration Provide the cell with energy in the

More information

Harvesting Energy: Glycolysis and Cellular Respiration. Chapter 8

Harvesting Energy: Glycolysis and Cellular Respiration. Chapter 8 Harvesting Energy: Glycolysis and Cellular Respiration Chapter 8 Overview of Glucose Breakdown The overall equation for the complete breakdown of glucose is: C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + ATP The

More information

monosaccharides fatty acids amino acids

monosaccharides fatty acids amino acids Cellular Energy In order to sustain life (steady state), cells constantly expend energy in the form of ATP hydrolysis the hydrolysis of ATP yields a molecule of ADP (adenosine diphosphate) and a Phosphate

More information

9-2 The Krebs Cycle and Electron Transport Slide 1 of 37

9-2 The Krebs Cycle and Electron Transport Slide 1 of 37 1 of 37 9-2 The Krebs Cycle and Oxygen is required for the final steps of cellular respiration. Because the pathways of cellular respiration require oxygen, they are aerobic. 2 of 37 The Krebs Cycle The

More information

Oxygen is required for the final steps of cellular respiration. Because the pathways of cellular respiration require oxygen, they are aerobic.

Oxygen is required for the final steps of cellular respiration. Because the pathways of cellular respiration require oxygen, they are aerobic. 9-2 The Krebs Cycle and Oxygen is required for the final steps of cellular respiration. Because the pathways of cellular respiration require oxygen, they are aerobic. 1 of 37 The Krebs Cycle The Krebs

More information

Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy

Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy Energy Flows through the Ecosystem Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy Energy enters the ecosystem in form of solar energy Photosynthesis converts solar energy to chemical energy. and O are

More information

KREBS CYCLE & ELECTRON TRANSPORT Chapter 9-2

KREBS CYCLE & ELECTRON TRANSPORT Chapter 9-2 KREBS CYCLE & ELECTRON TRANSPORT Chapter 9-2 http://www.therunningdoctor.com/runinjuries.htm http://www.clickatutor.com/mitochondria.jpg REMEMBER: The fork in the road happens following glycolysis. The

More information

Respiration. Respiration. Respiration. How Cells Harvest Energy. Chapter 7

Respiration. Respiration. Respiration. How Cells Harvest Energy. Chapter 7 How Cells Harvest Energy Chapter 7 Organisms can be classified based on how they obtain energy: autotrophs: are able to produce their own organic molecules through photosynthesis heterotrophs: live on

More information

Cellular Respiration Review

Cellular Respiration Review MULTIPLE CHOICE: Circle ALL that are TRUE. There may be MORE THAN one correct answer. is the first step in cellular respiration that begins releasing energy stored in glucose. A. Alcoholic fermentation

More information

GLYCOLYSIS AND FERMENTATION

GLYCOLYSIS AND FERMENTATION SECTION 7-1 REVIEW GLYCOLYSIS AND FERMENTATION Define the following terms. 1. cellular respiration 2. glycolysis 3. lactic acid fermentation 4. alcoholic fermentation Write the correct letter in the blank.

More information

INTRODUCTION TO CELLULAR RESPIRATION. Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

INTRODUCTION TO CELLULAR RESPIRATION. Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. INTRODUCTION TO CELLULAR RESPIRATION 6.2 Breathing supplies oxygen to our cells for use in cellular respiration and removes carbon dioxide Breathing and cellular respiration are closely related Breathing

More information

Describe the structure of a mitochondrion. Summarize the three stages of cellular respiration and identify where ATP is made.

Describe the structure of a mitochondrion. Summarize the three stages of cellular respiration and identify where ATP is made. Objectives Describe the structure of a mitochondrion. Summarize the three stages of cellular respiration and identify where ATP is made. Key Terms metabolism glycolysis Krebs cycle ATP synthase While the

More information

Lecture 6. Cellular respiration is carried out in two stages: Glycolysis Oxidation. An overview of aerobic respiration.

Lecture 6. Cellular respiration is carried out in two stages: Glycolysis Oxidation. An overview of aerobic respiration. Lecture 6 Respiration An Overview of Cellular Respiration Cellular respiration is the harvesting of energy from breakdown of organic molecules produced by plants The overall process may be summarized as

More information

Which statement best describes the movement of ions shown in the diagram? where they create a highly reducing environment and hydrolyze CO 2

Which statement best describes the movement of ions shown in the diagram? where they create a highly reducing environment and hydrolyze CO 2 1. The electron transport chain is a part of cellular respiration. The diagram below shows the movement of ions in the electron transport chain within a mitochondrion. Which statement best describes the

More information

Lecture 8: Cellular Respiration

Lecture 8: Cellular Respiration Lecture 8: Cellular Respiration I. Overview of Aerobic Respiration A. Redox process where energy contained in chemical bonds in glucose is converted to ATP 1. Aerobic respiration a. Requires oxygen C.

More information

5.3 Cellular Respiration Releases Energy from Organic Compounds

5.3 Cellular Respiration Releases Energy from Organic Compounds 5.3 Cellular Respiration Releases Energy from Organic Compounds In this section, you will distinguish among aerobic respiration, anaerobic respiration, and fermentation explain how carbohydrates are oxidized

More information

3. The final output of the Krebs cycle includes all of the following except? a. NADP b. FADH2 c. ATP d. CO2

3. The final output of the Krebs cycle includes all of the following except? a. NADP b. FADH2 c. ATP d. CO2 Laura Tucker Bio 212 SI Cellular Respiration 1. What are the four steps of cellular respiration? a. b. c. d. 2. The end product of glycolysis is? a. NADH b. Acetyl CoA c. Lactate d. Pyruvate 3. The final

More information

Chapter 9 Study Guide. 2. What is the difference between fermentation and cell respiration? (2 pts)

Chapter 9 Study Guide. 2. What is the difference between fermentation and cell respiration? (2 pts) Chapter 9 Study Guide Name 1. Fill in this summary for cellular respiration: (3 pts) + 6 O 2 + 6 H 2 O + 2. What is the difference between fermentation and cell respiration? (2 pts) 3. What do we call

More information

Chapter 8 Harvesting Energy: Glycolysis and Cellular Respiration

Chapter 8 Harvesting Energy: Glycolysis and Cellular Respiration Chapter 8 Harvesting Energy: Glycolysis and Cellular Respiration What is Glucose Metabolism? Answer: The breakdown of glucose to release energy from its chemical bonds Photosynthesis: 6 CO 2 + 6 H 2 O

More information

Cellular Respiration and Fermentation

Cellular Respiration and Fermentation Cellular Respiration and Fermentation Cellular Basis of Life Q: How do organisms obtain energy? 9.1 Why do most organisms undergo the process of cellular respiration? WHAT I KNOW SAMPLE ANSWER: Cellular

More information

Lets Review Glycolysis and Fermentation

Lets Review Glycolysis and Fermentation Lets Review Glycolysis and Fermentation Chapter 7 Photosynthesis-Cellular Respiration Cycle Chapter 7 Cellular Respiration Versus Fermentation Chapter 7 Section 1 Glycolysis and Fermentation Two Types

More information

Chapter 6 How Cells Harvest Chemical Energy. Cellular Respiration Is the main way that chemical energy is harvested from food and converted to ATP

Chapter 6 How Cells Harvest Chemical Energy. Cellular Respiration Is the main way that chemical energy is harvested from food and converted to ATP Chapter 6 How Cells Harvest Chemical Energy Standard 1.g. Cellular Respiration Is the main way that chemical energy is harvested from food and converted to ATP Is an aerobic process Yields The Relationship

More information

Chapter 9. Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy. m/watch?v=9wjdfc 5ISKw

Chapter 9. Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy.  m/watch?v=9wjdfc 5ISKw Chapter 9 Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy http://www.youtube.co m/watch?v=9wjdfc 5ISKw Principles of Energy Harvest Photosynthesis vs. Cellular respiration Principles of Energy Harvest

More information

How Cells Release Chemical Energy

How Cells Release Chemical Energy How Cells Release Chemical Energy Chapter 7 Learning Objectives: 1. What is the relationship between cellular respiration and breathing? 2. List the balanced chemical equation that summarizes the complete

More information

4. The final output of the Krebs cycle includes all of the following except A) NADP B) FADH2 C) ATP D) CO2

4. The final output of the Krebs cycle includes all of the following except A) NADP B) FADH2 C) ATP D) CO2 Cellular Respiration Multiple Choice Quiz Please answer all questions 1. When energy-depleted elements associated with a proton are accepted by an organic molecule, the process is called A) fermentation

More information

Chapter 9 Cellular Respiration

Chapter 9 Cellular Respiration Chapter 9 Cellular Respiration Electrons carried in NADH Mitochondrion Glucose Glycolysis Pyruvic acid Krebs Cycle Electrons carried in NADH and FADH 2 Electron Transport Chain Cytoplasm Mitochondrion

More information

Transfers of electrons during chemical reactions (oxidation-reduction reactions)

Transfers of electrons during chemical reactions (oxidation-reduction reactions) Transfers of electrons during chemical reactions (oxidation-reduction reactions) Relocation of electrons in food molecules releases energy which can be used to synthesize ATP ATP is used to do ALL types

More information

Cellular Respiration Stage 4: Electron Transport Chain

Cellular Respiration Stage 4: Electron Transport Chain Cellular Respiration Stage 4: Electron Transport Chain 2006-2007 Cellular respiration What s the point? The point is to make ATP! ATP ATP accounting so far Glycolysis 2 ATP Kreb s cycle 2 ATP Life takes

More information

8/13/2009. Cellular Metabolism. Metabolism. Cellular Metabolism. Summary of Cellular Respiration. Aerobic Cellular respiration

8/13/2009. Cellular Metabolism. Metabolism. Cellular Metabolism. Summary of Cellular Respiration. Aerobic Cellular respiration Metabolism Cellular Metabolism Consists of all of the chemical reactions that take place in a cell Biol 105 Lecture 6 Read Chapter 3 (pages 63 69) Cellular Metabolism Aerobic cellular respiration requires

More information

Powering the Cell: Cellular Respiration

Powering the Cell: Cellular Respiration Powering the Cell: Cellular Respiration Lesson Objectives Name the three stages of cellular respiration. Give an overview of glycolysis. Explain why glycolysis probably evolved before the other stages

More information

CELLULAR RESPIRATION REVIEW PACKET

CELLULAR RESPIRATION REVIEW PACKET Name: Date: Period: CELLULAR RESPIRATION REVIEW PACKET MULTIPLE CHOICE. Circle ALL that are TRUE. There may be MORE THAN one correct answer. is the first step in cellular respiration that begins releasing

More information

Chapter 7 Active Reading Guide Cellular Respiration and Fermentation

Chapter 7 Active Reading Guide Cellular Respiration and Fermentation Name: AP Biology Mr. Croft Chapter 7 Active Reading Guide Cellular Respiration and Fermentation Overview: Before getting involved with the details of cellular respiration and photosynthesis, take a second

More information

Overview of cellular respiration

Overview of cellular respiration Overview of cellular respiration 4 metabolic stages Anaerobic respiration 1. Glycolysis respiration without O 2 in cytosol Aerobic respiration respiration using O 2 in mitochondria 2. Pyruvate oxidation

More information

Which statement best describes the movement of ions shown in the diagram? where they create a highly reducing environment and hydrolyze CO 2

Which statement best describes the movement of ions shown in the diagram? where they create a highly reducing environment and hydrolyze CO 2 1. The electron transport chain is a part of cellular respiration. The diagram below shows the movement of ions in the electron transport chain within a mitochondrion. Which statement best describes the

More information

The correct answer is d C. Answer c is incorrect. Reliance on the energy produced by others is a characteristic of heterotrophs.

The correct answer is d C. Answer c is incorrect. Reliance on the energy produced by others is a characteristic of heterotrophs. 1. An autotroph is an organism that a. extracts energy from organic sources b. converts energy from sunlight into chemical energy c. relies on the energy produced by other organisms as an energy source

More information

Name 6 How Cells Harvest Chemical Energy Test Date Study Guide You must know: The difference between fermentation and cellular respiration.

Name 6 How Cells Harvest Chemical Energy Test Date Study Guide You must know: The difference between fermentation and cellular respiration. Name 6 How Cells Harvest Chemical Energy Test Date Study Guide You must know: The difference between fermentation and cellular respiration. The role of glycolysis in oxidizing glucose to two molecules

More information

Chapter 9: Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy

Chapter 9: Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy Name Period Chapter 9: Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy Overview: Before getting involved with the details of cellular respiration and photosynthesis, take a second to look at the big picture.

More information

Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy. Chapter 9

Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy. Chapter 9 Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy Chapter 9 Life Is Work Living cells require energy from outside sources Plants E from? Animals E from? Light energy Energy flows into ecosystem as light

More information

ATP. The point is to make ATP!

ATP. The point is to make ATP! ATP The point is to make ATP! 2008-2009 The energy needs of life Organisms are endergonic systems. What do we need energy for? synthesis building biomolecules reproduction movement active transport temperature

More information

Respiration: Occurs in two places in the cell. Cytoplasm. and mitochondria. cytoplasm : Lecture 6. Outer membrane. Inner membrane.

Respiration: Occurs in two places in the cell. Cytoplasm. and mitochondria. cytoplasm : Lecture 6. Outer membrane. Inner membrane. Respiration: Occurs in two places in the cell Cytoplasm and mitochondria Outer membrane Inner membrane cytoplasm Matrix Intermembrane space 1 Respiration: Occurs in 3 stages Glycolysis split sugars 6C

More information

ATP. Overview of cellular respiration. Cellular Respiration The Krebs Cycle. Oxidation of pyruvate. Glycolysis is only the start. Cellular respiration

ATP. Overview of cellular respiration. Cellular Respiration The Krebs Cycle. Oxidation of pyruvate. Glycolysis is only the start. Cellular respiration Cellular Respiration The Krebs Cycle 2006-2007 Overview of cellular respiration 4 metabolic stages Anaerobic respiration 1. Glycolysis respiration without O 2 in cytosol Aerobic respiration respiration

More information

9-2 The Krebs Cycle and Electron Transport

9-2 The Krebs Cycle and Electron Transport The Krebs Cycle and Electron Transport Because the pathways of cellular respiration require oxygen, they are aerobic. In the presence of oxygen, pyruvic acid produced in glycolysis passes to the second

More information

8 CELLULAR RESPIRATION

8 CELLULAR RESPIRATION Cellular Respiration Test Study Guide Redox Reactions What does it mean when something is reduced? Oxidized? What is an oxidizing agent? Reducing agent? Be able to apply these to the cellular respiration

More information

ATP and Cellular Respiration NOTES

ATP and Cellular Respiration NOTES ATP AND ENERGY: ATP and Cellular Respiration NOTES Living things need continuous input of ENERGY to sustain life ENERGY is defined as the capacity of a system to perform work or an action. Living organisms

More information

Chapter 9 Cellular Respiration and Fermentation*

Chapter 9 Cellular Respiration and Fermentation* Chapter 9 Cellular Respiration and Fermentation* *Lecture notes are to be used as a study guide only and do not represent the comprehensive information you will need to know for the exams. Overview : Life

More information

Living organisms obtain energy by breaking down organic molecules during cellular respiration.

Living organisms obtain energy by breaking down organic molecules during cellular respiration. Section 3: Living organisms obtain energy by breaking down organic molecules during cellular respiration. K What I Know W What I Want to Find Out L What I Learned Essential Questions What are the stages

More information

Cell Respiration. From Glucose to 36 ATPs

Cell Respiration. From Glucose to 36 ATPs Cell Respiration From Glucose to 36 ATPs What is Cellular Respiration? The breakdown of biomolecules (especially glucose) to release the energy stored in the bonds. The energy is stored in smaller amounts

More information

Biology: Life on Earth

Biology: Life on Earth Teresa Audesirk Gerald Audesirk Bruce E. Byers Biology: Life on Earth Eighth Edition Lecture for Chapter 8 Harvesting Energy: Glycolysis and Cellular Respiration Copyright 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc.

More information

9-1 Notes. Chemical Pathways

9-1 Notes. Chemical Pathways 9-1 Notes Chemical Pathways Chemical Energy & Food Food provides living things with the chemical building blocks to grow and reproduce. One gram of the sugar glucose releases 3811 calories of heat energy.

More information

Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy. Chapter 9

Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy. Chapter 9 Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy Chapter 9 Life Is Work Living cells require energy from outside sources Plants E from? Animals E from? Light energy Energy flows into ecosystem as light

More information

2. Cellular Respiration ATP. Where in the cell does this occur? Mitochondria

2. Cellular Respiration ATP. Where in the cell does this occur? Mitochondria But, in the presence of Oxygen. 2. Cellular Respiration A series of metabolic pathways involving 3 separate phases: Krebs cycle electron transport system oxidative phosphorylation Oxidizes pyruvate to

More information

I. Cellular Energy Figure 1: Adenosine Triphosphate: ATP. Figure1.1: ATP as an Energy Source ATP:

I. Cellular Energy Figure 1: Adenosine Triphosphate: ATP. Figure1.1: ATP as an Energy Source ATP: I. Cellular Energy Figure 1: Adenosine Triphosphate: ATP Figure1.1: ATP as an Energy Source ATP: 1 II. Chemistry of Aerobic Respiration Figure 2: ATP Consumption & Cellular Respiration Cell Respiration:

More information

Photosynthesis takes place in three stages:

Photosynthesis takes place in three stages: Photosynthesis takes place in three stages: Light-dependent reactions Light-independent reactions The Calvin cycle 1. Capturing energy from sunlight 2. Using energy to make ATP and NADPH 3. Using ATP and

More information

Chapter 7. Harvesting Energy: Glycolysis and Cellular Respiration

Chapter 7. Harvesting Energy: Glycolysis and Cellular Respiration Chapter 7 Harvesting Energy: Glycolysis and Cellular Respiration Including some materials from lectures by Gregory Ahearn University of North Florida Ammended by John Crocker Copyright 2009 Pearson Education,

More information

Introduction (page 226) The Krebs Cycle (pages ) Chapter 9, Cellular Respiration (continued) Name Class Date

Introduction (page 226) The Krebs Cycle (pages ) Chapter 9, Cellular Respiration (continued) Name Class Date Section 9 2 The Krebs Cycle and Electron Transport (pages 226 232) This section describes what happens during the second stage of cellular respiration, called the Krebs cycle. It also explains how high-energy

More information

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. Name Advanced Biology Enzyme and Cellular Respiration Test Part I Multiple Choice (75 points) MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) The

More information

Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy

Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy Chapter 9 Objectives Define oxidation and reduction, and, in general terms, explain how redox reactions are involved in energy exchanges. Name the three

More information

THE CELLULAR RESPIRATION SAGA II: THE CITRIC ACID CYCLE & OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION

THE CELLULAR RESPIRATION SAGA II: THE CITRIC ACID CYCLE & OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION THE CELLULAR RESPIRATION SAGA II: THE CITRIC ACID CYCLE & OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION PLAYERS OF CELLULAR RESPIRATION NAD+ is a coenzyme that is reduced to using electrons Becomes reduced + H NAD + H + H

More information

1. Explain the difference between fermentation and cellular respiration.

1. Explain the difference between fermentation and cellular respiration. : Harvesting Chemical Energy Name Period Overview: Before getting involved with the details of cellular respiration and photosynthesis, take a second to look at the big picture. Photosynthesis and cellular

More information

Chapter 4: Cellular Respiration pg : Introduction to Cellular Respiration and Fermentation

Chapter 4: Cellular Respiration pg : Introduction to Cellular Respiration and Fermentation UNIT 2: Metabolic Processes Chapter 4: Cellular Respiration pg. 166-209 4.1: Introduction to Cellular Respiration and Fermentation pg. 168 171 The energy which keeps our planet alive comes from the solar

More information

CLASS XI BIOLOGY. Plant Respiration. Finish Line & Beyond send your queries to

CLASS XI BIOLOGY. Plant Respiration. Finish Line & Beyond send your queries to CLASS XI BIOLOGY Plant Respiration 1. Differentiate between (a) Respiration and Combustion (b) Glycolysis and Krebs cycle (c) Aerobic respiration and Fermentation (a) Respiration takes place in cells of

More information

AP BIOLOGY CHAPTER 7 Cellular Respiration Outline

AP BIOLOGY CHAPTER 7 Cellular Respiration Outline AP BIOLOGY CHAPTER 7 Cellular Respiration Outline I. How cells get energy. A. Cellular Respiration 1. Cellular respiration includes the various metabolic pathways that break down carbohydrates and other

More information

Cellular Respiration Section Quizzes

Cellular Respiration Section Quizzes Cellular Respiration Section Quizzes Level 1 Section Test... 2 Level 1 Word Match... 4 Level 2 Section Test... 5 Level 2 Word Match... 7 Level 1 Section Test for Cellular Respiration 1. Glycolysis is a

More information

Glycolysis and the Krebs Cycle

Glycolysis and the Krebs Cycle Why? Glycolysis and the Krebs Cycle What reactions occur in the cell to turn glucose into carbon dioxide? Glucose is a high potential energy molecule. Carbon dioxide on the other hand is a very stable,

More information

Chapter 4: Cellular Respiration pg : Aerobic Respiration: The Details pg

Chapter 4: Cellular Respiration pg : Aerobic Respiration: The Details pg UNIT 2: Metabolic Processes Chapter 4: Cellular Respiration pg. 166-209 4.2: Aerobic Respiration: The Details pg. 172-182 Aerobic Respiration (cellular respiration) is the beak down of glucose in the presence

More information

Nutrients Vanessa Jason Biology Roots )

Nutrients Vanessa Jason Biology Roots ) Nutrients 2013 Vanessa Jason Biology Roots ) Cellular Respiration Have you ever wondered why you need to breathe? Why you need oxygen? You need oxygen in order for your body to USE the food that you eat!

More information

Chapter 9: CELLULAR RESPIRATION & FERMENTATION

Chapter 9: CELLULAR RESPIRATION & FERMENTATION Chapter 9: CELLULAR RESPIRATION & FERMENTATION 1. Overview of Respiration 2. Glycolysis 3. The Citric Acid Cycle 4. Oxidative Phosphorylation 5. Fermentation 1. Overview of Respiration Chapter Reading

More information

9-2 The Krebs Cycle and Electron Transport Slide 1 of 37

9-2 The Krebs Cycle and Electron Transport Slide 1 of 37 1 of 37 9-2 The Krebs Cycle and Oxygen is required for the final steps of cellular respiration. Because the pathways of cellular respiration require oxygen, they are aerobic. 2 of 37 The Krebs Cycle The

More information

Name: Date: Hour: OK OK OK.. I m sure you all thought that I wouldn t possibly ask you to know more for this chapter SORRY!

Name: Date: Hour: OK OK OK.. I m sure you all thought that I wouldn t possibly ask you to know more for this chapter SORRY! Biology I Cellular Respiration Name: Date: Hour: OK OK OK.. I m sure you all thought that I wouldn t possibly ask you to know more for this chapter SORRY! Now, we need a place to disassemble the molecule

More information

Lecture Notes Respiration

Lecture Notes Respiration Lecture Notes Respiration We will consider two processes by which organisms harvest energy from food molecules: Aerobic Respiration more efficient, occurs in presence of O 2 Anaerobic Respiration less

More information

7/26/2015. Glucose is OXIDIZED/REDUCED to. Oxygen is OXIDIZED/REDUCED to. Lecture 6 Outline (Ch. 9, 10) Steps of Respiration. Steps of Respiration

7/26/2015. Glucose is OXIDIZED/REDUCED to. Oxygen is OXIDIZED/REDUCED to. Lecture 6 Outline (Ch. 9, 10) Steps of Respiration. Steps of Respiration Lecture 6 Outline (Ch. 9, 10) I. Citric Acid Cycle II. III. IV. Electron transport chain & oxidative phosphorylation Anaerobic respiration Respiration with other molecules V. Chloroplasts VI. Light VI.

More information

Cellular Respiration. Chapter 9 in the textbook

Cellular Respiration. Chapter 9 in the textbook Cellular Respiration Chapter 9 in the textbook Chemical Energy and Food The equation for cellular respiration is catabolic. Catabolic Reactions: a chemical reaction that breaks down larger molecules into

More information

ADP, ATP and Cellular Respiration. Copyright Cmassengale

ADP, ATP and Cellular Respiration. Copyright Cmassengale ADP, ATP and Cellular Respiration What Is ATP? Energy used by all Cells Adenosine Triphosphate Organic molecule containing highenergy Phosphate bonds Chemical Structure of ATP Adenine Base 3 Phosphates

More information

Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy

Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy Chapter 9 Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy PowerPoint Lecture Presentations for Biology Eighth Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece Lectures by Chris Romero, updated by Erin Barley with

More information

2. What structure absorbs this energy in the plants cell? In other words, where is photosynthesis occurring in the plant?

2. What structure absorbs this energy in the plants cell? In other words, where is photosynthesis occurring in the plant? Section: 3.4 Name: Opening Activity: What is the equation for photosynthesis? Latin Root Word: Review of Old Information: Review of Old Information: 1. All energy begins as what type of energy and from

More information

Cellular Respiration. Chemical Energy and Food (page 221) Overview of Cellular Respiration (page 222) Chapter 9. Mitochondrion.

Cellular Respiration. Chemical Energy and Food (page 221) Overview of Cellular Respiration (page 222) Chapter 9. Mitochondrion. Chapter 9 Cellular Respiration Section 9 1 Chemical Pathways (pages 221 225) This section explains what cellular respiration is. It also describes what happens during a process called glycolysis and describes

More information

Lecture Chapter 6. Cellular Respiration

Lecture Chapter 6. Cellular Respiration Lecture 12-13 Chapter 6 Cellular Respiration How do marathon runners and sprinters differ? Long-distance runners have many SLOW FIBERS in their muscles Slow fibers break down glucose for ATP production

More information

www.lessonplansinc.com Topic: Cellular Respiration Activity Summary: Students learn the chemistry behind cellular respiration by acting out the steps of cellular respiration. Goals & Objectives: Students

More information

Cellular Respiration. Cellular Respiration. The Mighty Mitochondria. Cellular Respiration. Cellular Respiration

Cellular Respiration. Cellular Respiration. The Mighty Mitochondria. Cellular Respiration. Cellular Respiration Have you ever wondered why you need oxygen? The Process that releases energy by breaking down food molecules in the presence of oxygen That energy goes to make ATP. What does it all mean? C 6 H 12 O 6

More information

Photosynthesis and Respiration

Photosynthesis and Respiration Chemical Reactions and Enzymes Do Now Photosynthesis and Respiration 4 Minutes Share Out What is SUCCESS? Success is not gained by defeat Success does not occur over night Success can emerge at anytime

More information

Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis

Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis A Meridian Biology AP Study Guide by John Ho and Tim Qi Metabolism: Totality of an organism s chemical reactions Free Energy Change : G = H T S Where G = Gibbs free

More information

An outline of glycolysis.

An outline of glycolysis. An outline of glycolysis. Each of the 10 steps shown is catalyzed by a different enzyme. Note that step 4 cleaves a six-carbon sugar into two three-carbon sugars, so that the number of molecules at every

More information

Overview of Cellular Respiration

Overview of Cellular Respiration OpenStax-CNX module: m49546 1 Overview of Cellular Respiration Robert Bear David Rintoul This work is produced by OpenStax-CNX and licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 Introduction

More information

Section 9 1 Chemical Pathways (pages )

Section 9 1 Chemical Pathways (pages ) Chapter 9 Cellular Respiration Section 9 1 Chemical Pathways (pages 221 225) TEKS FOCUS: 4B Cellular processes; TEKS SUPPORT: 9A Structure and function of biomolecules This section explains what cellular

More information

2. Give the formula (with names) for the catabolic degradation of glucose by cellular respiration.

2. Give the formula (with names) for the catabolic degradation of glucose by cellular respiration. Chapter 9: Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy Name Period Overview: Before getting involved with the details of cellular respiration and photosynthesis, take a second to look at the big picture.

More information

Chapter 7. Harvesting Energy: Glycolysis and Cellular Respiration

Chapter 7. Harvesting Energy: Glycolysis and Cellular Respiration Chapter 7 Harvesting Energy: Glycolysis and Cellular Respiration Including some materials from lectures by Gregory Ahearn University of North Florida Ammended by John Crocker Copyright 2009 Pearson Education,

More information

Cellular Metabolism. Cellular Metabolism. 1. Fill er Up. ATP = Adenosine Triphosphate

Cellular Metabolism. Cellular Metabolism.  1. Fill er Up. ATP = Adenosine Triphosphate Cellular Metabolism By Scott Ford, M.Ed. http://mrfordsclass.net YouTube:mrfordsc lass Facebook:mrfordsclasslearning Twitter:mrfordsclass Fill er Up Before we begin talking about how organisms make energy

More information