1 Cover_July_2014_Layout 1 16/09/ :10 Page 2 What do graduates do? September 2014 SCIENCE MATHEMATICS, IT AND COMPUTING ENGINEERING AND BUILDING MANAGEMENT SOCIAL SCIENCES ARTS, CREATIVE ARTS AND HUMANITIES BUSINESS AND ADMINISTRATIVE STUDIES HND AND FOUNDATION DEGREES Endorsed by: the collective voice of graduate recruiters Produced by:
2 Cover_July_2014_Layout 1 16/09/ :10 Page 3 What s inside Guide to using What do graduates do? Data pages explained Survey response Data explained Type of work Employment review What do graduates from postgraduate degrees do? 8 Graduates and self-employment 9 Developing your mindset for employment 10 Graduates in further study 12 HND and Foundation degree data 13 What do mature graduates do? 14 Understanding graduate employability 15 First degree graduates from all subjects data Science 25 Engineering and building management 37 Arts, creative arts and humanities 17 Biology 18 Chemistry 19 Physical & geographical sciences 20 Physics 21 Sports science 23 Mathematics 24 Computer science and IT 26 Architecture and building 27 Civil engineering 28 Electrical and electronic engineering 29 Mechanical engineering 38 Fine arts 39 Design 40 English 41 History 42 Media studies 43 Languages 44 Performing arts Welcome to What do graduates do? 2014 This publication is the result of a close collaboration between the Higher Education Careers Services Unit (HECSU) and the Association of Graduate Careers Advisory Services (AGCAS). It uses statistics drawn from the Destinations of Leavers from Higher Education survey (DLHE) which is conducted by every university in the UK each year to try and establish what every graduate is doing six months after graduation. The figures are compiled by HESA (the Higher Education Statistics Agency) and are then used by HECSU to produce the tables and charts in this publication. Commentary in the form of editorials is provided by higher education careers advisers who work on a day to day basis with students, graduates and employers, in collaboration with members of the HECSU team. Overall editing and publishing is undertaken by HECSU. What do graduates do? 2014 was written by the following members of HECSU and the Education Liaison Task Group (ELTG) of AGCAS HECSU Jennifer Redman Researcher, Project Manager of the publication and responsible for the production of the statistics sourced from the DLHE survey Charlie Ball Deputy Director of Research AGCAS Janice Montgomery Senior Careers Adviser, University of Aberdeen and Chair of ELTG Vanessa Fernandes Survey Project Officer, University of Glasgow Evan Hancock Senior Careers Consultant, The Careers Group, University of London Mathematics, IT & computing Social science 31 Economics 32 Geography 33 Law 34 Politics 35 Psychology 36 Sociology Business and administrative studies 46 Finance and accountancy 47 Business and management 48 Hospitality, leisure, tourism and transport 49 Marketing Gareth Hill Careers Adviser, Swansea University Jane Howie Career Development Manager, University of Leicester Helen Kempster Careers Consultant, The Careers Group, University of London Special thanks to Matt Clarke, Matthew Tetlow & Joe Macari, HESA Chris Hicks, Graduate Prospects Edward Tootell ISSN ISBN (C) HECSU/AGCAS Material from this publication may be reproduced for non-commercial purposes provided What do graduates do? is acknowledged. If material is required for commercial use, please contact HECSU in the first instance. Source of raw data: HESA Destinations of Leavers from Higher Education 2012/13. HESA cannot accept responsibility for any inferences or conclusions derived from the data by third parties. Comments or questions about this publication should be directed to: Jennifer Redman, Higher Education Careers Services Unit, Prospects House, Booth Street East, Manchester, M13 9EP or Janice Montgomery, University of Aberdeen, Careers Service, The Hub, Elphinstone Road, Aberdeen AB24 3TU. To obtain further copies If you would like to obtain further copies go to: Copies are priced at including postage and packaging.
3 GUIDE TO USING WHAT DO GRADUATES DO? HESA s Destinations of Leavers from Higher Education (DLHE) survey provides the most comprehensive picture of what people finishing university degrees do when they have graduated. This survey is the best source to find out what actually happens to all kinds of people, from all kinds of universities, going into all kinds of jobs, all over the world. What do graduates do? takes a look at this information in detail and helps you to make sense of the graduate labour market and further study destinations of first degree qualifiers and HND and Foundation degree qualifiers from 2012/13. The survey Graduate destinations surveys have been conducted for years, which is a really useful way of looking back at snapshots of employment trends for graduates. As jobs and employment change, the DLHE survey needs to change to keep up to date. Two years ago, the survey underwent a major change allowing graduates to record several jobs or other activities, as well as asking them which activity they think is most important. This means that we can only directly compare the most recent graduates (2012/13) with the previous year (2011/12), which is really important to remember when you are using the information presented in this publication. However, there is one subject which should not be compared to the previous year; the computer science and IT subjects have been coded differently in the 2012/13 dataset and, as such, should not be compared to 2011/12 computer science and IT graduates. Another thing to bear in mind is that the survey happens six months after graduation, so this really is a snapshot of the immediate outcomes of graduates. It is true that recent graduates often bounce around or can t find what they are after immediately, while some types of jobs don t really fit the six month horizon, for example: those seeking careers in creative arts and charities often take longer to establish their careers. Though there are some problems with the early survey date, it is much easier to get a hold of graduates six months after leaving university and getting responses from as many as possible is really important. DLHE covers so many people that it builds up a really reliable picture of where graduates go. How to read What do graduates do? Using the data from the DLHE survey, we have written introductory articles to present useful context to make sense of the data in more detail. For example, we look at graduates who went on to further study and self-employment, as well as the destinations of mature graduates (those aged 24 and over on graduation). We also look at the destinations of graduates who qualified with a postgraduate qualification in 2012/13. This year we have extended the graduates in further study article to include the further study destinations of first degree qualifiers and those of HND and Foundation degrees. This is followed by the destination data for all HND and Foundation degree graduates. The remaining pages focus on the destinations of UK-domiciled graduates who qualified from a first degree. Along with the data for all first degree graduates, we break down the data further to provide information about the destinations of graduates from six subject areas covering 28 subjects. Each of the six subject areas has a useful summary to get a sense of the bigger picture and present information in several ways, in order to find out what actual activities graduates were doing, e.g. working, studying, unemployed etc. Some subjects have fairly predictable outcomes and some are really varied. As this can only be the start of the story, we present a number of useful references and websites for further reading. For each of the 28 subject data pages, we provide information from the DLHE survey, featuring; the survey response; outcomes of graduates; breakdown of further study to show the types of courses they were studying; examples of courses 2012/13 graduates were studying; types of work that graduates in employment in the UK held; and examples of job titles and employers that graduates were actually working for. More is explained about the information on the data pages in the articles, Data explained. What DLHE doesn t tell us The DLHE data is comprehensive and really informative, but it is important to be clear on what it is actually saying. It does represent a large majority of graduates from all degrees but it is only an immediate snapshot. People often want to know why graduates make these career choices and this is much tougher to glean from the data, however, DLHE is perfectly placed to provide answers to who, what, when, and where. As prospective students, parents, careers and employability professionals and more, we need to use these concrete facts to help answer why people have had these work and training outcomes and what might happen in the future. DLHE cannot predict with certainty what job or training opportunities will be available following a three or four year degree, but it is our most reliable guide, as it reports what recent graduates did. Gaining a wider perspective The reality of higher education, employability and the graduate labour market is really complex and there aren t easy answers. What do graduates do? presents the facts, important context and background to help answer questions about prospects after graduation. Readers can use this resource as one of many to develop informed study and work plans, but should not rely on this information alone to make decisions about choice of university course or career and further study after graduation. Making use of a broad range of sources will help you to understand more about what it is like to work in the roles identified in this publication, and the further qualifications needed to enter a specific career. PLEASE NOTE YOU CAN ONLY COMPARE THIS YEAR S DATA TO 2011/2012 DATA Due to rounding of percentages to one decimal place on all data pages and first destination tables in subject editorials, the percentages may not equal 100.0% when added together. All numbers used on these pages, where they refer to people, are rounded to the nearest five in accordance with the HESA s methodology. WHAT DO GRADUATES DO? 1
4 DATA EXPLAINED SURVEY RESPONSE The next two pages will explain where the information on pages for HND and Foundation degrees, first degree all subjects, and subject data pages were derived from HESA s Destinations of Leavers from Higher Education survey 2012/13. EACH DATA PAGE IS SPLIT INTO TWO SECTIONS: 1. Survey response is at the top of the page and details the outcomes, type of course studied by those in further study, training or research and, for each subject data page examples are provided of specific courses that 2012/13 graduates were studying at the time of the survey. 2. Type of work for those in employment in the UK, this details graduates who were employed in the type of work categories, developed by HECSU, as percentages of the total of graduates who were working in the UK. For each subject page examples are provided of specific job titles and employers that 2012/13 graduates were working for at the time of the survey. N.B. The HND and Foundation degree and first degree all subject data pages display different information in the tables to those on the subject data pages. Please pay careful attention to the descriptions above the data. OUTCOMES are based on the activities that graduates who responded said they were doing at the time of the survey Working full-time in the UK Includes those listing their activity as working full-time, including self-employed/freelance, voluntary or other unpaid work, developing a professional portfolio/creative practice or on an internship in the UK Provides a breakdown of the courses studied by graduates who were in further study, training or research, presents the percentages of graduates who were in further study and were studying for a: Doctorate (e.g. PhD, DPhil, MPhil) Includes those who were in further study, training or research for a Higher degree, mainly by research (e.g. PhD, DPhil, MPhil) Working part-time in the UK Includes those listing their activity as working part-time paid work, including self-employed/freelance, voluntary or other unpaid work, developing a professional portfolio/creative practice or on an internship in the UK Working overseas Includes those listing their activity as in full-time or part-time work, including self-employed/freelance, voluntary or other unpaid work, developing a professional portfolio/creative practice or on an internship, overseas Working and studying Includes those listing their main activity as working full-time or parttime and their other activities included full-time or part-time study, training or research and those listing their main activity as in fulltime or part-time study, training or research, and their other activities included working full-time or part-time, in the UK or overseas In further study, training or research Includes those listing their activity as either in full-time or part-time study, training or research in the UK or overseas Unemployed, including those due to start work Includes those listing their activity as unemployed, and looking for work or those due to start work in the next month Masters (e.g. MA, MSc) Includes those who were in further study, training or research for a Higher degree, mainly by taught course (e.g. MA, MSc) Postgraduate qualification in education Includes those who were in further study, training or research for a Postgraduate diploma or certificate (including PGCE) and were studying a subject in education Other postgraduate diplomas Includes those who were in further study, training or research for a Postgraduate diploma or certificate but were not studying a subject in education Professional qualification Includes those who were in further study, training or research for a Professional qualification (e.g. Legal practice course, Charted Institute of Marketing) Other study, training or research Includes those who were in further study, training or research for a First degree (e.g. BA, BSc, MEng etc.), Other diploma or certificate, Other qualification, Not aiming for a formal qualification or Unknown Other Includes those taking time out in order to travel or doing something else 2 WHAT DO GRADUATES DO?
5 DATA EXPLAINED TYPE OF WORK Respondents to the DLHE survey are asked to give their main job title and a brief description of their role. This information is used to derive their Standard Occupational Classification (SOC 2010 (DLHE)). These SOC 2010 (DLHE) codes are used to calculate the type of work categories used in What do graduates do? SOC 2010 (DLHE) has only been used for 2011/12 and 2012/13 surveys and should not be compared to previous surveys. The Standard Occupational Classifications 2010 (DLHE) which are under each type of work category are described below. Managers Chief executive officers and senior officials/senior officers in protective services/financial institution managers/advertising and marketing directors/ managers and directors in transport & logistics, retail & wholesale/managers and proprietors in agriculture, hospitality and leisure, health and care services and other services/property, housing and estate managers/research and development managers/production and functional managers Arts, design and media professionals Journalists/artists/authors, writers and translators/actors, entertainers and presenters/dancers and choreographers/musicians/arts officers, producers and directors/photographers, audio-visual and broadcasting equipment operators/ graphic designers/commercial artists/interior designers/industrial designers/ textile, clothing, furniture and jewellery designers/other design occupations/ clothing advisers, consultants Health professionals Medical practitioners/nurses/midwives/paramedics/pharmacists/dental practitioners/ophthalmic opticians/medical radiographers/physiotherapists/ occupational or speech and language therapists/podiatrists/other health associate professionals Education professionals Teaching professionals in higher education, further, secondary, primary and nursery education and special needs education/senior professionals in educational establishments/education advisers & school inspectors/other educational professionals Legal, social and welfare professionals Barristers and judges/solicitors/legal associate professionals/other legal professionals/clinical, education and occupational psychologists/counsellors/ probation officers/social workers/youth and community workers/child and early years officers/housing officers/welfare and housing associate professionals/clergy Science professionals Chemists/biologists/physicists/physiologists/geophysicists/geologists and meteorologists/social and humanities scientists/bacteriologists, microbiologists/ biochemists, medical scientists/other natural and social science professionals Other professionals, associate professionals and technicians Conservation & environment professionals/media and other researchers/ librarians, archivists and curators/quality control and regulatory professionals/ laboratory technicians/science, engineering and production technicians/ draughtspersons and related architectural technicians/protective service occupations/sports and fitness occupations/air craft controllers and aircraft pilot and flight engineers/careers advisers and vocational guidance specialists/public services professionals Childcare, health and education occupations Nursery nurses and assistants/childminders/playworkers/teaching assistants/ educational support assistants/animal care and control occupations/nursing auxiliaries and assistants/dental nurses/care workers and home carers/other caring personal services Clerical, secretarial and numerical clerk occupations National and local government administrators/book-keepers, payroll managers and wages clerks/bank and post-office clerks/other financial administrators/ records clerks and assistants/pensions and insurance clerks and assistants/stock control and transport and distribution clerks and assistants/library clerks and assistants/human resources administrators/sales administrators/office managers/medical, legal and other secretaries/personal assistants/receptionists Engineering and building professionals Civil, mechanical, electrical, electronics engineers/design and development engineers/production and process engineers/architects, town planners and surveyors/construction project managers and related professions Information technology (IT) professionals IT specialist managers/it project and programme managers/it business analysts, architects and systems designers/programmers and software development professionals/web design and development professionals/it technicians/other IT and telecommunications professionals Business, HR and finance professionals Actuaries, economists & statisticians/management consultants and business analysts/chartered and certified accountants/estimators, valuers and assessors/brokers/insurance underwriters/finance and investment analysts and advisers/taxation experts/financial and accounting managers and technicians/ human resources and industrial relations officers/vocational and industrial trainers and instructors Marketing, PR and sales professionals Public relations (PR) professionals/buyers and procurement officers/business sales executives/marketing associate professionals/estate agents and auctioneers/sales accounts & business development managers/conference & exhibition managers and organisers Retail, catering, waiting and bar staff Sales supervisors/sales and retail assistants/retail cashiers and check-out operators/customer service managers and supervisors/kitchen and catering assistants/waiters and waitresses/bar staff/leisure and theme park attendants Other occupations Farmers/gardeners & landscapers/groundsmen & greenkeepers/metal machining, fitting and instrument making trades/vehicle trades/electrical and electronic trades/plumbers, carpenters & joiners/bricklayers/ painters and decorators/textile and garment trades/printers/food preparation occupations/catering & bar managers/florists/glass, ceramics & furniture makers/sports and leisure assistants/travel agents/air and rail travel assistants/hairdressers and beauticians/housekeepers/ pharmacy and other dispensing assistants/sales related occupations/merchandisers and window dressers/call and contact centre occupations/market research interviewers/process, plant and machine operatives/assemblers and routine operatives/construction operatives/road transport drivers/other drivers and transport operatives/farm and forestry workers/postal workers and mail sorters/cleaners & domestics/security guards/other elementary occupations Unknown occupations Graduates who indicated that they were in employment in the UK but the occupational information provided was inadequate for coding purposes To see the full list of SOC 2010 (DLHE) codes in each type of work category, go to the What do graduates do? page at WHAT DO GRADUATES DO? 3
6 EMPLOYMENT REVIEW WRITTEN BY JENNIFER REDMAN The labour market in the UK improved significantly since last year with an increase in employment and a decrease in unemployment for year olds between October 2013 and March But has this welcome upturn in employment affected graduates? A positive picture for 2012/13 graduates HESA s Destinations of Leavers from Higher Education (DLHE) survey demonstrates that the turnaround in employment opportunities had a positive impact on UKdomiciled first degree graduates from 2012/13 who were surveyed in winter 2014, just six months after leaving a UK university. There were 193,890 UK-domiciled graduates in employment in the UK or overseas, and a large decrease in the proportion of graduates who were unemployed 2, from 8.5% in 2011/12 to just 7.3%. There is a difference in destinations between graduates who studied for their degree on a full- or part-time basis (Table 1). Year on year, the unemployment of full-time graduates has decreased slightly more from 8.8% to 7.6% in 2012/13, compared to those who studied part-time, whose unemployment decreased from 5.8% to 4.8% over the same period. The rest of the review will be based on the combined destinations of full-time and parttime UK-domiciled first degree graduates from 2012/13. Types of work The DLHE data show that the largest increases in terms of the numbers of graduates in employment in the UK 3 were the professional and managerial types of work categories 4. The number of graduates in employment as science professionals and engineering and building professionals increased the most compared to 2011/12 graduates, followed by marketing, PR and sales professionals and arts, design and media professionals. The proportion of graduates working as retail, catering, waiting and bar staff decreased to 13% compared to 13.7% in 2011/12. Overall there were 124,700 graduates working in the UK in professional or managerial jobs in 2012/13, accounting for 66.3% of all graduates in a known occupation in the UK, compared to 64.9% in 2011/12. Science, engineering and building professionals The recession had a real impact on employment outcomes for graduates in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). We will now look at graduates who did go on to work in the UK as science professionals and engineering and building professionals. Just over 2,000 graduates from 2012/13 were working as science professionals, which is just 1.1% of all graduates in employment in the UK. The number of graduates working as science professionals increased year on year by 22.4%. Almost a quarter (23.2%) of science professionals were working as biochemists/ medical scientists; over 100 more graduates from 2012/13 were working in this occupation compared to 2011/12. There were also increases in the number of graduates working as chemists, research and development chemists and bacteriologists and microbiologists. Not all science professionals had studied a science degree only 88.5% of science professionals studied a STEM subject. Those who had not studied a STEM subject were mainly working as social and humanities scientists or university researchers. Almost 8,500 graduates were working as engineering and building professionals, accounting for 4.5% of all 2012/13 graduates in employment in the UK. Occupations which saw the biggest increases in the number of graduates working in them were, other engineering professions, civil engineers, mechanical engineers and architects. The fluctuations in the employment levels of engineering and building graduates reflects the complex relationship between the construction sector and the economy. The construction sector was severely affected by the 2008 recession 5. This means that whilst current engineering and building graduates enjoy good employment rates in related professions, economic change can affect that. Not all engineering and building professionals studied a related subject; 84.4% had studied engineering or building, 9.3% had studied another STEM subject and 6.3% had studied a non-stem subject. To study STEM or not The Government is encouraging growth in the STEM industries with a plan to invest heavily in transport and communications networks, sustainable energy and science infrastructure until and aims to encourage more students to take STEM subjects at a more advanced level to meet the TABLE 1. DESTINATIONS OF FIRST DEGREE GRADUATES FROM 2012/13 ON FULL-TIME AND PART-TIME COURSES, SIX MONTHS AFTER GRADUATION FULL-TIME FIRST DEGREE PART-TIME FIRST DEGREE ALL SUBJECTS NUMBERS GRADUATING (SURVEY RESPONDENTS) IN EMPLOYMENT IN FURTHER STUDY WORKING AND STUDYING UNEMPLOYED, INCLUDING THOSE DUE TO START WORK OTHER 233, % 13.1% 5.4% 7.6% 4.4% 23, % 5.3% 7.9% 4.8% 7.5% 256, % 12.4% 5.6% 7.3% 4.7% 4 WHAT DO GRADUATES DO?
7 employment demand 7. Yet there are conflicting reports about whether there are enough STEM graduates to meet demand 8 and if they have adequate skills to satisfy employers needs 9. There appears to be an increase in the number of graduates finding work in science, engineering and building professions but there are also a lot of STEM graduates working in non-stem employment. A report by the UK Commission for Employment and Skills used the Labour Force Survey to show that in 2011 only a third of employed new Core STEM 10 graduates were either in a Core STEM job or in a Core STEM sector or both 11. The employment information found in the DLHE data and the Labour Force Survey tell a complex story of demand and supply, but only surveys of the opinions of employers provide information about vacancies available and whether graduates have the skills they are looking for. It is encouraging that the recent CBI survey of employers showed that STEM skills are in high demand in non-stem sectors and for non-stem jobs, as STEM graduates numeracy and analytical skills put them at an advantage over other graduates 12. The take up of work experience is a good way to find out whether a STEM career is the right choice, and it also helps to increase the likelihood of employment postgraduation. Work experience Not only does work experience help to develop skills, it also builds familiarity with behaviours and attitudes expected of them in the workplace. In a competitive labour market, work experience gives graduates a huge advantage in finding employment. A recent report which used data from the Futuretrack survey found that students who did not undertake any work experience, whether work-based learning as part of their course or part-time paid work, were more likely to be unemployed when they graduated 13. Work experience can help students make contacts and build up a portfolio of evidence to support their applications. It can also help students figure out which occupations and industries they do not want to work in. Has HE had a hand in improving destinations? The past four years in higher education (HE) have seen some major changes to policy, funding and structure. Change brought about more focus on employability and collaboration with business and industry to prepare students for employment. For example, employability statements were included on the Unistats website for 2011/12 entrants to HE, highlighting the support available to develop students employability 14. In 2012, Key Information Sets were launched for every undergraduate course offered and included employment data from the DLHE survey 15. Institutions have therefore been invested in trying to improve their graduate employment rates in order to help recruit new students as well as satisfy key performance indicators on graduate employability. With so much emphasis on employability perhaps it is not surprising that this year s graduate outcomes are so strong. The labour market for 2013/14 graduates Next year s employment review will report on the destinations of 2013/14 graduates who will be surveyed in winter 2015, six months after they graduated; but what does the labour market they are entering look like now? The recent Association for Graduate Recruiters (AGR) summer survey of 189 of its members (who had 22,076 vacancies on offer to graduates) predicted a rise of 17.5% in graduate vacancies in 2013/ The AGR asserts that should this prediction be realised it will signal the recovery of the graduate labour market. These predictions only reflect the intentions of employers of a small proportion of employers of graduates. Over three quarters of employers who responded to the AGR survey were large organisations REFERENCES 1. Office for National Statistics. (2014). Labour Market Statistics, May Statistical Bulletin. London: ONS 2. Unemployment refers to graduates who said that they were unemployed or were due to start work in a month from the survey date 3. Employment in the UK includes graduates who were working full-time, part-time and working and studying 4. Professional and managerial is used by HEFCE in the Unistats and Key Information Sets data and it is derived from the Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) 2010 codes used by HESA in DLHE. SOC codes which begin with 1, 2 or 3 are classed as professional or managerial jobs. The types of work categories were created by HECSU based on the SOC 2010, those categories which include the word professionals or managers (e.g. science professionals) when added together make up the proportion of graduates who were coded in occupations starting with 1, 2 or 3 and therefore professional or managerial jobs 5. Department for Business Innovation & Skills. (2013). UK Construction: An economic analysis of the sector. p.2. London: BIS 6. HM Treasury. (2013). Investing in Britain s future. p.5. Norwich: The Stationery Office 7. Policy includes funding programmes and events which promote the study of science, technology, engineering and mathematics to students. government/policies/ engaging-the-public-in-science-andengineering--3 accessed on 28 August Social Market Foundation (2013). In the balance: The STEM human capital crunch. p.7. London: Social Market Foundation 9. CBI. (2014). Gateway to growth: CBI/Pearson with more than 1,000 employees 17, and we know that a large proportion of graduates go on to work for smaller companies. If we take a look at 2012/13 graduates, 38.8% (or 48,400 graduates) of those in employment in the UK in professional or managerial jobs were working for a company with over 1,000 employees. If we remove graduates who were working in education and health activities, the majority of whom were working as teachers and health professionals in the public sector, that leaves a fifth (20.3%) of graduates working in a company with over 1,000 employees in a professional or managerial job. Therefore, when reviewing the graduate labour market we need to look at patterns emerging in the whole labour market, including small to medium sized businesses. In August 2014, the Bank of England reported modest growth in the number of employees across all sectors and growing recruitment of apprentices and graduates to fill skills gaps and replace employees due to retire 18. Whilst the number of vacancies have increased year on year and quarter on quarter 19, rates of pay are not keeping pace with the rate of inflation 20. Whilst there are more opportunities for graduates to find and secure work in the labour market, it is important that graduates maintain realistic expectations of future salaries. Average salaries differ depending on the job, the employer and the region of employment, which is why the average salary for 2012/13 graduates ranges from 18,615-22,785 for full-time graduates who were working fulltime in the UK in professional and managerial jobs as well as non-professional jobs. Education and skills survey p.25. London: CBI 10. Core STEM refers to biological sciences, agricultural sciences, physical/environmental sciences, mathematical sciences and computing, and engineering, technology and architecture but excludes medical and dentistry subjects and occupations. UK Commission for Employment and Skills. (2013). The supply of and demand for High-Level STEM skills: Executive summary. p.2. London: UKCES 11. UK Commission for Employment and Skills. (2013). Op. cit. p UK Commission for Employment and Skills. (2013). Op. cit. p Department for Business Innovation & Skills. (2013). Learning from Futuretrack: The impact of work experience on Higher Education student outcomes. BIS Research Number 143. London: BIS 14. HEFCE. (2010). Employability Statements. Circular letter 12/ /cl122010/#d.en accessed on 28 August HEFCE. Unistats and Key Information Sets. lt/publicinfo/kis/ accessed on 28 August The Association of Graduate Recruiters. (2014). The AGR graduate recruitment survey 2015: Summer review. p. 7. and p The Association of Graduate Recruiters. (2014). Op. cit. p Bank of England. (2014). Agent s summary of business conditions. August Office for National Statistics (2014). Op. cit. 20. Monaghan, A. (2014). UK inflation falls to 1.6% lessens likelihood of interest rate rise. The Guardian. 19 August 2014 WHAT DO GRADUATES DO? 5
8 WHAT DO GRADUATES FROM POSTGRADUATE DEGREES DO? WRITTEN BY CHARLIE BALL What do graduates do? concentrates on the outcomes for first degrees and HND and Foundation degrees but plenty of people study postgraduate qualifications, and they are a common destination for first degree graduates. This article uses HESA s Destinations of Leavers from Higher Education survey 2012/13 to look at the destinations of UKdomiciled graduates who completed a postgraduate qualification, and includes those who studied for a Doctorate, Masters, Postgraduate Certificate in Education/ Postgraduate Diploma in Education (PGCE/PGDE) or Other postgraduate degree 1. Who studies for postgraduate qualifications? Postgraduates are a diverse group; just over half (51.6%) of respondents gaining postgraduate qualifications in 2012/13 completed a Masters. Over half (56.1%) were under 30 years old, and just over a fifth (21%) were over 40 years old when they got their postgraduate qualification. Three in five (59.9%) postgraduates were women, although this does hide significant variation; almost half (48.4%) of doctorates were women, and 72.2% of PGCE/PGDEs. Most importantly, 38.7% of postgraduate qualifications were studied on a part-time basis and the outcomes for part-time postgraduates can be very different from those of their full-time peers. Table 1 shows the full-time and part-time breakdown of destinations for each type of postgraduate qualification studied. Doctoral graduates Only 21.9% of doctoral graduates studied part-time, so their effect on overall figures is less pronounced. Overall, 88.7% of doctoral graduates from 2012/13 were in employment or working and studying six months after graduation, with 97.7% of those in employment the UK in a professional or managerial job university researchers and HE teaching professionals being much the most common occupations. The unemployment rate was 4.4% (one in six of whom were due to start work in a month from the survey date), although for doctoral graduates who had studied part-time, this fell to 2.1%. The idea that doctoral graduates largely work in academia is not really correct. Just over half (53.3%) of doctoral graduates in employment in the UK were working in education 2, with the majority working in higher education six months after graduation, and the rest were employed in a wide range of sectors. The more common industries of employment outside education included: hospitals and other health services, scientific research and development organisations, public administration and defence, and computer programming and consultancy. For doctoral graduates who were not working in education, Oxfordshire and Cambridgeshire were the two most common locations in the country for graduates who were in employment in the UK although most of these roles were in science, engineering and building or information technology (IT). Other parts of the country that had a demand for doctoral graduates outside academia included: London, Edinburgh, Manchester, Surrey, and Birmingham. Masters graduates Just over 40% of Masters graduates had studied part-time. Part-time Masters graduates are usually older (74.1% were over 30 years old), more experienced and many have an established job history or are already in work when they take their qualifications. Their outcomes are rather different to those for full-time Masters graduates, they are often young (78.4% were younger than 30 years old) and many will have moved straight from undergraduate to postgraduate study. The jobs market for Masters graduates in general was hit relatively hard by recession. As happens in economic downturns, many graduates reacted to a difficult jobs market by taking postgraduate qualifications particularly Masters 3. This led to an increase in the number of Masters graduates at a time when the jobs market became more difficult and, as a consequence, Masters destination figures deteriorated during the recession. The jobs market for first degree graduates appears to be recovering relatively quickly, with a particularly sharp fall in unemployment six months after graduation from 8.5% in 2011/12 to 7.3% in 2012/13. However, the recovery for Masters graduates has not been as apparent with only a small decrease in the number of graduates who were unemployed 4, from 6.9% in 2011/12 to 6.8% in 2012/13. Graduates need to be aware that a postgraduate qualification, although potentially useful, viewed favourably by many employers, and important for personal development, is not a guarantee of a job. Six months after graduation, 74.2% of fulltime Masters graduates from 2012/13 and 89.4% of part-time Masters were in employment or working and studying. Over three quarters (78.1%) of full-time Masters graduates, and 92.4% of part-time Masters graduates in employment in the UK were in professional and managerial jobs. Teaching and nursing were common roles for the part-time graduates, whilst full-time graduates were more spread across types of work categories. Many full-time graduates were working as business, HR and finance professionals or other professionals, associate professionals and technicians, which includes archivists and curators and environment professionals as the top two occupations within this type of work. Social work was in the top five subjects studied by full-time Masters graduates and this means the profession is common, with over 600 graduates working as social workers. Just less than one in eight (12.3%) full-time Masters graduates went on to further study, the majority were studying for a doctorate, but this was much less common amongst the part-time cohort, of whom only 2.8% continued studying. There was also a large disparity in unemployment rates, with 9.4% of full-time Masters and 3.1% of part-time Masters out of work six months after graduation. These figures reinforce the view that part-time and full-time Masters are largely separate populations. 6 WHAT DO GRADUATES DO?
9 The jobs market for Masters graduates is a little more concentrated in London than the jobs market for first degrees. Almost a third (30.3%) of Masters graduates in professional and managerial jobs in the UK six months after graduation were working in London. Outside the capital, more than 250 Masters graduates from 2012/13 had professional and managerial jobs in: Surrey, Manchester, Edinburgh, Oxfordshire, Birmingham, Kent, Hampshire, Hertfordshire, Cambridgeshire, Leeds, Essex, Glasgow, Lancashire, Belfast, Aberdeen, Bristol, West Sussex, Liverpool, and Cardiff. PGCE and other postgraduate qualifications The majority (94.6%) of PGCE/PGDEs were studied full-time, and outcomes were good. The majority (96.3%) of graduates were in employment or working and studying six months after graduation. As expected, the majority of graduates in employment in the UK were working as education professionals, including secondary education teachers (47.1%), primary and nursery education teachers (43.2%), further education teachers (2.4%) and 2.1% were teaching and other education professionals. Only 1.8% of PGCE/PGDE graduates were unemployed six months after graduation. The other postgraduate qualifications are a very diverse group made up of diplomas, professional qualifications as well as preregistration courses for social work and architecture. The majority (72.8%) were studied part-time. Nine in ten graduates from other postgraduate degrees were in employment or working and studying six months after graduation, and 2.4% were unemployed, but this group is diverse and individual subjects may have very different outcomes. REFERENCES 1. Other postgraduate degrees are made up of taught qualifications which lead to eligibility to register to practice in the social work or health professions or the Architecture Registration Board plus other taught qualifications and advanced diplomas 2. This is determined using the Standard Industrial Classification code to four digits, which is used to code the type of employer graduates were working for 3. Ball, C. (2012) Masters graduates in the recession. Graduate Market Trends. p13. Manchester: HECSU 4. Unemployed includes graduates who said they were unemployed or were due to start work in a month from the survey date TABLE 1. DESTINATIONS OF POSTGRADUATES FROM 2012/13 ON FULL-TIME AND PART-TIME COURSES, SIX MONTHS AFTER GRADUATION NUMBERS GRADUATING (SURVEY RESPONDENTS) IN EMPLOYMENT IN FURTHER STUDY WORKING & STUDYING UNEMPLOYED, INCLUDING THOSE DUE TO START WORK OTHER FULL-TIME DOCTORATES PART-TIME DOCTORATES ALL DOCTORATES FULL-TIME MASTERS PART-TIME MASTERS ALL MASTERS FULL-TIME PGCE/PGDE PART-TIME PGCE/PGDE ALL PGCE/PGDE FULL-TIME OTHER POSTGRADUATE DEGREES PART-TIME OTHER POSTGRADUATE DEGREES ALL OTHER POSTGRADUATE DEGREES ALL POSTGRADUATES 5, % 3.1% 3.6% 5.0% 3.5% 1, % 1.0% 4.6% 2.1% 6.7% 7, % 2.7% 3.8% 4.4% 4.2% 25, % 12.3% 3.7% 9.4% 4.1% 18, % 2.8% 4.7% 3.1% 4.7% 44, % 8.4% 4.2% 6.8% 4.3% 16, % 0.6% 2.6% 1.7% 1.4% % 1.3% 4.2% 4.0% 2.2% 17, % 0.7% 2.7% 1.8% 1.5% 4, % 5.2% 5.0% 5.2% 2.9% 12, % 4.4% 9.9% 1.3% 2.8% 16, % 4.6% 8.6% 2.4% 2.8% 85, % 5.6% 4.7% 4.7% 3.5% WHAT DO GRADUATES DO? 7
10 GRADUATES IN SELF-EMPLOYMENT WRITTEN BY JANE HOWIE Since 2008, the number of people who are self-employed in the UK has grown substantially by 650,000 to reach 4.5 million, which is almost 15% of all employed people 1. Whilst some observers view this growth in self-employment positively and consider it one of the country s success stories of recent years, others have adopted the view that the growth of selfemployment is due to the fact it has been imposed on people as an option for the unwilling due to the lack of appropriate jobs. In a recent report the Resolution Foundation cited that people's move into selfemployment, including freelancing and portfolio careers, reflected personal preferences as opposed to a lack of alternative options 2. This appears to be the case for graduates. According to Hunter, the number of graduates choosing to work for themselves immediately after university rather than become employees has substantially grown in the past year 3. HESA s Destinations of Leavers from Higher Education (DLHE) survey supports this as self-employment accounted for 4.8% of all first degree graduates who were in employment six months after graduation in 2012/13, which is a slight increase from 4.6% in 2011/12. Hunter also makes reference to popular skills being offered by graduates including website design and mobile application development 4, this is also reflected in the DLHE data as 12.7% of all web design and development professionals working in the UK were self-employed in 2012/13. Active career choice Given the above figures it appears that selfemployment as a model of working is now an active career choice which graduates are making. It could legitimately be argued that self-employed graduates can be classified as either lifestyle self-employed (due to the attraction of working for themselves) or an opportunity entrepreneur (due to identifying an opportunity in the market) as opposed to a necessity entrepreneur who is someone that is forced down the route of self-employment due to the lack of options 5. Roles and sectors Self-employment, freelance and portfolio careers have traditionally been wellestablished characteristics of the creative industries 6. According to the DLHE data, over a third (35.8%) of self-employed graduates in the UK were art, design and media professionals, working in roles such as: artists; photographers, audio-visual and broadcasting equipment operators; actors, presenters and entertainers; musicians; and graphic designers. Due to the nature of these occupations, graduates have to be prepared for self-employment as this is often the only route into these roles. London is reported to be at the heart of the UK s creative industries with creative hotspots in other parts of the UK including, Bath, Brighton, Bristol and Manchester 7. This is reflected in the region of employment data in DLHE, with a higher proportion of self-employed graduates based in London (25.9%) compared to the rest of the UK. High proportions were also found in the South East (12.3%), North West (8.5%) and South West (8.4%). In addition to the creative industries, self-employed graduates were also working as: teaching and other professionals including private music and dance teachers; sports coaches, instructors and officials; and therapy professionals. Other trends among self-employed graduates There were more first degree males in self-employment than females (6.0% compared with 3.9%). For Foundation degree graduates there were more self-employed males than females, but larger proportions of Foundation degree graduates were in selfemployment compared to first degree graduates (7.5% of males and 5.7% of females). Focusing on age, older first degree graduates were more likely to be selfemployed compared to other age groups, with 8.8% of 40 year olds and older in employment being self-employed compared to just 4.4% of year olds. Enterprising attitude A recent report by Lord Young recognised the importance of employability skills development via the education system and goes a step further, emphasising that an enterprising attitude is also important amongst all people 8. This is currently being championed in higher education through a collaboration between the Department for Business Innovation and Skills and the Association of Business Schools to introduce a Small Business Charter which supports university business schools and small businesses working together to encourage growth and entrepreneurial activities 9. Business schools can apply for a Small Business Charter Award which may include schools responsibility for distributing Government funding, providing more startup advice and general entrepreneurial education for their students. Enterprise supports the development of a wide range of work and professional skills and capabilities, including resilience, and innovation, as well as a self-belief that starting a business and self-employment is a career choice and not an option for the unwilling. REFERENCES 1.D Arcy, C. and Gardiner, L. (2014). Just the Job or a Working Compromise? The changing nature of self-employment. p3. Resolution Foundation. 6 May accessed on 10 June Ipsos MORI cited in D Arcy, C. and Gardiner, L. (2014). Op. cit. p4 3. Hunter, D. (2014). Graduates choosing self-employment. Fresh business thinking.com. 15 May news.php?nid=22445&title=graduates+choosing+self- Employment#.U8uivLGGeSo accessed on 10 June 4. Hunter, D. (2014). Op. cit 5. These terms are explained further in UK Commission for Employment and Skills. (2011). Skills for self-employment. Evidence report 31. p7. and p13. London: UKCES 6. Ball, L., Pollard, E., and Stanley, N. (2010). Creative Graduates Creative Futures. Council for Higher Education in Art and Design; University of the Arts. London accessed on 10 June Chapain, C., Cooke, P., De Propris, L., MacNeill, S and Mateos-Garcia, J. (2010). Creative Clusters and Innovation: Putting creativity on the map. p.4. London: NESTA. accessed on 26 August Lord Young. (2014). Enterprise for all: The relevance of enterprise in education. London: Department for Business Innovation and Skills. 9. Marshall, P. (2014) Joining the dots: How the Small Business Charter is linking small businesses with business schools. National Centre for Universities and Business blog 17 April accessed on 26 August WHAT DO GRADUATES DO?
11 DEVELOPING YOUR MINDSET FOR EMPLOYMENT WRITTEN BY GARETH HILL Employers are looking for graduates who possess and can evidence the skills and mindset they require in today s competitive global labour market. A recent report indicated that a positive attitude underpins the skills employer s seek 1 but what does this mean? Having the right mindset, which includes having a positive attitude, is important and this article will explain what mindset is and suggest some practical steps that you can take to develop your mindset and your employability. Mindset Mindset is about what you see, think and believe. It is about more than just putting on or displaying a positive attitude. Mindset is deeper than that, and has been defined as, the internal lens through which you navigate life 2 ; it consists of your confidence, resilience, optimism and perseverance. Mindset can be improved; research conducted by Dr Carol Dweck found that a growth mindset enables the development of our intelligence and skills 3. By adopting this strategy, you can embrace challenges, persist in the face of setbacks, learn from criticism and see effort as a path to mastery. It has been said that mindset trumps skillset and triples your chances of getting and keeping the best job, plus it can enhance your earnings potential 4. According to Reed and Stolz, the most desirable qualities employers are looking for include: honesty, trustworthiness, commitment, adaptability, accountability and flexibility 5. If you can develop these qualities your value to employers will increase dramatically. How you can grow your mindset There are a number of practical suggestions that can help you to develop what employers are looking for: Connectivity By seeking to expand your network beyond your current one you can become a super connector. If you follow your curiosity to build collaborative relationships, this will help you to think differently and to gain a wider perspective. Impact Ask yourself the question, what impact do I have on others? Consider what your values are and how you can use these to add value to an organisation. Employers are looking for employees who have a strong sense of their values and can maintain these under pressure situations. Growth To what extent do you see life as a series of learning experiences that you can use to improve yourself? To seek growth by setting yourself challenges and by committing to learn from experiences of failure, you can develop both your personal growth and your resilience. Put yourself in an employer s shoes Organisations want graduates who have an understanding of not just what is happening in their industry at present, but have a more global view of the future. Ask yourself the question: what are the main influences on the sector at present and what are the likely trends over the next few years? By researching information to try to answer these questions, you can then demonstrate to an employer that you understand the sector from their perspective. Some practical steps you can take to develop your employability Following this five-step plan will help you on your way to getting the job you are looking for and make you valuable to an employer. 1. Reflect on the skills and mindset you currently have. Consider how you can practically implement the growth mindset strategies discussed in this article. By doing this you will be able to write an action plan in which you can outline the activities you can do over the next few months to develop your employability. 2. Work experience and volunteering opportunities are excellent ways of developing your skills and mindset. Develop a plan of the activities you could undertake during your time at university so that you will have plenty of experience to draw on when talking to employers. 3. It can be difficult for us to honestly evaluate our own skills and mindset. For this reason it is recommended that you speak to a qualified, impartial careers adviser who can help you to plan ahead. 4. Understanding and being able to evidence your own skills and mindset on application forms and CVs is increasingly important. In order to help you to do this, it is recommended that you use the services offered by your university careers service. In addition, by attending employer talks, which are often hosted by universities, you can gain a better understanding of what employers are looking for. You might also wish to investigate if your university has an employability award in which you can participate. 5. Students are applying for graduate jobs earlier in their final year 6. For this reason, it is recommended that you do not delay thinking about your next steps until the final few months of your course. In doing so you may miss out on opportunities for which you could have applied. REFERENCES 1.High Fliers Research (2014). The Graduate Market in London: High Fliers Research Limited. This report is based on a survey with one hundred of the UK s top employers and so a small proportion of all employers of graduates 2. Reed, J and Stolz, P. (2013). Put your mindset to work. London: Penguin 3. Dweck, C (2006) Mindset How you can fulfil your potential New York: Random House 4. Reed, J and Stolz, P. (2013). Op. cit 5. Reed, J and Stolz, P. (2013). Op. cit 6. High Fliers Research (2014). Op. cit WHAT DO GRADUATES DO? 9
12 GRADUATES IN FURTHER STUDY WRITTEN BY VANESSA FERNANDES Reasons for undertaking further study are many, including career progression, to study a subject of interest further, gain entry to a specific career path, or change career paths altogether. This section explores HESA s Destinations of Leavers from Higher Education (DLHE) 2012/13 data for respondents engaged in further study six months after graduation from first degrees, HNDs or Foundation degrees (Table 1). The 2012/13 data shows of UK-domiciled first degree graduates, 12.4% of all respondents were in further study only and a further 5.6% were working and studying. First, we take each group of first degree respondents and then the 60.3% of UK-domiciled HND and Foundation degree graduates who were in further study or working and studying, and look at where graduates studied, the types of qualifications they were doing, including the subjects, and how they were funding their studies. First degree graduates in further study only In 2012/13, 31,675 first degree graduates were in further study only six months after graduation; of these, 92.3% were in full-time study (in the UK or overseas) and 7.7% were in part-time study (in the UK or overseas). The majority of graduates continued to study in the UK (93.8%); over a third of these graduates were studying at institutions in London (16.0%), the South East (10.7%) and the North West (9.7%). Overall, over half (55.2%) of graduates who went on to further study were female and 44.8% were male. Additionally, younger graduates were more likely to continue on to further study immediately after graduating from their first degree. Those who were aged and years old when they graduated in 2012/13 were more likely to be in further study than those who were years old or 40 and over. Types of further study Of the majority studying for a further qualification full-time, 44.4% were enrolled on a higher degree, mainly by taught course (e.g. MA, MSc), followed by 27.5% completing a postgraduate diploma or certificate (including PGCE) and 12.3% enrolled on a higher degree, mainly by research (e.g. PhD, DPhil, MPhil). Of the 7.7% who were studying part-time, 36.4% were enrolled on a higher degree, mainly by taught course (e.g. MA, MSc), 14.7% were undertaking a postgraduate diploma or certificate (including PGCE) and 13% were studying toward a professional qualification (e.g. Legal practice course, Chartered Institute of Marketing). Subjects of further study Due to the nature of some occupations, graduates were more likely to enter further study in a particular subject than others. Graduates who want to enter into a law profession have to undertake a postgraduate professional qualification before they can practice 1. As a result, 11.8% of those in further study studied a qualification in law. Graduates going on to study law accounted for 78.9% of all those studying a professional qualification. Graduates who studied law for their first degree also have to take further qualifications to practice law and made up 67.5% of all graduates who went on to study a law subject. A graduate without a first degree which also qualifies them for Newly Qualified Teacher status also requires a postgraduate teaching qualification to become a teaching professional 2. This is reflected in the data, as 22.5% of those in further study undertook further studies in education (and accounted for 77.1% of those studying towards a postgraduate diploma or certificate (including PGCE)). Graduates pursuing further study in subjects like physical science and biological science were most likely to enrol in a higher degree, mainly by research (e.g. PhD, DPhil, MPhil). These are areas where career paths to becoming an academic or industry researcher requires additional qualifications like a PhD 3. Many graduates who went on to study subjects in business and administrative studies and social studies were pursuing a higher degree, mainly by taught course (e.g. MA, MSc). This could reflect the need to develop specialist knowledge required to enter certain occupations or a desire to continue studying to a higher level. It is not uncommon for some first degree graduates to go on to study for another first degree, as was the case for over 1,000 graduates in further study. Two in five graduates studying for another first degree were studying medicine and dentistry; the majority of whom had gained a first degree in a subject allied to medicine or a biological science. TABLE 1. PROPORTIONS OF FIRST DEGREE, HND AND FOUNDATION DEGREE GRADUATES IN FURTHER STUDY OR WORKING AND STUDYING, SIX MONTHS AFTER GRADUATION ALL FIRST DEGREES HNDS FOUNDATION DEGREES ALL HND AND FD GRADUATES NUMBERS GRADUATING (SURVEY RESPONDENTS) IN FURTHER STUDY WORKING AND STUDYING 256, % 5.6% 2, % 22.3% 17, % 15.5% 20, % 21.5% Funding further study Graduates mainly selffunded (e.g. savings/loans/employment) their further study (57.6%) and over a fifth (22.4%) received a grant or award (e.g. Research Council Studentship, bursary). Employers were most likely to provide financial support for those studying professional qualifications (38.7%); this is particularly the case for those studying law, where a professional qualification is required to practice and employers provide support to achieve this. 10 WHAT DO GRADUATES DO?
13 The data show that 69.7% of those who attract funding through a grant or award were studying towards a postgraduate diploma or certificate (including PGCE) or a higher degree, mainly by research (e.g. PhD, DPhil, MPhil). As over a quarter of those studying a postgraduate diploma or certificate (including PGCE) were studying education, it can be assumed that many are benefitting from the bursaries offered to graduates who go on to study for a PGCE. There are also a number of grants and awards available every year to those studying for a PhD or other higher degree, mainly by research (e.g. PhD, DPhil, MPhil) from Research Councils and universities. First degree graduates working and studying In 2012/13, 14,350 (5.6%) first degree graduates chose to work and study at the same time (in the UK and overseas); of these, 48.4% were primarily in work and also studying and the remaining 51.7% were primarily studying and also in work. Most graduates continued their studies in the UK (87.3%), of which economic hubs like London (10.9%) and the North West (9.2%) were popular locations to work and study. Types of further study Of those primarily working and studying; over half (51.0%) were studying a higher degree, mainly by taught course (e.g. MA, MSc); a further 15.8% were enrolled on a postgraduate diploma or certificate (including PGCE); followed by 12.7% studying professional qualifications (e.g. Legal practice course, Chartered Institute of Marketing). A third (32.2%) of graduates primarily studying and working were enrolled on a professional qualification (e.g. Legal practice course, Chartered Institute of Marketing); a fifth (20.6%) were on a higher degree, mainly by taught course (e.g. MA, MSc); and 12.8% were enrolled in other qualifications. Subject of further study Graduates who were working and studying and enrolled on a higher degree, mainly by research, were most likely to study subjects in biological sciences and physical sciences. Graduates who were studying for a further qualification in education accounted for more than half (58.4%) of those studying a postgraduate diploma or certificate (including PGCE). Graduates pursuing further study in subjects like biological science, social studies, creative arts and design were most likely to be enrolled on a higher degree, mainly by taught course (e.g. MA, MSc). Finally, those studying business and administrative studies account for 55.8% of those enrolled on a professional qualification, most studying for professional exams to practice as a chartered and certified accountant. Funding further study Graduates who were working and studying were more likely to have financial support provided by their employer (e.g. course fees, provision of study leave), with over a fifth (22%) funding their course in this way. However, over half (53.3%) were self-funded (e.g. savings/loans/ employment) and 9.9% received a grant or award (e.g. Research Council Studentship, bursary). HND and Foundation degree graduates in further study In 2012/13, 17,935 people graduated with a Foundation degree (Fd) and a further 2,425 graduated with a HND. Almost three quarters (72.6%) of HND graduates and more than half (58.7%) of Fd graduates were in further study or working and studying six months after graduation. Foundation degrees are designed to combine skills and knowledge required to progress into employment or further study in that field while gaining a higher education qualification. The DLHE data show graduates who undertook a Fd on a full-time basis were more likely to continue on to further study (48.0%) than part-time Fd graduates (15.2%). The reverse is true for graduates working and studying; a quarter (25.1%) of part-time Fd graduates were working and studying compared to only a fifth (20.8%) of full-time Fd graduates. This suggests that the vocational nature of Fds is prevalent among part-time Fds, who are likely to have been working throughout their Fd, and, as such, have continued to work whilst doing further study. HND graduates were far more likely to go on to further study or were working and studying than Fd graduates, with over half (57.2%) in further study only and a further 15.5% working and studying six months after graduation. Types of qualification Most HND and Fds offer the option to continue on after graduation to a top up course, which is usually completed in a year, if taken on a full-time basis, and leads to a first degree. As such, it is no surprise that the majority (93.3%) of HND and Fd graduates who went on to further study or working and studying were pursuing a first degree qualification. Subjects of study Subjects studied by graduates who were in further study or working and studying toward a first degree were varied and there are differences between the subjects studied by HND and Fd graduates. Over 40% of HND graduates were studying business and administrative studies, with half studying business studies and a fifth studying engineering and technology or architecture and building subjects. Over 18% of Fd graduates were studying for a first degree in education, yet only 0.2% of HND graduates were studying education subjects. Other prevalent subject areas for Fd graduates were business and administrative studies (15.4%), creative arts (15.2%), biological sciences (11.7%) and social studies (10.8%). REFERENCES 1. The Law Society. accessed on 27 August Department of Education. get-into-teaching/teacher-training-options.aspx?sc_lang=en-gb accessed on 27 August Prospects. postgraduate_qualifications_doctorates.htm accessed on 27 August 2014 WHAT DO GRADUATES DO? 11
14 HND AND FOUNDATION DEGREE GRADUATES FROM 2013 SURVEY RESPONSE: 81.5% FEMALE: 11,680 MALE: 8,675 TOTAL RESPONSES: 20,360 ALL GRADUATES: 24,980 Studying for a first degree % Working full-time in the UK % Working and studying % Working part-time in the UK % Unemployed, including those due to start work % Others in further study, training or research % Other % Working overseas % TOP FIVE MOST POPULAR SUBJECTS STUDIED BY FOUNDATION DEGREE QUALIFIERS FROM 2012/13 % AS TOTAL NUMBER OF FOUNDATION DEGREE QUALIFIERS Academic studies in education 16.4% Social work 7.0% Others in subjects allied to medicine 5.7% Design studies 5.3% Sport & exercise science 4.9% TOP FIVE MOST POPULAR SUBJECTS STUDIED BY HND QUALIFIERS FROM 2012/13 % AS TOTAL NUMBER OF HND QUALIFIERS Business studies 22.3% Hospitality, leisure, tourism and transport 8.8% Building 6.5% Electronic & electrical engineering 5.3% Sport & exercise science 4.4% FEMALE: 7,060 MALE: 4,325 TOTAL IN EMPLOYMENT IN THE UK: 11,385 Childcare, health and education occupations % Retail, catering, waiting and bar staff % Health professionals % Other occupations...9.2% Other professionals, associate professionals and technicians % Legal, social and welfare professionals...7.9% Education professionals...7.6% Managers % Clerical, secretarial and numerical clerk occupations % Engineering and building professionals...4.2% Arts, design and media professionals...2.6% Information technology (IT) professionals % Business, HR and finance professionals...2.2% Marketing, PR and sales professionals...1.7% Science professionals % Unknown occupations...0.1% TOP TEN OCCUPATIONS HELD BY 2012/13 HND AND FOUNDATION DEGREE GRADUATES IN EMPLOYMENT IN THE UK % as total of HND and Foundation degree graduates in employment in the UK Teaching assistants 6.9% Sales and retail assistants 6.5% Nursery nurses and assistants 5.0% Paramedics 4.3% Teaching and other educational professionals not elsewhere classified 4.2% Nursing auxiliaries and assistants 2.7% Nurses 2.0% Bar staff 1.7% Youth and community workers 1.7% Managers and proprietors in other services not elsewhere classified 1.7% 12 HND AND FOUNDATION DEGREES
15 WHAT DO MATURE GRADUATES DO? WRITTEN BY JANICE MONTGOMERY According to a report by million+ and the National Union of Students (NUS), mature students are often very determined with considerable drive to succeed and they bring a wealth of experience, adding a richness and depth to the student body 1. Their motivation for undertaking higher education studies varies widely but is often due to a desire to change career, to progress in their existing career or simply to fulfil a long held dream of attaining a degree 2. Yet there are some key challenges faced by mature students such as, financing university and balancing studying with work and family commitments 3 which may explain in part the destinations of mature graduates when they leave university. There are many students who begin a first degree at the age of 21 and older. If a mature student begins a three year degree at 21, they will be at least 24 on graduation. Using HESA s Destinations of Leavers from Higher Education survey, this article focuses on the destinations of mature graduates who were 25 and older at the time of the survey who made up a fifth (20.7%) of all UKdomiciled first degree graduates from 2012/13. Employment Mature graduates tend to have more positive destinations in the labour market, as over 77.2% of those in employment in the UK were in professional or managerial jobs compared to only 66.3% of all first degree graduates. This may be in part due to higher levels of motivation amongst mature graduates who, having expended considerable time and effort on higher education, want to reap the benefits. This may also be due to the large proportions of graduates who studied vocational subjects such as nursing (15%), social work (7.3%) academic studies in education (5.5%) and clinical medicine (3.6%), where career paths are more clearly delineated. These subjects may also explain the high proportion of female mature graduates, making up almost two thirds of mature graduates. The main difference between mature graduates and all first degree graduates is in the types of work they were in six months after graduation. Three in ten (30.6%) mature graduates were in employment in the UK as health professionals compared to 14.3% of all first degree graduates. Mature graduates were almost twice as likely to be education professionals (8.3% compared to 3.9%) and more than seven times more likely to be legal, social and welfare professionals (9.8% compared to 1.3%), which reflects in part the high premium placed on maturity or life experience in these careers and the vocational subjects studied. Conversely, mature graduates were far less likely to be working as retail, catering, waiting and bar staff (only 4% compared to 21.9% of all first degree graduates). Mature graduates experienced very similar levels of unemployment 4 (7.2%) when compared to all first degree graduates (7.3%). Since time is very pressurised for mature students, early career planning becomes even more vital to ensure good outcomes. Further study Despite the fact that, of the 2009/10 cohort of graduates, mature graduates were more likely to be awarded a 1st class degree 5, they were slightly less likely to go on to further study compared to all first degree graduates (8% compared to 12.4% of all graduates). This may reflect the large proportion of mature graduates who undertook vocationally oriented qualifications for their first degree, such as nursing or social work, obviating the need for further study as a precursor to employment. Enhancing the employability of mature students The key to successful studying and enhanced employability following a degree, would appear to be effective planning. If the degree is intended to enhance employability, students are generally better off having a clear idea of prospective careers before they begin and some idea of the destinations of graduates who have undertaken that degree. Advice and information is available to prospective students from university careers services. Careers staff can also provide guidance on what else students need to do during their studies to build their experience and skills required by employers in that field. Mature students might also join mature student societies that provide social and careers related activities to avoid the isolation which older students can occasionally feel. Mature students need to consider not just how to finance the fees for their degree but how to balance study and part-time work and other commitments, how to organise their time and how to build up experience and contacts in their chosen field throughout their time studying. Advice on effective networking and the successful use of social media is available from university careers services. REFERENCES 1. million+ and NUS (2012). Never too late to learn: Mature students in Higher Education. p.3. London: million+. accessed on 27 August Evidence drawn from formal interviews with students at the University of Aberdeen (May, 2014); recorded in Examining factors influencing the employability of mature students at the University of Aberdeen: A pilot study awaiting publication 3. million+ and NUS (2012). Op. cit. p.1 4. Unemployment refers to graduates who said that they were unemployed or were due to start a job within a month of the survey date 5. million+ and NUS (2012). Op. cit. p.11 TABLE 1. DESTINATIONS OF MATURE GRADUATES AND ALL FIRST DEGREE GRADUATES FROM 2012/13, SIX MONTHS AFTER GRADUATION MATURE GRADUATES ALL FIRST DEGREES NUMBERS GRADUATING (SURVEY RESPONDENTS) IN EMPLOYMENT IN FURTHER STUDY WORKING & STUDYING UNEMPLOYED, INCLUDING THOSE DUE TO START WORK OTHER 53, % 8.0% 6.3% 7.2% 5.7% 256, % 12.4% 5.6% 7.3% 4.7% WHAT DO GRADUATES DO? 13
16 UNDERSTANDING GRADUATE EMPLOYABILITY WRITTEN BY HELEN KEMPSTER Not only do students need an understanding of graduate employability, their advisers will also need an understanding to help students think about their employment prospects when considering their futures. In 2012/13, young people were accompanied by one or both parents on 52% of open day events at university, and this has increased by over 10% since 2008/09 1. In addition to parents, guardians and carers, teachers and other school staff are also trusted advisers and can therefore benefit from up-to-date knowledge of the options available and the factors that may influence future employment 2. Important factors for graduate employers A university degree is the stepping stone to professional and managerial level employment. However, employers are not just employing a degree certificate; they are employing an individual with a range of knowledge, experience and skills. The Confederation of British Industry (CBI) found that 89% of employers surveyed rated a graduate s attitudes and aptitudes for work in the top three factors they look for in a graduate; for over half of employers (54%) it was the single most important factor. Also important were degree subject (68%), relevant work experience (62%) and degree class achieved (61%) 3. Attitudes and aptitudes for work For the 29% of graduate employers who had no preference for a particular degree subject, evidence of graduates broader skills and attributes is what will help to distinguish one candidate from another 4. Students can use their time in higher education to undertake a range of extracurricular activities, work experience, internships and volunteering which will help them to develop their skills. Exactly what employers are looking for will vary across roles and sectors, but there are some competencies which are important to many: Good communication is about conveying ideas effectively, as well as listening to others. This includes building rapport with others and being able to negotiate with and persuade them. Effective leadership and management is about directing and motivating others to achieve goals. This can include delegating, planning and coordinating. Good leaders motivate others, as well as solving problems and conflicts. Planning and research skills involve formulating a strategy to accomplish specific objectives. They also include gathering relevant information and then analysing, interpreting and disseminating it. Teamwork and interpersonal skills are about the contribution individuals make to groups and the way they interact with others to achieve a common goal. This includes contributing to the team and encouraging the ideas of others. Self-management is about directing one s own activities toward the achievement of objectives. This includes being able to manage time and organise priorities. It is also about being able to work well under pressure and demonstrate flexibility and resilience. Relevant work experience According to the CBI, 62% of graduate employers considered relevant work experience to be an important factor 5. A recent High Fliers report, which surveyed only the organisations featured in The Times Top 100 Graduate Employers, shows that more than 80% of employers surveyed offered paid work experience opportunities in However, outside of these large recruiters students may have to be more resourceful in gaining experience and create their own opportunities through networking and speculative approaches. This approach may be more important in sectors such as the arts, media and not-forprofit sectors. Students will need to research organisations, prepare and send a welltargeted CV and covering letter and follow up on this initial contact. In addition, students on some courses have the opportunity to complete an accredited work placement as part of their course. Evidence from the Futuretrack stage four survey showed that graduates who had undertaken this work-based learning and paid work whilst studying were more likely to be in a graduate-level job 7. Support offered by higher education institutions At least 67 universities offer a skills award, which offers a structured programme for students to develop and accredit their skills 8. Higher education careers services provide a range of opportunities such as skills workshops and careers fairs and the CBI reports that 61% of employers use their links to careers services as a channel for graduate recruitment 9. How to encourage and support students in making career decisions Those supporting prospective higher education students should encourage them to: Research their options and the opportunities available to gain experience Reflect on the skills they are developing through their experiences Get involved with clubs, societies, volunteering and other extra-curricular activities Gain some high-quality work experience Make connections with professionals in the sectors they are interested in Visit their institution s careers service as soon as they can REFERENCES 1. YouthSight (2014). Higher Expectations 2013/14. London: YouthSight 2. Marson-Smith, H., Golden, S. and McCrone, T. (2009). Widening choices: support for young people making informed decisions. Berkshire: National Foundation for Educational Research 3. CBI (2014). Gateway to Growth: CBI/Pearson Education and Skills Survey 2014 p.69. London: CBI 4. CBI (2014). Op cit p CBI (2014). Op cit p High Fliers Research (2014). The Graduate Market in p.6. London: High Fliers Research Limited 7. Department for Business Innovation & Skills (2013). Learning from Futuretrack: The Impact of Work Experiences on Higher Education Student Outcomes. BIS Research Paper Number 143. London: Department for Business Innovation & Skills 8. Mann, V. (2011). AGCAS Award Task Group: Initial findings from the skills and employability awards survey. AGCAS Skills Awards Task Group 9. CBI (2014). Op cit p WHAT DO GRADUATES DO?
17 FIRST DEGREE GRADUATES FROM ALL SUBJECTS 2013 SURVEY RESPONSE: 79.1% FEMALE: 146,430 MALE: 109,900 TOTAL RESPONSES: 256,350 ALL GRADUATES: 324,015 Working full-time in the UK % Working part-time in the UK % In further study, training or research % Unemployed, including those due to start work...7.3% Working and studying...5.6% Other...4.7% Working overseas % Masters (e.g. MA, MSc) 43.8% Postgraduate qualification in education 20.5% Doctorate (e.g. PhD, DPhil, MPhil) 11.9% Other study, training or research 9.5% Professional qualification 8.3% Other postgraduate diplomas 6.1% Total number of graduates in further study 31,675 FEMALE: 110,320 MALE: 78,255 TOTAL IN EMPLOYMENT IN THE UK: 188,590 Health professionals % Retail, catering, waiting and bar staff % Business, HR and finance professionals...9.1% Clerical, secretarial and numerical clerk occupations...8.1% Marketing, PR and sales professionals...7.2% Other occupations...6.8% Education professionals % Arts, design and media professionals...5.8% Childcare, health and education occupations...5.7% Legal, social and welfare professionals % Other professionals, associate professionals and technicians...4.9% Engineering and building professionals...4.5% Managers...4.1% Information technology (IT) professionals...4.0% Science professionals % Unknown occupations...0.3% TOP TEN PROFESSIONAL AND MANAGERIAL JOBS HELD BY FIRST DEGREE GRADUATES IN EMPLOYMENT IN THE UK % as total of first degree graduates who were employed in professional and managerial jobs in the UK Nurses 8.1% Medical practitioners 5.0% Primary and nursery education teaching professionals 4.6% Marketing associate professionals 4.5% Business and related associate professionals not elsewhere classified 2.4% Human resources and industrial relations officers 2.3% Programmers and software development professionals 2.2% Teaching and other educational professionals not elsewhere classified 2.1% Finance and investment analysts and advisers 2.0% Chartered and certified accountants 1.7% ALL SUBJECTS 15
18 SCIENCE OVERVIEW WRITTEN BY JANICE MONTGOMERY Science is a dynamic, evolving sector of the UK economy with job opportunities for graduates in science as well as business, finance, human resources (HR), engineering, information technology (IT) and education, scientific research and development, manufacturing and energy. Science graduates are valued for their analytical thinking, problem solving skills and numeracy as well as technical or subject specific skills 1. Here we use HESA s Destinations of Leavers from Higher Education (DLHE) survey to show the outcomes of science graduates just six months after graduation in 2012/13. What kind of jobs were graduates doing? A considerable minority of science graduates who were in employment 2 in the UK were working as science professionals six months after graduation chemistry (21.6%), physics (8.9%), biology (7.2), but this was not their only job destination, for example, physics graduates found employment in other professions such as engineering and building professions (10.5%) and in information technology (IT) professions (20.1%). Just over a fifth (22.9%) of sports science graduates in employment in the UK were working as other professionals, associate professionals and technicians, including work as sports players, coaches or fitness instructors. Amongst biology, chemistry and physical and geographical sciences graduates more than 10% were working as other professionals, associate professionals and technicians; this type of work included laboratory technicians and environment professionals which are occupations related to science. Given the reported shortage of STEMqualified graduates 3 it is surprising that some science subjects had higher unemployment rates than average (7.3%); for example physics (9.5%). Conversely, sports science graduates had a lower unemployment rate of 4.7%. One explanation of this could be a lack of career preparedness and science graduates are urged to seek help from their university careers service. Salaries The average salaries 4 for full-time science graduates in full-time paid employment in the UK varied across the science subjects. For example, the average salary for sports science graduates ranged between 14,690 and 19,830 whereas physics graduates ranged between 19,485 and 27,520. These salaries vary widely between subjects depending on the type of work graduates were doing, their employer and location of employment. Further study Graduates of all of the science subjects were more likely than average (12.4%) to continue studying physics graduates were nearly three times more likely (35.2%). Types and level of study vary from subject to subject. Amongst sports science graduates in further study (13.9%), Masters (40.3%) in subjects such as sports and exercise nutrition or a postgraduate qualification in education (39.5%) were predominant choices. Chemistry and physics graduates who went on to study were most likely to undertake a PhD (62.7% and 57.3% respectively). In addition to continuing study within their own disciplines, science graduates also undertook courses in veterinary science, filmmaking, nursing, medicine, journalism, HR and law. USEFUL WEBSITES Careers section of the Royal Society for Chemistry Institute of Physics Society of Biology Society of Experimental Biology The Sector Skills Council for the Environmental and Land-based Sector The British Association of Sports and Exercises Sciences AGCAS Options series REFERENCES 1. Hulme, J. and Pawson, C. (2013) Summary of the HEA (STEM) policy roundtable: the future of Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) subjects in higher education. York: Higher Education Academy 2. In employment includes graduates who were working full-time, part-time and working and studying in the UK 3. CBI (2013) Changing the pace: CBI/Pearson education and skills survey London: CBI 4. Average salaries reported in the DLHE survey are based on graduates who qualified from a full-time first degree and were working in full-time paid employment in the UK. TABLE 1. DESTINATIONS OF FIRST DEGREE SCIENCE GRADUATES FROM 2012/13, SIX MONTHS AFTER GRADUATION BIOLOGY CHEMISTRY PHYSICAL & GEOGRAPHICAL SCIENCES PHYSICS SPORTS SCIENCE ALL SUBJECTS NUMBERS GRADUATING (SURVEY RESPONDENTS) IN FURTHER STUDY WORKING & STUDYING UNEMPLOYED, INCLUDING THOSE DUE TO START WORK IN EMPLOYMENT OTHER 4, % 24.4% 5.9% 9.4% 5.7% 2, % 33.1% 4.4% 8.2% 4.3% 3, % 19.6% 5.7% 6.6% 5.7% 2, % 35.2% 5.7% 9.5% 4.8% 7, % 13.9% 7.1% 4.7% 4.8% 256, % 12.4% 5.6% 7.3% 4.7% 16 SCIENCE Data taken from HESA s Destinations of Leavers from Higher Education survey 2012/13
19 SCIENCE BIOLOGY GRADUATES FROM 2013 SURVEY RESPONSE: 81.2% FEMALE: 2,470 MALE: 1,750 TOTAL RESPONSES: 4,225 ALL GRADUATES: 5,200 Working full-time in the UK % In further study, training or research % Working part-time in the UK % Unemployed, including those due to start work...9.4% Working and studying...5.9% Other...5.7% Working overseas...1.9% Masters (e.g. MA, MSc) 47.0% Doctorate (e.g. PhD, DPhil, MPhil) 23.3% Postgraduate qualification in education 14.3% Other study, training or research 10.6% Other postgraduate diplomas 3.8% Professional qualification 1.0% Total number of graduates in further study 1,030 PhD Microbiology PhD Toxicology MSc International business MSc Marine science MA Media and PR MA Wildlife filmmaking PGCE Secondary education PGDE Primary education BVSc Veterinary science Dipl Nursing FEMALE: 1,485 MALE: 990 TOTAL IN EMPLOYMENT IN THE UK: 2,475 Retail, catering, waiting and bar staff % Other professionals, associate professionals and technicians % Clerical, secretarial and numerical clerk occupations % Other occupations % Childcare, health and education occupations...8.5% Science professionals...7.2% Business, HR and finance professionals...7.2% Marketing, PR and sales professionals...4.9% Education professionals % Managers...3.2% Health professionals...2.1% Arts, design and media professionals...1.5% Legal, social and welfare professionals...1.3% Information technology (IT) professionals...1.3% Engineering and building professionals % Unknown occupations...0.2% EXAMPLES OF 2013 BIOLOGY GRADUATE JOB TITLES AND EMPLOYERS (SIX MONTHS AFTER GRADUATION) Healthcare technical officer NHS Community engagement officer a charity Trainee accountant an accountancy firm Financial analyst DLA Piper IT trainer a training company Finance executive Tesco Buyer a charity Production runner a major broadcaster Museum curator a museum Climbing instructor a charity Microbiology technician a research lab Biodiversity officer a wildlife trust Research assistant a wildlife centre Researcher a conservation organisation Ranger a charity Healthcare assistant a care home Crew member KFC Customer assistant Next Sales assistant Morrisons Aquarist a sea life centre Zookeeper a leisure attraction Animal rehabilitator a pet spa Chef a restaurant Landscape gardener self-employed SCIENCE 17
20 SCIENCE CHEMISTRY GRADUATES FROM 2013 SURVEY RESPONSE: 82.5% FEMALE: 1,125 MALE: 1,510 TOTAL RESPONSES: 2,635 ALL GRADUATES: 3,195 Working full-time in the UK % In further study, training or research % Unemployed, including those due to start work % Working part-time in the UK...6.4% Working and studying...4.4% Other...4.3% Working overseas...1.4% Doctorate (e.g. PhD, DPhil, MPhil) 62.7% Masters (e.g. MA, MSc) 16.5% Postgraduate qualification in education 13.4% Other study, training or research 3.9% Other postgraduate diplomas 2.6% Professional qualification 0.9% Total number of graduates in further study 870 DPhil Organic chemistry PhD Earth and ocean science PhD Sustainable chemical technologies PhD Nanoscience MSc Environmental technology PGCE Secondary education BM Medicine Graduate Diploma in Law FEMALE: 635 MALE: 760 TOTAL IN EMPLOYMENT IN THE UK: 1,395 Science professionals % Other professionals, associate professionals and technicians % Business, HR and finance professionals % Retail, catering, waiting and bar staff % Other occupations % Marketing, PR and sales professionals...5.3% Clerical, secretarial and numerical clerk occupations...4.4% Education professionals % Managers...3.5% Childcare, health and education occupations...3.2% Engineering and building professionals...2.7% Information technology (IT) professionals...2.7% Health professionals...2.1% Legal, social and welfare professionals...1.3% Arts, design and media professionals...1.3% Unknown occupations...0.2% EXAMPLES OF 2013 CHEMISTRY GRADUATE JOB TITLES AND EMPLOYERS (SIX MONTHS AFTER GRADUATION) Cardiographer NHS Physical chemist Unilever Research scientist a food manufacturer Formulations chemist a paint company Production technologist an oil producer Technologist a car manufacturer IT consultant Microsoft Trainee auditor Ernst and Young Accountant KPMG Events coordinator hotel Energy analyst an energy supplier Safety analyst an industry group Rowing coach a school Healthcare assistant NHS Parliamentary assistant the Government Data administrator a music company Administrator Mercedes Benz Kitchen porter a restaurant Bookseller a book store Chef a restaurant chain Canvasser a district council 18 SCIENCE