External Anatomy of the Honey Bee

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1 Page 1 of 8 Name: Obtain an adult honey bee from your teacher. Use forceps to hold the bee by one of its legs. Carefully study your specimen under your microscope. Recognize the 3 body segments: the head, thorax and abdomen. Antennae, compound eyes, ocelli and the glossa are found on the head. The wings and jointed legs are attached to the thorax. The stinger is found at the tip of the abdomen but may be retracted. Can you see it? Section 1. Study your specimen, then answer the questions below. Sketch your specimen in the space below. Be sure to draw and label the three body segments. Length of bee: Number of legs/wings: Description of appearance (including impressions): Hold your specimen by its legs with your forceps and view it under your microscope. Locate the compound eyes and ocelli (simple eyes). Section 2. Study the vision structures of the head, then answer the questions below. 1. Search for the ommatidia, or eye facets, that make up the compound eyes. How many do you think there are? 2. What else is covering the surface of the compound eyes? 3. How many ocelli are there? 4. Sketch the head and its vision structures (ocelli and compound eyes) below. Be sure to show their shape and configuration.

2 Page 2 of 8 Using forceps, carefully remove one antenna from the head of your specimen. Carefully, dip it into a drop of water to wet it, place it onto a glass slide and let it dry. Or prepare a wet mount. Look at the antenna with your microscope. Locate the sense hairs covering the antenna. Section 3. Study the antenna under the microscope, then answer the questions below. 1. How many segments make up the antenna? 2. The antennae provide several senses for the bee. What are these senses? What human organs provide the same senses? 3. Draw the antenna here. Be sure to include the segments. Under your microscope, study the mouthparts of your specimen. Find the mandibles and the glossa. Section 4. Study the mouthparts under the microscope, then answer the questions below. 1. How many mandibles does your specimen have? 2. Describe the appearance (shape, color, texture, etc.) of the mandibles. 3. Describe the appearance (shape, color, texture, etc.) of the glossa. 4. How does the structure of the mandibles and the glossa fit their functions? 5. Sketch the mandibles and glossa below.

3 Page 3 of 8 Using forceps, carefully remove one foreleg, middle leg and hind leg from the thorax of your specimen. Carefully, place them onto a glass slide. Don t forget which leg is which Look at the legs under your microscope. Each leg has the following segments, starting from the thorax: coxa (short) trochanter (also short), femur (long), tibia (long), tarsus (long and made of several small segments)and the pretarsus (foot). How many segments can you find? Section 5. Study the legs under the microscope, then answer the questions below. 1. What similarities and differences do you see between the legs? 2. Find the structures listed below on each leg. Sketch the legs below. Be sure to include any special arrangements of the hairs (hint: hind leg) Foreleg: Find the femur, tibia, antenna cleaner and claws. Middle leg: Find the femur, tibia and claws. Hind leg: Find the pollen press, pollen brushes and corbicula. Using forceps, carefully remove one forewing and one hind wing from your honey bee. Carefully, dip them in a drop of water to wet one side. Place them onto a glass slide and let them dry. Look at the wings with your microscope. Locate the hairs covering the wings. Look for the hamuli and veins. Areas of the wing that are enclosed by veins are called cells. Find the fold where the hamuli hold the forewing. Section 6. Study the wings, then answer the questions below. Sketch the fore- and hind wings below. Be sure to draw the hamuli. Number of wing cells on forewing: Number of hamuli on hind wing: Which wing is larger? Calculate the wingspan of your specimen: (lengthwing x 2) + widththorax

4 Page 4 of 8 Under your microscope, carefully examine the abdomen of your specimen. Notice the thin waist of your bee. Section. Study the abdomen under the microscope, then answer the questions below. 1. Are the stripes on the bee s abdomen due to colored hairs or the color of the exoskeleton? 2. Looking at the back of your specimen, how many abdominal segments does your bee have? 3. The ventral surface (belly side) of the abdomen in young bees has active wax glands. They produce tiny, white wax sheets, called scales, used to build the hive s comb. Are wax scales present on your specimen? If yes, let other students see 4. Sketch the dorsal view of your specimen s abdomen. Be sure to include the correct striping and number of segments. Caste comparison. If queen and drone specimens are available, compare them to your worker and fill out the chart below. If not, search on line for images of each. Structure Worker Drone Queen Compound eyes Thorax Abdomen Stinger Pollen baskets

5 Page 5 of 8 Anatomy Checklist Make sure you have found each of the structures below, know what body segment they are on (head, thorax, or abdomen) and understand the function of each. Structure Body Segment/ Location Function Exoskeleton Antennae Antenna cleaner Sense hairs Compound eyes Ommatidia Ocelli Mandibles Glossa Corbicula Pollen press Pollen brush Wings Veins Hamuli

6 Page 6 of 8 On a separate sheet of paper, answer the following questions. 1.What anatomical adaptations does the honey bee have to enhance it s ability as a pollinator? 2. What characteristics do flowering plants have that are especially attractive to pollinators, such as the honey bee? 3. What makes the relationship between honey bees and angiosperms mutualistic? Explain. 4.What do honey bees use nectar and pollen for? 5. What advantages do wings give honey bees as insects and as pollinators? 6. What different functions do honey bees use their legs for? Can you come up with more than four?. Honey bees help provide one third of the foods we eat. Research what crops rely on honey bee pollination. What crops did you find? Were any of these foods ones that you like? If bees were to disappear, how do you think our agriculture and food supply would be affected? Explain. 8. Bee populations today are facing several threats including pesticides, pests and disease. Aside from keeping bees, what are other ways you can assist in the movement to preserve our bee populations?. In addition to being efficient pollinators, honey bees are also efficient communicators with other members of their hive. Using dances, bees that have returned from a plentiful food source can communicate the location of this area to their hive mates. How do they do this? Research and describe the dance language of honey bees. 10. You have been asked to give a presentation at your local board meeting. Several citizens are concerned about bee hives that have been set up at a local farm and they are trying to place a ban on beekeeping in your town. What reasons might you give to persuade your fellow citizens from pursuing this ban?

7 Page of 8 Name: Directions: Using terminology studied in this lab, read the descriptions below to determine the structure names needed to complete the crossword puzzle ACROSS 2 structure used to siphon liquids like nectar, water and honey small hooks that hold the fore- and hind wings together hard, protective outer surface of a bee sharp appendage in female bees used defensively to inject venom parts of the mouth involved in chewing the feet of a bee structure that stores pollen on a bee during flight pair of legs having antenna cleaners ACROSS 2 structure used to siphon liquids like nectar, water and honey small hooks that hold the fore- and hind wings together hard, protective outer surface of a bee sharp appendage in female bees used defensively to inject venom parts of the mouth involved in chewing the feet of a bee structure that stores pollen on a bee during flight pair of legs having antenna cleaners DOWN 1 image-forming sensory organ made up of ommatidia 3 a hole in the exoskeleton that is an opening to the tracheal system 44 the posteriorsegment segment a bee's body the posterior ofof a bee's body 5 the middle body segment having the wings and legs CROSS 6 pair of legs having pollen presses and pollen brushes 8 sensory appendage on the head used for taste and smell structure used to siphon liquids like nectar, water and honey small hairs that cover the antennae and other parts of a bee's body that are used to sense the environment 11 small eyes that detect the presence and absence of light smalldown hooks that hold the fore- and hind wings together 1 image-forming sensory organ made up of ommatidia hard,3 protective outer surface of a bee Note: You can use a different program named Crossword Weaver to print a nicer copy of a hole in the exoskeleton that is an opening to the tracheal system this puzzle, one that doesn't look like a web page. This software program gives you much the posterior segment of a bee's body greater control over howto the inject puzzle looks, lets you export your puzzle to other software, sharp4 appendage in female bees used defensively venom publish it interactively on the Web or as a PDF file. Check it out for free by downloading the from Purchasing converts the demo into the full parts of the mouth involved in chewing demo program. the feet of a bee structure that stores pollen on a bee during flight

8 Name: Page 8 of 8 Directions: Match the structure with the correct description of its function. Structure Ocelli Antenna Thorax Corbicula Stinger Function Pollen storage Detection of presence and absence of light Defense of the hive The senses of smell and taste Contains all structures needed for movement Directions: Label the bee illustration below with the following terms: Abdomen, Antenna, Compound eye, Ocelli, Tarsi, Thorax, Veins, Forewing, Hindwing, and Head. Next, add the following structures to the illustration: Glossa, Hamuli, Stinger, Corbicula and Ommatidia. L. I. Lynch

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