TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO. Recorded adult per capita consumption (age 15+) Last year abstainers

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1 TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO Recorded adult per capita consumption (age 15+) 8 7 Litres of pure alcohol Beer Spirits Wine Sources: FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations), World Drink Trends 23 Last year abstainers 49.7% Male 29% Female 7.4% Estimates from key alcohol experts showing proportion of adult males and females who had been abstaining (last year before the survey). Data is for after year In 1995, 8% of males and 54% of females reported that they had consumed 12 or more alcoholic drinks in their lifetime. Persons with low educational attainment reported a higher prevalence of drinking. 2 A urban survey conducted in the suburbs of St James and Woodbrook Park in Port-of-Spain (males n = 134 and females n = 146; aged 35 years and above) found that 35.4% of males and 75% of females were abstainers. 3 WHO Global Status Report on Alcohol 24 1

2 Weekly alcohol drinkers Male 64.6% Female 24.9% Data from a urban survey conducted in the suburbs of St James and Woodbrook Park in Port-of-Spain (males n = 134 and females n = 146; aged 35 years and above). Definition used: at least one drink per week. 3 In a 1989 study of 1448 persons, including 36 adolescents aged between 16 and 19 years old, it was found that 42.5% of adolescent males, 11.3% of adolescent females and 21.9% of adult females were drinking at least once per month. Acute heavy drinking (more than five drinks on a single occasion) was more prevalent in adolescent females than in adult females. 4 High risk drinkers in north central Trinidad 5.4% Male 11.4% Female.8% Data from a 21 survey of households in north central Trinidad (total sample size n = 461; males n = 22 and females n = 259). High risk drinking was defined as having an AUDIT score of eight or more. 5 The same survey also found that 36.1% of males and 69.1% of females reported an AUDIT score of 1 (indicating no or very low alcohol intake). 5 In 1995, heavy drinking (at least 21 units per week) was reported by 1.5% of males; the percentage rose to 13% in the central region of the country where the sugar industry is based. 2 Youth drinking (lifetime prevalence of alcohol use) 84% Data from a questionnaire survey conducted in 1988 of 163 secondary school students aged 14 to 18 years. 6 The study also found that students first exposure to drinking alcohol was by family members in childhood or experimentation later. Transitions from primary to secondary schools and from junior to senior schools were associated with increased alcohol use. Ethnic reversals of substance abuse among high school students were observed by a high use of alcohol among Indo-Trinidadian and low use among Afro-Trinidadian students. The use of alcohol by students was also positively correlated to its use by fathers. 7 WHO Global Status Report on Alcohol 24 2

3 Alcoholism in Tobago A study conducted in Tobago found that CAGE responses consistent with alcoholism were present in 14.3% of males and 1.1% of females. 8 Traditional alcoholic beverages Babash a home-brewed rum is consumed. It is not permitted to be made or consumed in Trinidad and Tobago in part because of its excessively high alcohol content. Unrecorded alcohol consumption The unrecorded alcohol consumption in Trinidad and Tobago is estimated to be. litres pure alcohol per capita for population older than 15 for the years after 1995 (estimated by a group of key alcohol experts). 1 Mortality rates from selected death causes where alcohol is one of the underlying risk factors The data represent all the deaths occurring in a country irrespective of whether alcohol was a direct or indirect contributor. Chronic mortality Alcohol use disorders SDR per Cirrhosis of the liver Mouth and oropharynx cancers Ischaem ic heart disease Note: Chronic mortality time-series measured on two axes, ischaemic heart disease on right axis and the other causes on the left. WHO Global Status Report on Alcohol 24 3

4 Acute mortality.3.25 SDR per Falls Intentional injuries Accidental poisonings Road traffic accidents Source: WHO Mortality Database Morbidity, health and social problems from alcohol use A survey carried out in December 1984 at the Casualty Department of the Port-of-Spain General Hospital found that 68% of the 38 accident victims seen had blood alcohol concentrations higher than 5 mg per 1 ml and 55% had blood alcohol concentrations higher than 8 mg per 1 ml. 9 Hospital admission figures, cirrhosis death rates, per capita alcohol consumption rates and other indices have for many years indicated a high prevalence of alcoholism in Trinidad and Tobago. A six-month survey of the medical wards at the Port-of-Spain General Hospital in 1979 showed that 47% of male admissions and 5% of female admissions were alcohol-related. 9 In a 2-year retrospective study, it was found that alcohol abuse was a contributory risk factor for musculo-skeletal sporting injuries. 1 In a study where 4 drug users were interviewed in Trinidad and Tobago, respondents frequently reported a history of alcohol abuse within the family. 11 Country background information population Life expectancy at birth (22) Male 67.1 Adult (15+) Female 72.8 % under Probability of dying under age 5 per 1 (22) Male 24 Population distribution 21 (%) Female 18 Urban 75 Gross National Income per capita 22 US$ 649 Rural 25 Sources: Population and Statistics Division of the United Nations Secretariat, World Bank World Development Indicators database, The World Health Report 24 References 1. Alcohol per capita consumption, patterns of drinking and abstention worldwide after Appendix 2. European Addiction Research, 21, 7(3): Health in the Americas. Pan American Health Organization, 1998 Edition. 3. Miller GJ et al. Adult male all-cause, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular mortality in relation to ethnic group, systolic blood pressure and blood glucose concentration in Trinidad, West Indies. International WHO Global Status Report on Alcohol 24 4

5 Journal of Epidemiology, 1988, 17(1): Additional data from personal communication. In: WHO Global NCD InfoBase. Geneva, World Health Organization. 4. Boyd P et al. Behavioural risk factors in the adolescent and adult populations of Trinidad and Tobago, West Indian Medical Journal, 1992, 41(Supplement 1): Gulliford MC, Mahabir D, Rocke B. Socioeconomic inequality in blood pressure and its determinants: cross-sectional data from Trinidad and Tobago. Journal of Human Hypertension, 24, 18(1): Singh HN, Maharaj HD, Shipp M. Pattern of substance abuse among secondary school students in Trinidad and Tobago. Public Health, 1991, 15(6): Singh HN, Maharajh HD. Alcohol and drug abuse among secondary school children in Trinidad and Tobago. West Indian Medical Journal, 1991, 4(Supplement 1): Patrick AL et al. Alcohol consumption patterns in two Caribbean islands: the CAGE Questionnaire as a predictor of mortality. West Indian Medical Journal, 1996, 45(Supplement 2):34 9. Beaubrun MH et al. Blood alcohol concentrations of motor vehicle accident victims at the Port-of-Spain General Hospital Casualty Department, December 1984: a preliminary report. West Indian Medical Journal, 1986, 35(Supplement): Ali TF, Tavares SP. Musculo-skeletal sport injuries in Trinidad and Tobago. West Indian Medical Journal, 1992, 41(Supplement 1): Djumalieva D et al. Drug use and HIV risk in Trinidad and Tobago: qualitative study. International Journal of Sexually Transmitted Diseases and AIDS, 22, 13(9): WHO Global Status Report on Alcohol 24 5

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