# Cost of Capital and Capital Structure Theories. Years Exam Question

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1 CA R. K. Mehta Cost of Capital and Capital Structure Theories CA Past Years Exam Question Question : 1 May, 2009 The capital structure of MNP Limited is as under: - Particulars Amount (`) Remarks ` 100 per debenture redeemable at par have 2% 9% Debentures 2,75,000 floatation cost and 10 years of maturity. The market price per debenture is ` % Preference shares 2,25,000 ` 100 per preference shares redeemable at par have 3% floatation cost and 10 years of maturity. Market price per preference share is ` 106. Equity shares 5,00,000 Equity share has ` 4 floatation cost and market price (Face value ` 10 per share of ` 24. The expected dividend next year is ` 2 per share) per share with annual growth of 5%. The firm has a practice of paying all earnings in the form of dividends. Corporate Income tax tax rate is 35%. You are required to calculate Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC) using market value weights. Question : 2 Nov, 2011 The following is the capital structure of a company: - Particulars Book Value (`) Market Value (`) Equity shares at ` 100 each 9% cumulative preference shares at ` 100 each 11% Debentures Retained earnings 80,00,000 20,00,000 60,00,000 40,00,000 1,60,00,000 24,00,000 66,00,000 Nil The current market price of the company s equity share is ` 200. For the last year, the company had paid equity dividendd of ` 25 and its dividend is likely to grow 5% every year. The corporate tax rate is 30% and shareholders personal income tax rate is 20%. Calculate: - 1. Cost of capital for each source of capital. 2. Weighted Average Cost of Capital on the basis of Book Value Weights 3. Weighted Average Cost of Capital on the basis of Market Value Weights Question : 3 May, 2005 The R & G Company has following capital structure at 31 st March 2004, the proportion of which is always maintained: - 13% debenture 11% preference share capital Equity share capital (2,00,000 shares) ` 3,60,000 ` 1,20,000 ` 19,20,000 The company s share has a current market price of ` per share. The expected dividend per share in the next year is 50% of the 2004 EPS. Page No. 1

2 Page No. 2 The EPS of last 10 years is as follows. The past trends are expected to continue: Year EPS(`) The company can issue 14% new debenture. The company s debenture is currently selling at ` 98 (Face Value = ` 100). The new preference issue can be issued at a net price of ` 9.80 (Face Value = `10), paying a dividend of ` 1.20 per share. The company s tax rate is 50%. (i) Calculate the after tax cost (a) of new debts and new preference share capital, (b) of ordinary equity, assuming new equity comes from retained earnings. (ii) Calculate the marginal cost of capital. (iii) How much can be spent for capital investment before new ordinary share must be sold? Assuming that retained earnings available for the next year s investment are 50% of 2004 earnings. (iv) What will be marginal cost of capital [cost of fund raised in excess of the amount calculated in part (iii)] if the company can sell new ordinary shares to net ` 20 per share? The cost of debt and of preference capital is constant. Question : 4 May, 2004 ABC Limited has the following book value capital structure: - Equity Share Capital (150 million shares, ` 10 par) ` 1,500 million Reserves and Surplus ` 2,250 million 10.5% Preference Share Capital (1 million shares, ` 100 par) ` 100 million 9.5% Debentures (1.5 million debentures, ` 1,000 par) ` 1,500 million 8.5% Term Loans from Financial Institutions ` 500 million The debentures of ABC Limited are redeemable after three years and are quoting at ` per debenture. The applicable income tax rate for the company is 35%. The current market price per equity share is ` 60. The prevailing risk free return is 5.5%. The average market risk premium is 8%. The beta is The preferred stock of the company is redeemable after 5 years is currently selling at ` per preference share. You are required: (i) Calculate weighted average cost of capital of the company using market value weights. (ii) Calculate the marginal cost of capital schedule for the firm if it raises ` 750 million for a new project. The firm plans to have a target debt to value ratio of 20%. The beta is The debt capital will be raised through term loans. It will carry interest rate of 9.5% for the first 100 million and 10% for the next ` 50 million. Question : 5 Nov, 1999 The following is the capital structure of Simons Company Limited as at : - Equity shares 10,000 shares of ` 100 each ` 10,00,000 10% Preference shares of ` 100 each ` 4,00,000 12% Debentures ` 6,00,000 The market price of the company s share is ` 110 and it is expected that a dividend of ` 10 per share would be declared for the year The dividend growth rate is 6%. (a) If the company is in the 50% tax backed, compute the weighted average cost of capital. (b) Assuming that in order to finance an expansion plan, the company intends to borrow a fund of ` 10 lakhs bearing 14% rate of interest, what will be the company s revised weighted average cost of capital? The financing decision is expected to increase dividend from ` 10 to ` 12 per share. However, the market price of equity share is expected to decline from ` 110 to ` 105 per share.

3 Question : 6 Nov, 2000 XYZ Ltd. has the following book value capital structure: - Equity Capital (in shares of ` 10 each fully paid up at par) ` 15 crores 11% Preference Capital (in shares of ` 100 each, fully paid up at par) ` 1 crore Retained Earnings ` 20 crores 13.5% Debentures (of ` 100 each) ` 10 crores 15% term Loans ` 12.5 crores The next expected dividend on equity share per share is ` 3.60; the dividend per share is expected to grow at the rate of 7%. The market price per share is ` 40. Preference stock, redeemable after ten years, is currently selling at ` 75 per share. Debentures, redeemable after six years, are selling at ` 80 per debenture. The Income tax rate for the company is 40%. Required: - (i) Calculate the weighted average cost of capital using: - (a) Book value proportions and (b) Market value proportions (ii) Compute the weighted marginal cost of capital of the company, if it raises ` 10 crores next year, given the following information : (a) The amount will be raised by equity and debt in equal proportions; (b) The company expects to retain ` 1.5 crores earnings next year which is to be utilised for financing the new project. (c) The additional issue of equity shares will result in the net price per share being fixed at ` 32. (d) The debt capital raised by way of term loans will cost 15% for the first ` 2.5 crores and 16% for the next ` 2.5 crores. Question : 7 May, 2003 CAM Limited has the following book-value capital structure as at March 31, 2009: Equity Share Capital (2,00,000 shares) ` 40,00, % preference shares ` 10,00,000 10% Debentures ` 30,00,000 ` 80,00,000 The equity share of the company sells for ` 20. It is expected that the company will pay next year a dividend of ` 2 per equity share, which is expected to 5% per annum forever. Assume a 30% corporate tax rate. You are required: - (a) Compute weighted average cost of capital (WACC) of the company bases on the existing capital structure. (b) Compute the new WACC, if the company raises an additional ` 20 lakhs debt by issuing 12% debentures. This would results in increasing the expected equity dividend to ` 2.40 and leave the growth rate unchanged, but the price of equity will fall to ` 16 per share. (c) Comment on the use of weights in the computation of weighted average cost of capital. Question : 8 Nov, 2004 You are analyzing the beta for ABC Computers Ltd. and have divided the Company into four broad business groups, with market values and betas for each group. Business group Main frames Personal Computers Software Printers Market value ` 100 billion ` 100 billion ` 50 billion ` 150 billion Beta Page No. 3

4 Required: - (i) Estimate the beta for ABC Computers Ltd. as a Company. Is this beta going to be equal to the beta estimated by regressing past returns on ABC computers stock exchange against a market index. Why or why not? (ii) If the risk-free bond rate is 7.5%, estimate the cost of equity for ABC Computers Ltd. Estimate the cost of equity for each division. Which cost of equity would you use to value the printer division? The average market risk premium is 8.5%. Question : 9 May, 2006 A company issues ` 10,00,000 12% Debentures of ` 100 each. The debentures are redeemable after the expiry of fixed period of 7 years. The company is in 35% tax bracket. Required: (i) Calculate the cost of debt after tax, if debentures are issued at: - (a) Par, (b) 10% discount, (c) 10% premium (ii) If brokerage is paid at 2%, what will be the cost of debentures, if issued is at par. Question : 10 May, 2008 ABC Limited wishes to raise additional finance of ` 20 lakhs for meeting its investment plans. It has ` 4,00,000 in the form of retained earnings available for investment purposes. The following are the further details: (a) Debt equity ratio 25:75. (b) Cost of debt at the rate of 10% (before tax) upto ` 2,00,000 and 13% (before tax) beyond that. (c) Earnings per share (at present) ` 12. (d) Dividend pay-out 50% of earnings. (e) Expected growth rate in dividend 10%. (f) Current market price per share ` 60. (g) Company s tax rate is 30%. You are required to: - (i) Calculate the post tax average cost of additional debt. (ii) Calculate the cost of retained earnings and cost of equity. (iii) Calculate the overall weighted average (after tax) cost of additional finance. Question : 11 Nov, 2009 The capital structure of a company consists of equity shares of ` 50 lakhs, 10% preference shares of ` 10 lakh and 12% debentures of ` 30 lakhs. The cost of equity capital for the company is 14.7% and income-tax rate for this company is 30%. You are required to calculate the weighted average cost of capital (WACC). Question : 12 May, 2010 SK Limited has obtained funds from the following sources, the specific cost are also given against them: Source of funds Amount in (`) Cost of capital Equity shares 30,00,000 15% Preference shares 8,00,000 8% Retained earnings 12,00,000 11% Debentures 10,00,000 9% (before tax) You are required to calculate weighted average cost of capital. Corporate tax rate is 30%. Page No. 4

5 Question : 13 Nov, 2011 Beta Limited has furnished the following information: Earnings per share (EPS) ` 4 Tax rate 30% Market price per share ` 40 Dividend payout ratio 25% Growth rate of dividend 8% The company wants to raise additional capital of ` 10 lakhs including debt of ` 4 lakhs. The cost of debt (before tax) is 10% upto ` 2 lakhs and 15% beyond that. Compute the after tax cost of equity and debt and the weighted average cost of capital. Question :14 Nov, 2004 Consider a firm that has existing assets in which it has capital invested of ` 100 crores. The after-tax operating income on assets-in-place is ` 15 crore. The return on capital employed of 15% is expected to be sustained in perpetuity, and company has a cost of capital of 10%. Estimate the present value of economic value added (EVA) of the firm from its assets-in-place. Question : 15 Nov, 2010 PQR Ltd. has the following capital structure on October 31, 2010: Equity Share capital (2,00,000 shares of ` 10 each) ` 20,00,000 Reserve and surplus ` 20,00,000 12% Preference shares ` 10,00,000 9% Debentures ` 30,00,000 ` 80,00,000 The market value of equity share is ` 30. It is expected that the company will pay next year a divided of ` 3 per share, which will grow at 7% forever. Assume 40% income tax rate. You are required to compute weighted average cost of capital using market value weights. Question : 16 May, 2013 A company issued 40,000, 12% redeemable preference of ` 100 shares each at a premium of ` 5, redeemable after 10 years at a premium of ` 10 each. The floatation cost of each share is ` 2. You are required to calculate cost of preference share capital ignoring dividend tax. Question : 17 May, 2014 The following details are provided by the GPS Limited: - Equity Share capital ` 65,00,000 15% Redeemable debenture ` 20,00,000 12% Preference shares capital ` 12,00,000 10% Convertible debentures ` 8,00,000 The cost of equity for the company is 16.30% income tax rate for the company is 30%. You are required to compute weighted average cost of capital of the company. Question : 18 May, 2015 A Limited wishes to raise additional finance of ` 30 lakhs for meeting its investment plans. It has ` 6,00,000 in the form of retained earnings available for investment purposes. The following are the further details: (a) Debt equity ratio 30:70. (b) Cost of debt at the rate of 11% (before tax) upto ` 3,00,000 and 14% (before tax) beyond that. (c) Earnings per share ` 15. (d) Dividend pay-out 70% of earnings. (e) Expected growth rate in dividend 10%. Page No. 5

6 (f) Current market price per share ` 90. (g) Company s tax rate is 30% and shareholders personal tax rate is 20%. You are required to: - (i) Calculate the post tax average cost of additional debt. (ii) Calculate the cost of retained earnings and cost of equity. (iii) Calculate the overall weighted average (after tax) cost of additional finance. Question : 19 Nov, 2015 A company issued 25,000, 14% debentures of ` 1,000. The debentures are redeemable after the expiry period of 5 years. The tax rate is applicable to the company is 35% (including surcharge and education cess). You are required to calculate cost of debt after if debentures are issued 5% discount with 2% floatation cost. Question : 20 Nov, 2007 Z Limited s operating income (before interest and tax) ` 9,00,000. The firm s cost of debt is 10% and currently firm employs ` 30,00,000 of debt. The overall cost of capital of firm is 12%. Calculate cost of equity. Question : 21 Nov, 2009 There are two firms P and Q which are identical expect P does not use any debt in its capital structure while Q has ` 8,00,000; 9% debentures in its capital structure. Both the firms have earnings before interest and tax of ` 2,60,000 per annum and the capitalization rate is 10%. The corporate tax of 30%, calculate the value of these firms according to MM Hypothesis. Question : 22 Nov, 2014 A Limited and B Limited are identical in every respect except capital structure. A Ltd. does not employ debt in its capital structure whereas B Limited employs 12% Debentures amounting to ` 10 lakhs. Assuming that: - (a) All assumption of MM model are met (b) EBIT is ` 2,50,000 (c) The income - tax rate is 30% (d) The equity capitalization rate of A Limited is 20% Calculate the Average value of both the companies also find WACC for both the companies. Question : 23 Nov, 2015 RST Ltd is expecting an EBIT of ` 4 Lakhs for F.Y Presently the Company is financed entirely by Equity Share Capital of ` 20 Lakhs with Equity Capitalization Rate of 16%. The Company is contemplating to redeem a part of the capital by introducing Debt Financing. The Company has two options to raise Debt to the extent of 30% or 50% of the Total Fund. It is expected that for Debt Financing upto 30%, the Rate of Interest will be 10% and Equity Capitalization Rate will increase to 17%. If the Company opts for 50% Debt, then the Interest Rate will be 12% and Equity Capitalization Rate will be 20%. You are required to compute the Value of the Company and its Overall Cost of Capital under different options, and also state which is the best option? Page No. 6

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