Terrorism I. John Lee Department of Political Science Florida State University Spring 2011

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1 Terrorism I John Lee Department of Political Science Florida State University Spring 2011

2 Nelson Mandela President of South Africa ( ) Anti-Apartheid activist. Leader of armed wing of African National Congress (ANC). Won 1993 Nobel Peace Prize. Banned from entering greater United States until 2008.

3 Menachem Begin Sixth Prime Minister of Israel ( ) Before Israeli Independence head of militant group Irgun. Advocates use of guerilla tactics against British rule. Wins Nobel Peace Prize in 1979 with Sadat for Peace Agreement with Egypt.

4 Leila Khaled Part of Palestinian Resistance. Hijacks TWA flight 840 in With accomplice attempts to hijack El Al flight in Among other motivations, wanted to show that women could do it too.

5 What is terrorism?

6 Terrorism Many definitions. Record (2003) notes 109 definitions covering 22 definitional elements. According to US criminal code, terrorism is activities that rely on violence to intimidate or coerce a civilian population. United Nations defines terrorism as *c+riminal acts intended or calculated to provoke a state of terror in the general public.

7 Terrorism Tactic. Targets civilians. Goal is to induce fear to generate political change. Thus, it is improper to say terrorist group rather say group which uses terrorism.

8 Insurgencies 1. Use violence and political means to enact revolutionary changes. 2. Use guerilla warfare tactics which are lightlyarmed militants who blend into terrain/civilian populations. 3. Fighting stronger opponent.

9 Insurgencies & Terrorism Insurgencies use terrorism.

10 Terror Methods 1. Assassinations 2. Armed Assaults 3. Bombings/Explosions 4. Hijacking 5. Hostage Taking 6. Infrastructure Attacks

11 Are individuals engaging in terrorism rational?

12 Studying Attributes of Individuals who use Terrorism. 1. Survey a sample of a population and then see which individuals engaged in terrorist activities. Poor approach because of poor data. 2. Survey individuals who have engaged in terrorism. Poor approach because what is the comparison group.

13 Structure Behind Terrorism

14 Strategies of Terrorism 1. Attrition Try to convince enemy that group is strong enough to cause significant damage if a particular policy is continued. 2. Intimidation Groups try to impose their will on a population by demonstrating their ability to do damage at will.

15 Strategies of Terrorism 3. Provocation Commit acts of terrorism and hope that the government responds with indiscriminate uses of force that mobilize civilian support for the insurgents.

16 4. Spoiling If moderates are trying to cut a deal with the government, insurgents may commit acts of terror to demonstrate that radicals still matter. 5. Outbidding Groups try to show that they are the strongest group among many by committing significant acts of terrr.

17 How Insurgencies End 1. Leader is captured or killed. 2. Failed generational transition. 3. Goal is achieved. 4. Transition to non-violent group. 5. Public support diminishes. 6. Government Repression.

18 Defeating Insurgencies Indiscriminate Violence. Raises issues, some organizations try to goad government into overly repressive response. Immoral.

19 Winning the Hearts and Minds Tree Analogy. leaves and branches are the guerilla army, its roots and trunk the revolutionary party, and popular support the soil from which it draws nourishment (Payne, 243). Best accomplished by providing security and winning over populations that could go each way.

20 Mechanization Mechanization is the degree to which governments rely on highly technical military strategies (aerial bombing, tanks, etc). Mechanization occurs in place of foraging tactics where lots of soldiers are involved on the ground (collect information, provide security, etc). More mechanized governments are less likely to defeat insurgencies.

21 Lyall and Wilson 2009

22 Lyall and Wilson 2009

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