Genetics fill in review

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1 Genetics fill in review Completion Complete each sentence or statement. 1. A reproductive process in which fertilization occurs within a single plant is 2. The transferring of pollen between plants is called 3. Mendel produced strains of pea plants through the process of 4. When two members of the F 1 generation are allowed to breed with each other, the offspring are referred to as the generation. 5. Mendel called the offspring of the P generation the first filial generation, or 6. refers to the transmission of traits from parent to offspring in sexually reproducing organisms. 7. In heterozygous individuals, only the allele achieves expression. 8. A trait that is not expressed in the F 1 generation resulting from the crossbreeding of two genetically different, true-breeding organisms is called 9. The principle that states that one factor may mask the effect of another factor is the principle of 10. In Mendel s experiments, a trait that disappeared in the F 1 generation but reappeared in the F 2 generation was always a 11. The statement that the members of each pair of alleles separate when gametes are formed is known as the 12. Different forms of a particular gene are called 13. The cellular process that results in the segregation of Mendel s factors is 14. Mendel formulated two principles known as the laws of 15. Different forms of a particular gene are called 16. The portion of a DNA molecule containing the coded instructions that result in an individual characteristic of an organism is called a(n) 17. An organism that has two identical alleles for a trait is called 18. An organism s refers to the set of alleles it has inherited. 19. The appearance of an organism as a result of its genotype is its 20. The likelihood that a specific event will occur is called

2 21. Refer to the illustration above. The cell of the Punnett square labeled X represents the phenotype 22. A fractional probability of 1/2 is the same as a decimal probability of In pea plants, tallness (T) is dominant to shortness (t). Crosses between plants with these traits can be analyzed using a Punnett square similar to the one shown below. T t T 1 2 t Refer to the illustration above. The parents shown in the Punnett square could have offspring with a genotype ratio of 24. Refer to the illustration above. Box 2 and box in the Punnett square represent plants that would be heterozygous for the trait for tallness. 25. Refer to the illustration above. The phenotype of the plant that would be represented in box 4 of the Punnett square would be 26. Refer to the illustration above. The genotype of both parents shown in the Punnett square above is 27. A situation in which two or more alleles influence a phenotype is called 28. A trait controlled by three or more alleles is said to have 29. A phenomenon in which a heterozygous individual has a phenotype that is intermediate between the phenotypes of its two homozygous parents is called 30. A table used to determine and diagram the results of a genetic cross is called a 31. In genetics, lowercase letters are usually used to indicate 32. A cross involving two pairs of contrasting traits is a(n) cross. 33. Transcription and translation are stages in the process of 34. Cells must regulate gene expression so that genes will only be when the proteins are needed. 35. The process of is initiated by an inducer.

3 36. The first stage of gene expression is called 37. A(n) is a cluster of genes in a bacterial cell that codes for proteins with related functions. 38. A is a molecule that prevents transcription by blocking the path of RNA polymerase along a molecule of DNA. 39. In certain bacteria, the gene that codes for the production of the enzyme that digests lactose is switched on in the presence of lactose. In this case, molecules of lactose act as 40. Nucleotide segments of a DNA molecule that make up genes and are actually expressed in the phenotype of an organism are called 41. Portions of genes that actually get translated into proteins are called 42. Genes may be made more accessible to RNA polymerase by a sequence of nucleotides called 43. As an organism grows from a zygote, certain genes in each cell are allowed to be expressed and others are not. This process is called and results in the development of a characteristic form in an organism. 44. In Drosophila, genes contain regions within them called, each of which controls the morphogenesis of a particular part of the Drosophila larva. 45. The presence of homeobox genes in Drosophila and in mice indicates that all eukaryotic organisms may have similar homeoboxes regulating their development. 46. Environmental agents that can cause defects in genetic material are called 47. Diseases characterized by abnormal cell growth in which cells undergo repeated uncontrollable divisions are called 48. Cancer occurs as a result of disorders in cell 49. In general, lives are not threatened by tumors that are 50. A gene that, when mutated, can cause a cell to become cancerous is called a(n) 51. The X and Y chromosomes are called the chromosomes. 52. In humans, the genotype XX results in a 53. Consider a cross between a homozygous, white-eyed female Drosophila and a red-eyed male Drosophila. What proportion of the female offspring would be expected to be white-eyed? What proportion of the male offspring would be expected to be white-eyed? 54. Linked genes can be separated from each other in meiosis if occurs. 55. When traits do not appear according to the expected ratio in offspring, may have occurred. 56. When a piece of chromosome attaches itself to a nonhomologous chromosome, the resulting mutation is called a 57. A mutation in which an entire chromosome is lost during meiosis is called a(n) 58. A change in an organism s DNA is called a(n) 59. Spontaneous changes in genetic material are called

4 60. Identifying patterns of inheritance within a family over several generations is possible by studying a diagram called a(n) 61. technology is making it possible to cure genetic disorders. 62. A person who is heterozygous for a recessive disorder is called a 63. By studying a, genetic counselors can study how a trait was inherited over several generations. 64. A genetic disorder resulting in defective blood clotting is 65. A genetic disorder in which an individual lacks an enzyme responsible for converting the amino acid phenylalanine into the amino acid tyrosine is called 66. A trait that is determined by a gene that is found only on the X chromosome is said to be 67. In humans, the genetic disorder caused by an extra chromosome 21 is called 68. The failure of replicated chromosomes to separate is called

5 Genetics fill in review Answer Section COMPLETION 1. ANS: self-pollination 2. ANS: cross-pollination 3. ANS: self-pollination 4. ANS: F 2 5. ANS: F 1 generation 6. ANS: Heredity 7. ANS: dominant DIF: I OBJ: ANS: recessive DIF: I OBJ: ANS: dominance DIF: I OBJ: ANS: recessive trait DIF: II OBJ: ANS: law of segregation DIF: I OBJ: ANS: alleles DIF: I OBJ: ANS: meiosis DIF: I OBJ: ANS: heredity DIF: I OBJ: ANS: alleles

6 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: gene DIF: I OBJ: ANS: homozygous 18. ANS: genotype 19. ANS: phenotype 20. ANS: probability 21. ANS: round, yellow seeds 22. ANS: 0.5 DIF: II OBJ: ANS: 1:2:1 DIF: II OBJ: ANS: 3 DIF: II OBJ: ANS: short DIF: II OBJ: ANS: Tt DIF: II OBJ: ANS: codominance DIF: I OBJ: ANS: multiple alleles DIF: I OBJ: ANS: incomplete dominance DIF: I OBJ: ANS: Punnett square DIF: I OBJ: ANS: recessive traits

7 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: dihybrid DIF: I OBJ: ANS: gene expression DIF: I OBJ: ANS: transcribed DIF: I OBJ: ANS: gene expression DIF: II OBJ: ANS: transcription DIF: I OBJ: ANS: operon DIF: I OBJ: ANS: repressor protein DIF: I OBJ: ANS: inducers DIF: I OBJ: ANS: exons DIF: I OBJ: ANS: exons DIF: I OBJ: ANS: enhancers DIF: I OBJ: ANS: differentiation DIF: I OBJ: ANS: homeotic; homeoboxes DIF: I OBJ: ANS: homologous DIF: II OBJ: ANS: mutagens DIF: I OBJ: ANS: cancers DIF: I OBJ:

8 48. ANS: division DIF: I OBJ: ANS: benign DIF: I OBJ: ANS: proto-oncogene DIF: I OBJ: ANS: sex DIF: I OBJ: ANS: female DIF: I OBJ: ANS: none; all DIF: III OBJ: ANS: crossing-over DIF: I OBJ: ANS: crossing-over DIF: II OBJ: ANS: translocation DIF: I OBJ: ANS: deletion DIF: I OBJ: ANS: mutation DIF: I OBJ: ANS: mutations DIF: I OBJ: ANS: pedigree DIF: I OBJ: ANS: Gene DIF: I OBJ: ANS: carrier DIF: I OBJ: ANS: pedigree DIF: I OBJ: ANS: hemophilia

9 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: phenylketonuria (PKU) DIF: I OBJ: ANS: sex-linked DIF: I OBJ: ANS: Down syndrome DIF: I OBJ: ANS: nondisjunction DIF: I OBJ:

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