Simple Qualitative Analysis

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Simple Qualitative Analysis"

Transcription

1 Name Class Date Skills Practice Lab Simple Qualitative Analysis MICROSCALE If an unknown sample is one of a limited number of possible compounds, a simple test often can determine its identity. For example, a flame test can distinguish between KCl and NaNO 3. A drop of potassium hexacyanoferrate(iii) solution can tell you whether FeCl 2 or FeCl 3 is present. There are hundreds of simple qualitative tests such as these to distinguish among a few possibilities. Qualitative tests are important to the forensic chemist, one who is interested in solving crimes, but they have been largely replaced by instrumental analysis, which is fast and requires a very small sample. For example, instrumental analysis can detect as little as g of 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (one of the active ingredients in marijuana) in 1 ml of blood plasma. Unfortunately, this kind of instrumentation (a gas chromatograph connected to a mass spectrograph) is expensive, so simple chemical tests are still often useful. A drop of hydrochloric acid is enough to allow the police department s forensic chemist to distinguish between a bag of cocaine and a bag of baking soda. In this experiment you will identify the contents of a number of vials. The substance in each vial is one of the two compounds listed on the label. To decide which compound is present, you will make a few simple tests. OBJECTIVES Observe qualitative tests using known ionic compounds. Decide which qualitative test to use in identifying an unknown ionic compound. Describe the chemistry of common ionic compounds. MATERIALS beaker, 50 ml Bunsen burner and related equipment cobalt glass plates (2) filter paper, cut into short strips flame-test wire gloves HCl, 1.0 M KMnO 4, 0.1 M lab apron Na 2 CO 3 NaOH, 1.0 M Na 2 SO 3 NH 4 Cl red litmus paper safety goggles sparker spot plate or small test tubes (3) Holt Chemistry 31 Chemical Equations and Reactions

2 Name Class Date Always wear safety goggles and a lab apron to protect your eyes and clothing. If you get a chemical in your eyes, immediately flush the chemical out at the eyewash station while calling to your teacher. Know the location of the emergency lab shower and eyewash station and the procedures for using them. Do not touch any chemicals. If you get a chemical on your skin or clothing, wash the chemical off at the sink while calling to your teacher. Make sure you carefully read the labels and follow the precautions on all containers of chemicals that you use. If there are no precautions stated on the label, ask your teacher what precautions to follow. Do not taste any chemicals or items used in the laboratory. Never return leftovers to their original container take only small amounts to avoid wasting supplies. Call your teacher in the event of a spill. Spills should be cleaned up promptly, according to your teacher s directions. Acids and bases are corrosive. If an acid or base spills onto your skin or clothing, wash the area immediately with running water. Call your teacher in the event of an acid spill. Acid or base spills should be cleaned up promptly. Never put broken glass in a regular waste container. Broken glass should be disposed of separately according to your teacher s instructions. Do not heat glassware that is broken, chipped, or cracked. Use tongs or a hot mitt to handle heated glassware and other equipment because hot glassware does not always look hot. When using a Bunsen burner, confine long hair and loose clothing. If your clothing catches on fire, WALK to the emergency lab shower and use it to put out the fire. Do not heat glassware that is broken, chipped, or cracked. Use tongs or a hot mitt to handle heated glassware and other equipment because hot glassware does not always look hot. Procedure 1. Put on safety goggles, gloves, and a lab apron. 2. Moisten a strip of filter paper with 0.1 M KMnO 4. Place a few crystals of sodium sulfite on a spot plate or in a small test tube, and add 2 drops of 1.0 M HCl. Immediately hold the strip of filter paper over the crystals, as shown in Figure 1. This reaction is characteristic of the sulfite ion, SO 2 3. Record your observations. Holt Chemistry 32 Chemical Equations and Reactions

3 Name Class Date Figure 1 Filter paper KMnO 4 Na 2 SO 3 + HCl 3. Place a few crystals of sodium carbonate on a spot plate or in a small test tube. Add 2 drops of 1.0 M HCl. Immediately hold a strip of filter paper moistened with 0.1 M KMnO 4 over the solution. This reaction is characteristic of the carbonate ion, CO 2 3. Record your observations. 4. Place a few crystals of ammonium chloride on a spot plate or in a small test tube. Add 2 drops of 1.0 M NaOH. Quickly hold a piece of moistened red litmus paper over the solution, as shown in Figure 2. This reaction is characteristic of the ammonium ion, NH 4. Record your observations. Figure 2 Litmus paper NH 4 Cl + NaOH 5. Label a 50 ml beaker Waste and add about 10 ml of HCl to the beaker. Clean the flame-test wire by dipping it in the HCl and then holding it in the colorless flame of the Bunsen burner. Put 10 drops of Na 2 CO 3 into one of the wells. Dip the wire in the Na 2 CO 3 solution, and then hold it in the Bunsen burner flame. Record the color of the flame. 6. You now have a number of simple tests to identify each of the unknowns listed in Table 1. If a solution is needed for a test, dissolve a small amount of the compound in water. Consider all four ions in the two compounds for each unknown. For example, unknown 1 contains K, NO 3, Na, and Cl ions. You should be able to predict the results for each compound before you begin the test. Holt Chemistry 33 Chemical Equations and Reactions

4 Name Class Date 7. Clean all apparatus and your lab station. Return equipment to its proper place. Dispose of chemicals and solutions in the containers designated by your teacher. Do not pour any chemicals down the drain or in the trash unless your teacher directs you to do so. Wash your hands thoroughly before you leave the lab and after all work is finished. Observations, step 2: Observations, step 3: Observations, step 4: Observations, step 5: Holt Chemistry 34 Chemical Equations and Reactions

5 Name Class Date TABLE 1: TEST RESULTS Unknown Test Used Observations Identity KNO 3 or NaCl NH 4 Cl or MgCO 3 LiNO 3 or Na 2 CO 3 Sr(NO 3 ) 2 or Na 2 SO 3 (NH 4 ) 2 CO 3 or ZnSO 4 BaCl 2 or NaNO 3 Na 2 SO 3 or Na 2 CO 3 Analysis 1. Relating Ideas Explain how to generate ammonia gas in the laboratory. Write and balance the equation for the reaction. 2. Relating Ideas Give the formula and the name of a compound that gives a violet color to a flame and, when HCl is added, produces bubbles of gas that turn potassium permanganate brown. Conclusions 1. Analyzing Results Which salt in the table will react with both HCl and NaOH? Write the equations for the reactions. Holt Chemistry 35 Chemical Equations and Reactions

6 Skills Practice Lab Simple Qualitative Analysis MICROSCALE Teacher Notes TIME REQUIRED One 45-minute lab period SKILLS ACQUIRED Collecting data Experimenting Inferring Predicting Interpreting Organizing and analyzing data RATING Teacher Prep 3 Student Set-Up 2 Concept Level 2 Clean Up 2 Easy Hard THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD Make Observations Students collect qualitative data on chemical reactions. Analyze the Results Conclusions question 1 requires students to analyze their results. Draw Conclusions Students are asked to draw conclusions from their data regarding the identity of the unknown ionic compounds. Communicate the Results Analysis questions 1 and 2, and the Conclusions question MATERIALS Materials for this lab activity can be purchased from WARD S. See the Master Materials List on the One-Stop Planner CD-ROM for ordering instructions. To prepare 200 ml of 1.0 M HCl, observe the required safety precautions. Slowly, and with stirring, add 18 ml of concentrated HCl to enough distilled water to make 200 ml of solution. To prepare 250 ml of 1.0 M NaOH, observe the required safety precautions. Slowly, and with stirring, dissolve 10 g of NaOH in enough distilled water to make 250 ml of solution. To prepare 500 ml of 0.1 M potassium permanganate solution, dissolve 8 g of KMnO 4 in enough distilled water to make 500 ml of solution. To prepare the unknowns, place 15 g of one compound from each of the following pairs into each vial and label the vial with the names of both compounds in the pair: KNO 3 or NaCl, NH 4 Cl or MgCO 3, LiNO 3 or Na 2 CO 3, Sr(NO 3 ) 2 or Na 2 SO 3, (NH 4 ) 2 CO 3 or ZnSO 4, BaCl 2 or NaNO 3, Na 2 SO 3 or Na 2 CO 3. Holt Chemistry 62 Chemical Equations and Reactions

7 SAFETY CAUTIONS Safety goggles, gloves, and a lab apron must be worn at all times. All flame tests must be performed in the hood. Wear goggles, face shield, impermeable gloves, and a lab apron when you prepare the HCl solution. Work in a hood known to be in operating condition, with another person present nearby to call for help in case of an emergency. Be sure you are a 30 s walk from a safety shower and eyewash station known to be in operating condition. Remind students of the following safety precautions: Always wear safety goggles and a lab apron to protect your eyes and clothing. If you get a chemical in your eyes, immediately flush the chemical out at the eyewash station while calling to your teacher. Know the location of the emergency lab shower and the eyewash stations and procedures for using them. Do not touch any chemicals. If you get a chemical on your skin or clothing, wash the chemical off at the sink while calling to your teacher. Make sure you carefully read the labels and follow the precautions on all containers of chemicals that you use. If there are no precautions stated on the label, ask your teacher what precautions you should follow. Do not taste any chemicals or items used in the laboratory. Never return leftovers to their original containers take only small amounts to avoid wasting supplies. Call your teacher in the event of a spill. Spills should be cleaned up promptly, according to your teacher s directions. When using a Bunsen burner, confine long hair and loose clothing. If your clothing catches on fire, walk to the emergency lab shower, and use it to put out the fire. Do not heat glassware that is broken, chipped, or cracked. Use tongs or a hot mitt to handle heated glassware and other equipment because hot glassware does not look hot. Never put broken glass in a regular waste container. Broken glass should be disposed of properly. DISPOSAL Provide labeled waste containers for the various solids. These can be saved for reuse. Carry out the following procedures in the order stated. a. Combine all solutions containing Na 2 SO 3, and, in a hood known to be operating properly, slowly add 1.0 M HCl while stirring until no more SO 2 is evolved. b. Combine all solutions containing NH 4, and, in a hood known to be operating properly, add an equal volume of 1.0 M NaOH solution. Then heat to boiling and continue to heat until all NH 3 is driven off. c. Combine all solutions containing KMnO 4, and add 1 ml of 1.0 M HCl. Then, while stirring slowly, add 1.0 M Na 2 S 2 O 3 until the mixture is decolorized. d. Combine all Zn 2 solutions. Add 1.0 M NaOH slowly with stirring until all zinc has precipitated as the hydroxide. Holt Chemistry 63 Chemical Equations and Reactions

8 TECHNIQUES TO DEMONSTRATE Show the students the proper method for using the filter paper strips. Review proper safety precautions required when dealing with chemicals. Review proper disposal and clean up procedures. TIPS AND TRICKS Emphasize that each of these tests requires only a few crystals of sample. Caution students about not contaminating the unknown samples. Holt Chemistry 64 Chemical Equations and Reactions

9 Name Class Date Skills Practice Lab Simple Qualitative Analysis MICROSCALE If an unknown sample is one of a limited number of possible compounds, a simple test often can determine its identity. For example, a flame test can distinguish between KCl and NaNO 3. A drop of potassium hexacyanoferrate(iii) solution can tell you whether FeCl 2 or FeCl 3 is present. There are hundreds of simple qualitative tests such as these to distinguish among a few possibilities. Qualitative tests are important to the forensic chemist, one who is interested in solving crimes, but they have been largely replaced by instrumental analysis, which is fast and requires a very small sample. For example, instrumental analysis can detect as little as g of 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (one of the active ingredients in marijuana) in 1 ml of blood plasma. Unfortunately, this kind of instrumentation (a gas chromatograph connected to a mass spectrograph) is expensive, so simple chemical tests are still often useful. A drop of hydrochloric acid is enough to allow the police department s forensic chemist to distinguish between a bag of cocaine and a bag of baking soda. In this experiment you will identify the contents of a number of vials. The substance in each vial is one of the two compounds listed on the label. To decide which compound is present, you will make a few simple tests. OBJECTIVES Observe qualitative tests using known ionic compounds. Decide which qualitative test to use in identifying an unknown ionic compound. Describe the chemistry of common ionic compounds. MATERIALS beaker, 50 ml Bunsen burner and related equipment cobalt glass plates (2) filter paper, cut into short strips flame-test wire gloves HCl, 1.0 M KMnO 4, 0.1 M lab apron Na 2 CO 3 NaOH, 1.0 M Na 2 SO 3 NH 4 Cl red litmus paper safety goggles sparker spot plate or small test tubes (3) Holt Chemistry Chemical Equations and Reactions

10 Name Class Date Always wear safety goggles and a lab apron to protect your eyes and clothing. If you get a chemical in your eyes, immediately flush the chemical out at the eyewash station while calling to your teacher. Know the location of the emergency lab shower and eyewash station and the procedures for using them. Do not touch any chemicals. If you get a chemical on your skin or clothing, wash the chemical off at the sink while calling to your teacher. Make sure you carefully read the labels and follow the precautions on all containers of chemicals that you use. If there are no precautions stated on the label, ask your teacher what precautions to follow. Do not taste any chemicals or items used in the laboratory. Never return leftovers to their original container take only small amounts to avoid wasting supplies. Call your teacher in the event of a spill. Spills should be cleaned up promptly, according to your teacher s directions. Acids and bases are corrosive. If an acid or base spills onto your skin or clothing, wash the area immediately with running water. Call your teacher in the event of an acid spill. Acid or base spills should be cleaned up promptly. Never put broken glass in a regular waste container. Broken glass should be disposed of separately according to your teacher s instructions. Do not heat glassware that is broken, chipped, or cracked. Use tongs or a hot mitt to handle heated glassware and other equipment because hot glassware does not always look hot. When using a Bunsen burner, confine long hair and loose clothing. If your clothing catches on fire, WALK to the emergency lab shower and use it to put out the fire. Do not heat glassware that is broken, chipped, or cracked. Use tongs or a hot mitt to handle heated glassware and other equipment because hot glassware does not always look hot. Procedure 1. Put on safety goggles, gloves, and a lab apron. 2. Moisten a strip of filter paper with 0.1 M KMnO 4. Place a few crystals of sodium sulfite on a spot plate or in a small test tube, and add 2 drops of 1.0 M HCl. Immediately hold the strip of filter paper over the crystals, as shown in Figure 1. This reaction is characteristic of the sulfite ion, SO 2 3. Record your observations. Holt Chemistry Chemical Equations and Reactions

11 Name Class Date Figure 1 Filter paper KMnO 4 Na 2 SO 3 + HCl 3. Place a few crystals of sodium carbonate on a spot plate or in a small test tube. Add 2 drops of 1.0 M HCl. Immediately hold a strip of filter paper moistened with 0.1 M KMnO 4 over the solution. This reaction is characteristic of the carbonate ion, CO 2 3. Record your observations. 4. Place a few crystals of ammonium chloride on a spot plate or in a small test tube. Add 2 drops of 1.0 M NaOH. Quickly hold a piece of moistened red litmus paper over the solution, as shown in Figure 2. This reaction is characteristic of the ammonium ion, NH 4. Record your observations. Figure 2 Litmus paper NH 4 Cl + NaOH 5. Label a 50 ml beaker Waste and add about 10 ml of HCl to the beaker. Clean the flame-test wire by dipping it in the HCl and then holding it in the colorless flame of the Bunsen burner. Put 10 drops of Na 2 CO 3 into one of the wells. Dip the wire in the Na 2 CO 3 solution, and then hold it in the Bunsen burner flame. Record the color of the flame. 6. You now have a number of simple tests to identify each of the unknowns listed in Table 1. If a solution is needed for a test, dissolve a small amount of the compound in water. Consider all four ions in the two compounds for each unknown. For example, unknown 1 contains K, NO 3, Na, and Cl ions. You should be able to predict the results for each compound before you begin the test. Holt Chemistry Chemical Equations and Reactions

12 Name Class Date 7. Clean all apparatus and your lab station. Return equipment to its proper place. Dispose of chemicals and solutions in the containers designated by your teacher. Do not pour any chemicals down the drain or in the trash unless your teacher directs you to do so. Wash your hands thoroughly before you leave the lab and after all work is finished. Observations, step 2: When acid is added to a sulfite, bubbles appear. These bubbles change the purple permanganate solution to a brown color. Observations, step 3: When acid is added to a carbonate, bubbles appear. These bubbles do not affect the color of KMnO 4 solution. Observations, step 4: The color of red litmus paper turns blue. Observations, step 5: The color of the flame is yellow orange. Holt Chemistry Chemical Equations and Reactions

13 Name Class Date TABLE 1: TEST RESULTS Unknown Test Used Observations Identity KNO 3 or NaCl NH 4 Cl or MgCO 3 LiNO 3 or Na 2 CO 3 Sr(NO 3 ) 2 or Na 2 SO 3 (NH 4 ) 2 CO 3 or ZnSO 4 BaCl 2 or NaNO 3 Na 2 SO 3 or Na 2 CO 3 Flame test Yellow-orange flame NaCl Step 3 Litmus paper turned blue NH 4 Cl Step 2 and Nothing for step 2 Na 2 CO 3 flame test flame was yellow-orange Step 1 Filter paper turned Na 2 SO 3 brown Steps 2 Nothing for step 2 (NH 4 ) 2 CO 3 and 3 litmus paper turned blue Flame test Flame was green BaCl 2 Step 1 Filter paper turned Na 2 SO 3 brown Analysis 1. Relating Ideas Explain how to generate ammonia gas in the laboratory. Write and balance the equation for the reaction. Add sodium hydroxide to an ammonium salt, such as ammonium chloride. NH 4 Cl(s) NaOH(aq) NaCl(aq) NH 3 (g) H 2 O(l) 2. Relating Ideas Give the formula and the name of a compound that gives a violet color to a flame and, when HCl is added, produces bubbles of gas that turn potassium permanganate brown. Answer should be a compound composed of sulfite ion, such as K 2 SO 3, potassium sulfite. Conclusions 1. Analyzing Results Which salt in the table will react with both HCl and NaOH? Write the equations for the reactions. Ammonium carbonate reacts with both HCl and NaOH. (NH 4 ) 2 CO 3 (s) 2HCl(aq) 2NH 4 Cl(aq) H 2 O(l) CO 2 (g) (NH 4 ) 2 CO 3 (s) 2NaOH(aq) 2NH 3 (g) 2H 2 O(l) Na 2 CO 3 (aq) Holt Chemistry Chemical Equations and Reactions

Sugar or Salt? Ionic and Covalent Bonds

Sugar or Salt? Ionic and Covalent Bonds Lab 11 Sugar or Salt? Ionic and Covalent Bonds TN Standard 2.1: The student will investigate chemical bonding. Have you ever accidentally used salt instead of sugar? D rinking tea that has been sweetened

More information

CHM 130LL: ph, Buffers, and Indicators

CHM 130LL: ph, Buffers, and Indicators CHM 130LL: ph, Buffers, and Indicators Many substances can be classified as acidic or basic. Acidic substances contain hydrogen ions, H +, while basic substances contain hydroxide ions, OH. The relative

More information

Luminol Test PROCESS SKILLS SCIENCE TOPICS VOCABULARY

Luminol Test PROCESS SKILLS SCIENCE TOPICS VOCABULARY EXPERIMENT: LUMINOL TEST Luminol Test Visitors mix a solution of luminol with fake blood (hydrogen peroxide) to produce a reaction that gives off blue light. OBJECTIVES: Visitors learn that some chemical

More information

Target Mole Lab. Mole Relationships and the Balanced Equation. For each student group Hydrochloric acid solution, HCl, 3 M, 30 ml

Target Mole Lab. Mole Relationships and the Balanced Equation. For each student group Hydrochloric acid solution, HCl, 3 M, 30 ml elearning 2009 Introduction Target Mole Lab Mole Relationships and the Balanced Equation Publication No. A common chemical reaction used in chemistry class is zinc and hydrochloric In this lab, students

More information

(1) Hydrochloric acid reacts with sodium hypochlorite to form hypochlorous acid: NaOCl(aq) + HCl(aq) HOCl(aq) + NaCl(aq) hypochlorous acid

(1) Hydrochloric acid reacts with sodium hypochlorite to form hypochlorous acid: NaOCl(aq) + HCl(aq) HOCl(aq) + NaCl(aq) hypochlorous acid The Determination of Hypochlorite in Bleach Reading assignment: Chang, Chemistry 10 th edition, pages 156-159. We will study an example of a redox titration in order to determine the concentration of sodium

More information

Experiment 7: Titration of an Antacid

Experiment 7: Titration of an Antacid 1 Experiment 7: Titration of an Antacid Objective: In this experiment, you will standardize a solution of base using the analytical technique known as titration. Using this standardized solution, you will

More information

Household Acids and Bases

Household Acids and Bases Household Acids and Bases GRADE LEVEL INDICATORS Experiment Demonstrate that the ph scale (0-14) is used to measure acidity and classify substances or solutions as acidic, basic, or neutral. 21 Develop

More information

Conservation of Momentum Greg Kifer

Conservation of Momentum Greg Kifer SCIENCE EXPERIMENTS ON FILE Revised Edition 6.7-1 Conservation of Momentum Greg Kifer Topic Conservation of momentum Time 1 hour! Safety Please click on the safety icon to view the safety precautions.

More information

ACIDS AND BASES SAFETY PRECAUTIONS

ACIDS AND BASES SAFETY PRECAUTIONS ACIDS AND BASES Mild acids and bases are used in cooking (their reaction makes biscuits and bread rise). Acids such as those in our stomachs eat away at food or digest it. Strong acids and bases are used

More information

Acid 7 Base. 1. Describe two things hydrochloric acid does in your body system. 2. What does sodium hydrogencarbonate do in your body system?

Acid 7 Base. 1. Describe two things hydrochloric acid does in your body system. 2. What does sodium hydrogencarbonate do in your body system? Acids and Bases acid: a compound that, when dissolved in water, forms a solution with a ph less than 7 base: a compound that, when dissolved in water, forms a solution with a ph greater than 7 ph: the

More information

EXPERIMENT 12: Empirical Formula of a Compound

EXPERIMENT 12: Empirical Formula of a Compound EXPERIMENT 12: Empirical Formula of a Compound INTRODUCTION Chemical formulas indicate the composition of compounds. A formula that gives only the simplest ratio of the relative number of atoms in a compound

More information

Experiment 3: Extraction: Separation of an Acidic, a Basic and a Neutral Substance

Experiment 3: Extraction: Separation of an Acidic, a Basic and a Neutral Substance 1 Experiment 3: Extraction: Separation of an Acidic, a Basic and a Neutral Substance Read pp 142-155, 161-162, Chapter 10 and pp 163-173, Chapter 11, in LTOC. View the videos: 4.2 Extraction (Macroscale);

More information

Physical and Chemical Changes

Physical and Chemical Changes Physical and Chemical Changes Jana Barrow West Point Jr. High 2775 W 550 N 801-402-8100 West Point, UT 84015 jbarrow@dsdmail.net Eighth Grade Integrated Science Standard I: Students will understand the

More information

Taking Apart the Pieces

Taking Apart the Pieces Lab 4 Taking Apart the Pieces How does starting your morning out right relate to relief from a headache? I t is a lazy Saturday morning and you ve just awakened to your favorite cereal Morning Trails and

More information

Letter to the Student... 5 Test-Taking Checklist... 6 Next Generation Sunshine State Standards Correlation Chart... 7

Letter to the Student... 5 Test-Taking Checklist... 6 Next Generation Sunshine State Standards Correlation Chart... 7 Table of Contents Letter to the Student..................................... 5 Test-Taking Checklist.................................... 6 Next Generation Sunshine State Standards Correlation Chart...

More information

Making Biodiesel from Virgin Vegetable Oil: Teacher Manual

Making Biodiesel from Virgin Vegetable Oil: Teacher Manual Making Biodiesel from Virgin Vegetable Oil: Teacher Manual Learning Goals: Students will understand how to produce biodiesel from virgin vegetable oil. Students will understand the effect of an exothermic

More information

1. Read P. 368-375, P. 382-387 & P. 429-436; P. 375 # 1-11 & P. 389 # 1,7,9,12,15; P. 436 #1, 7, 8, 11

1. Read P. 368-375, P. 382-387 & P. 429-436; P. 375 # 1-11 & P. 389 # 1,7,9,12,15; P. 436 #1, 7, 8, 11 SCH3U- R.H.KING ACADEMY SOLUTION & ACID/BASE WORKSHEET Name: The importance of water - MAKING CONNECTION READING 1. Read P. 368-375, P. 382-387 & P. 429-436; P. 375 # 1-11 & P. 389 # 1,7,9,12,15; P. 436

More information

Q1. A student studied the reaction between dilute hydrochloric acid and an excess of calcium carbonate.

Q1. A student studied the reaction between dilute hydrochloric acid and an excess of calcium carbonate. Q. A student studied the reaction between dilute hydrochloric acid and an excess of calcium carbonate. calcium carbonate + hydrochloric acid calcium chloride + water + carbon dioxide The student measured

More information

Determination of the Amount of Acid Neutralized by an Antacid Tablet Using Back Titration

Determination of the Amount of Acid Neutralized by an Antacid Tablet Using Back Titration Determination of the Amount of Acid Neutralized by an Antacid Tablet Using Back Titration GOAL AND OVERVIEW Antacids are bases that react stoichiometrically with acid. The number of moles of acid that

More information

Chapter 14 Solutions

Chapter 14 Solutions Chapter 14 Solutions 1 14.1 General properties of solutions solution a system in which one or more substances are homogeneously mixed or dissolved in another substance two components in a solution: solute

More information

Remember the best arguments are based on the strongest evidence and can explain why opposing arguments are incorrect.

Remember the best arguments are based on the strongest evidence and can explain why opposing arguments are incorrect. Magnesium and carbon dioxide Student sheet Burning magnesium in carbon dioxide what will happen? Either the magnesium will go out or it will continue to burn. Which will it be? You will use the evidence

More information

ph Measurements of Common Substances

ph Measurements of Common Substances Chem 100 Section Experiment 10 Name Partner s Name Introduction ph Measurements of Common Substances The concentration of an acid or base is frequently expressed as ph. Historically, ph stands for the

More information

Investigation M3: Separating Mixtures into Component Parts

Investigation M3: Separating Mixtures into Component Parts Investigation M3: Separating Mixtures into Component Parts Goals: Use various methods to separate mixtures, make inferences from temperature/time graphs, and identify substances. 81 Activity M3.3: What

More information

Safety in the Chemistry Laboratory General Safety Equipment Fire extinguisher Red fire alarm Fire blanket Safety shower Drench hose Eye wash station

Safety in the Chemistry Laboratory General Safety Equipment Fire extinguisher Red fire alarm Fire blanket Safety shower Drench hose Eye wash station Reference: Safety in Academic Chemistry Laboratories-Accident Prevention for College and University Students. A Publication of American Chemical Society Joint Board-Council Committee on Chemical Safety.

More information

4.0 EXPERIMENT ON DETERMINATION OF CHLORIDES

4.0 EXPERIMENT ON DETERMINATION OF CHLORIDES 4.0 EXPERIMENT ON DETERMINATION OF CHLORIDES Sl. No. Contents Preamble 4.1 Aim 4.2 Introduction 4.2.1 Environmental Significance 4.3 Principle 4.4 Materials Required 4.4.1 Apparatus Required 4.4.2 Chemicals

More information

Unit A: Studying Materials Scientifically

Unit A: Studying Materials Scientifically ITEM BANKS Unit A: Studying Materials Scientifically Multiple choice: Circle the best answer. 1. What safety rules should you always follow while doing a science laboratory? a. Wear safety goggles at all

More information

Determination of calcium by Standardized EDTA Solution

Determination of calcium by Standardized EDTA Solution Determination of calcium by Standardized EDTA Solution Introduction The classic method of determining calcium and other suitable cations is titration with a standardized solution of ethylenediaminetetraacetic

More information

SCH 4C1 Unit 2 Problem Set Questions taken from Frank Mustoe et all, "Chemistry 11", McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 2001

SCH 4C1 Unit 2 Problem Set Questions taken from Frank Mustoe et all, Chemistry 11, McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 2001 SCH 4C1 Unit 2 Problem Set Questions taken from Frank Mustoe et all, "Chemistry 11", McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 2001 1. A small pin contains 0.0178 mol of iron. How many atoms of iron are in the pin? 2. A sample

More information

Experiment 9: Acids and Bases Adapted from: Chemistry, Experimental Foundations, 4th Ed. Laboratory Manual, by Merrill, Parry & Bassow.

Experiment 9: Acids and Bases Adapted from: Chemistry, Experimental Foundations, 4th Ed. Laboratory Manual, by Merrill, Parry & Bassow. Chem 121 Lab Clark College Experiment 9: Acids and Bases Adapted from: Chemistry, Experimental Foundations, 4th Ed. Laboratory Manual, by Merrill, Parry & Bassow. Content Goals: Increase understanding

More information

Chemistry Post-Enrolment Worksheet

Chemistry Post-Enrolment Worksheet Name: Chemistry Post-Enrolment Worksheet The purpose of this worksheet is to get you to recap some of the fundamental concepts that you studied at GCSE and introduce some of the concepts that will be part

More information

Electrochemistry Revised 04/29/15

Electrochemistry Revised 04/29/15 INTRODUCTION TO ELECTROCHEMISTRY: CURRENT, VOLTAGE, BATTERIES, & THE NERNST EQUATION Experiment partially adapted from J. Chem. Educ., 2008, 85 (8), p 1116 Introduction Electrochemical cell In this experiment,

More information

TITRATION CURVES, INDICATORS, AND ACID DISSOCIATION CONSTANTS

TITRATION CURVES, INDICATORS, AND ACID DISSOCIATION CONSTANTS TITRATION CURVES, INDICATORS, AND ACID DISSOCIATION CONSTANTS Adapted from "Chemistry with Computers" Vernier Software, Portland OR, 1997 INTRODUCTION Titration is the volumetric measurement of a solution

More information

Figure 1. A voltaic cell Cu,Cu 2+ Ag +, Ag. gas is, by convention, assigned a reduction potential of 0.00 V.

Figure 1. A voltaic cell Cu,Cu 2+ Ag +, Ag. gas is, by convention, assigned a reduction potential of 0.00 V. Voltaic Cells Introduction In this lab you will first prepare a set of simple standard half-cells and then measure the voltage between the half-cells with a voltmeter. From this data you will be able to

More information

Determining the Quantity of Iron in a Vitamin Tablet. Evaluation copy

Determining the Quantity of Iron in a Vitamin Tablet. Evaluation copy Determining the Quantity of Iron in a Vitamin Tablet Computer 34 As biochemical research becomes more sophisticated, we are learning more about the role of metallic elements in the human body. For example,

More information

UNIT (4) CALCULATIONS AND CHEMICAL REACTIONS

UNIT (4) CALCULATIONS AND CHEMICAL REACTIONS UNIT (4) CALCULATIONS AND CHEMICAL REACTIONS 4.1 Formula Masses Recall that the decimal number written under the symbol of the element in the periodic table is the atomic mass of the element. 1 7 8 12

More information

Chapter 6. Solution, Acids and Bases

Chapter 6. Solution, Acids and Bases Chapter 6 Solution, Acids and Bases Mixtures Two or more substances Heterogeneous- different from place to place Types of heterogeneous mixtures Suspensions- Large particles that eventually settle out

More information

Advanced Placement Chemistry

Advanced Placement Chemistry Advanced Placement Chemistry Course Syllabus 2014-2015 Mr. Callahan scallahan@tusd.net Course Description AP Chemistry is a college level chemistry course taken and taught with the goal of challenging

More information

Experiment 18: ph Measurements of Common Substances. Experiment 17: Reactions of Acids with Common Substances

Experiment 18: ph Measurements of Common Substances. Experiment 17: Reactions of Acids with Common Substances Experiment 18: ph Measurements of Common Substances and Experiment 17: Reactions of Acids with Common Substances What is this lab about? You mean what ARE THESE labs about? Ok, so what are THESE labs about?

More information

5.0 EXPERIMENT ON DETERMINATION OF TOTAL HARDNESS

5.0 EXPERIMENT ON DETERMINATION OF TOTAL HARDNESS 5.0 EXPERIMENT ON DETERMINATION OF TOTAL HARDNESS Sl. No. Contents Preamble 5.1 Aim 5.2 Introduction 5.2.1 Environmental Significance 5.3 Principle 5.4 Materials Required 5.4.1 Apparatus Required 5.4.2

More information

W1 WORKSHOP ON STOICHIOMETRY

W1 WORKSHOP ON STOICHIOMETRY INTRODUCTION W1 WORKSHOP ON STOICHIOMETRY These notes and exercises are designed to introduce you to the basic concepts required to understand a chemical formula or equation. Relative atomic masses of

More information

Tuesday, November 27, 2012 Expectations:

Tuesday, November 27, 2012 Expectations: Tuesday, November 27, 2012 Expectations: Sit in assigned seat Get out Folder, Notebook, Periodic Table Have out: Spiral (notes), Learning Target Log (new) No Backpacks on tables Listen/Pay Attention Learning

More information

Any other time call the SFASU Police at Emergencies 911 Non-emergencies 468-2608

Any other time call the SFASU Police at Emergencies 911 Non-emergencies 468-2608 Emergency Response to Waste Spills There are numerous different chemical, biological, and radioactive hazardous materials used throughout Stephen F. Austin State University on a daily basis. These chemicals

More information

Stoichiometry. Unit Outline

Stoichiometry. Unit Outline 3 Stoichiometry Unit Outline 3.1 The Mole and Molar Mass 3.2 Stoichiometry and Compound Formulas 3.3 Stoichiometry and Chemical Reactions 3.4 Stoichiometry and Limiting Reactants 3.5 Chemical Analysis

More information

1. To perform a potentiometric titration of a sample of Liquid Drano with hydrochloric acid.

1. To perform a potentiometric titration of a sample of Liquid Drano with hydrochloric acid. INTRODUCTION ANALYSIS OF DRAIN CLEANER (Revised: 1-25-93) Many common household cleaners contain acids or bases. Acidic cleaners, such as toilet bowl cleaners, often contain hydrochloric acid or sodium

More information

Number of moles of solute = Concentration (mol. L ) x Volume of solution (litres) or n = C x V

Number of moles of solute = Concentration (mol. L ) x Volume of solution (litres) or n = C x V 44 CALCULATIONS INVOLVING SOLUTIONS INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS Many chemical reactions take place in aqueous (water) solution. Quantities of such solutions are measured as volumes, while the amounts

More information

The energy level diagram for this reaction is shown below.

The energy level diagram for this reaction is shown below. Q. Methanol can be made when methane reacts with oxygen. (a) The energy level diagram for this reaction is shown below. (i) What is the energy change represented by A? () (ii) Use the energy level diagram

More information

6.8 Measuring the Acidity of Solutions Page 160

6.8 Measuring the Acidity of Solutions Page 160 6.8 Measuring the Acidity of Solutions Page 160 PRESCRIBED LEARNING OUTCOMES measure substances and solutions according to ph, solubility, and concentration KNOWLEDGE ph is the measure of the tendency

More information

Evaluation copy. Case File 9. A Killer Cup of Coffee? GlobalTech manager dies

Evaluation copy. Case File 9. A Killer Cup of Coffee? GlobalTech manager dies Case File 9 Killer Cup of Coffee: Using colorimetry to determine concentration of a poison Determine the concentration of cyanide in the solution. A Killer Cup of Coffee? SOUTH PAINTER, Tuesday: It was

More information

CHEM 124L Syllabus General Organic and Biochemistry Lab Summer 2015

CHEM 124L Syllabus General Organic and Biochemistry Lab Summer 2015 CHEM 124L Syllabus General Organic and Biochemistry Lab Summer 2015 Instructor: Office Hours: Text: Frank Tyminski, MEYR 564, x 52552, tyminski@umbc.edu By appointment Bettelheim, Frederick A. and Joseph

More information

I N V E S T I C E D O R O Z V O J E V Z D Ě L Á V Á N Í CHEMICAL REACTIONS

I N V E S T I C E D O R O Z V O J E V Z D Ě L Á V Á N Í CHEMICAL REACTIONS Chemical reaction = process during which original substances change to new substances, reactants turn to... The bonds of reactants... and new bonds are... The classification of reactions: 1. Classification

More information

06-6542 n/a MYSTERY OF THE BLOOD STAIN (RE)

06-6542 n/a MYSTERY OF THE BLOOD STAIN (RE) DATA SHEET Order code Manufacturer code Description 06-6542 n/a MYSTERY OF THE BLOOD STAIN (RE) The enclosed information is believed to be correct, Information may change without notice due to product

More information

Stoichiometry CHAPTER 12

Stoichiometry CHAPTER 12 CHAPTER 1 Stoichiometry What You ll Learn You will write mole ratios from balanced chemical equations. You will calculate the number of moles and the mass of a reactant or product when given the number

More information

Candidate Style Answer

Candidate Style Answer Candidate Style Answer Chemistry A Unit F321 Atoms, Bonds and Groups High banded response This Support Material booklet is designed to accompany the OCR GCE Chemistry A Specimen Paper F321 for teaching

More information

Acid-Base Extraction.

Acid-Base Extraction. Acid-Base Extraction. Extraction involves dissolving a compound or compounds either (1) from a solid into a solvent or (2) from a solution into another solvent. A familiar example of the first case is

More information

Continuous process of sodium bicarbonate production by Solvay method

Continuous process of sodium bicarbonate production by Solvay method Continuous process of sodium bicarbonate production by Solvay method Manual to experiment nr 10 Instructor: Dr Tomasz S. Pawłowski 1 Goal of the experiment The goal of the experiment is introduction of

More information

Chemistry Final Study Guide

Chemistry Final Study Guide Name: Class: Date: Chemistry Final Study Guide Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. The electrons involved in the formation of a covalent bond

More information

Experiment 13: Determination of Molecular Weight by Freezing Point Depression

Experiment 13: Determination of Molecular Weight by Freezing Point Depression 1 Experiment 13: Determination of Molecular Weight by Freezing Point Depression Objective: In this experiment, you will determine the molecular weight of a compound by measuring the freezing point of a

More information

4.4 Calculations Involving the Mole Concept

4.4 Calculations Involving the Mole Concept 44 Section 43 Questions 1 Define Avogadro s constant, and explain its significance in quantitative analysis 2 Distinguish between the terms atomic mass and molar mass 3 Calculate the mass of a molecule

More information

Of Cabbages and Kings

Of Cabbages and Kings Of Cabbages and Kings Learning Objectives: Students will learn about indicators, acids, bases, and the ph scale. GRADE LEVEL K 8 SCIENCE TOPICS Physical Properties Techniques Chemical Reactions PROCESS

More information

Crime Scene Unit Presumptive Testing Procedures. Evidence Collection Division

Crime Scene Unit Presumptive Testing Procedures. Evidence Collection Division Crime Scene Unit Presumptive Testing Procedures Evidence Collection Division PRESUMPTIVE TESTING Various chemical processes and presumptive tests are utilized in crime scene investigations to assist in

More information

Moles. Balanced chemical equations Molar ratios Mass Composition Empirical and Molecular Mass Predicting Quantities Equations

Moles. Balanced chemical equations Molar ratios Mass Composition Empirical and Molecular Mass Predicting Quantities Equations Moles Balanced chemical equations Molar ratios Mass Composition Empirical and Molecular Mass Predicting Quantities Equations Micro World atoms & molecules Macro World grams Atomic mass is the mass of an

More information

JUNIOR COLLEGE CHEMISTRY DEPARTMENT EXPERIMENT 21 SECOND YEAR PRACTICAL. Name: Group: Date: THE CHEMISTRY OF COPPER AND IRON

JUNIOR COLLEGE CHEMISTRY DEPARTMENT EXPERIMENT 21 SECOND YEAR PRACTICAL. Name: Group: Date: THE CHEMISTRY OF COPPER AND IRON JUNIOR COLLEGE CHEMISTRY DEPARTMENT EXPERIMENT 21 SECOND YEAR PRACTICAL Name: Group: Date: COPPER THE CHEMISTRY OF COPPER AND IRON 1. To a solution of Cu 2+ ions add aqueous sodium hydroxide and heat the

More information

GlobalTech manager dies

GlobalTech manager dies Case File 9 Killer Cup of Coffee: Using colorimetry to determine concentration of a poison Determine the concentration of cyanide in the solution. A Killer Cup of Coffee? GlobalTech manager dies SOUTH

More information

SNEAK PEAK inside ACTIVITY. ADVANCE PREPARATION see next page for more details Dilute alcohol with water Set out plastic cups, etc.

SNEAK PEAK inside ACTIVITY. ADVANCE PREPARATION see next page for more details Dilute alcohol with water Set out plastic cups, etc. Reaction: Yes or No? Learning Objectives: Students will list and identify three characteristics of chemical reactions. GRADE LEVEL 3 8 SCIENCE TOPICS Solutions and Mixtures Chemical Reactions PROCESS SKILLS

More information

Solutions and Dilutions

Solutions and Dilutions Learning Objectives Students should be able to: Content Design a procedure for making a particular solution and assess the advantages of different approaches. Choose the appropriate glassware to ensure

More information

CLEANING WATER. Student Section

CLEANING WATER. Student Section National Aeronautics and Space Administration CLEANING WATER Student Section Student Name This lesson challenges you to create and test a water filtration system. During this lesson, you will design and

More information

Moles. Moles. Moles. Moles. Balancing Eqns. Balancing. Balancing Eqns. Symbols Yields or Produces. Like a recipe:

Moles. Moles. Moles. Moles. Balancing Eqns. Balancing. Balancing Eqns. Symbols Yields or Produces. Like a recipe: Like a recipe: Balancing Eqns Reactants Products 2H 2 (g) + O 2 (g) 2H 2 O(l) coefficients subscripts Balancing Eqns Balancing Symbols (s) (l) (aq) (g) or Yields or Produces solid liquid (pure liquid)

More information

Estimation of Alcohol Content in Wine by Dichromate Oxidation followed by Redox Titration

Estimation of Alcohol Content in Wine by Dichromate Oxidation followed by Redox Titration Sirromet Wines Pty Ltd 850-938 Mount Cotton Rd Mount Cotton Queensland Australia 4165 www.sirromet.com Courtesy of Jessica Ferguson Assistant Winemaker & Chemist Downloaded from seniorchem.com/eei.html

More information

Name: Class: Date: 2 4 (aq)

Name: Class: Date: 2 4 (aq) Name: Class: Date: Unit 4 Practice Test Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) The balanced molecular equation for complete neutralization of

More information

Laboratory Biosafty In Molecular Biology and its levels

Laboratory Biosafty In Molecular Biology and its levels Laboratory Biosafty In Molecular Biology and its levels Workshop 16-17 Oct..2012 Guidelines Does not mean optional Laboratory Biosafety The Laboratory Biosafety Manual is an important WHO publication

More information

Calculation of Molar Masses. Molar Mass. Solutions. Solutions

Calculation of Molar Masses. Molar Mass. Solutions. Solutions Molar Mass Molar mass = Mass in grams of one mole of any element, numerically equal to its atomic weight Molar mass of molecules can be determined from the chemical formula and molar masses of elements

More information

Biosafety Level 2 (BSL-2) Safety Guidelines

Biosafety Level 2 (BSL-2) Safety Guidelines BLS-4 Biosafety Level 2 (BSL-2) Safety Guidelines BSL-3 BSL-2 BSL-1 BSL-2 builds upon BSL-1. If you work in a lab that is designated a BSL-2, the microbes used pose moderate hazards to laboratory staff

More information

You may have heard the word acid used in your everyday life. List some things that this word was describing when you heard it.

You may have heard the word acid used in your everyday life. List some things that this word was describing when you heard it. Textbook pages 158 to 175 What are acids and bases, and how do they react? Before You Read Topic 2.4 Summary You may have heard the word acid used in your everyday life. List some things that this word

More information

Chapter 3: Stoichiometry

Chapter 3: Stoichiometry Chapter 3: Stoichiometry Key Skills: Balance chemical equations Predict the products of simple combination, decomposition, and combustion reactions. Calculate formula weights Convert grams to moles and

More information

Chemical Spill Response Guideline

Chemical Spill Response Guideline ChemicalSpillResponseGuideline Despite the best efforts of researchers to practice safe science in the laboratory, accidents resulting in the release of chemicals will occur. For this reason, it is essential

More information

PART I: MULTIPLE CHOICE (30 multiple choice questions. Each multiple choice question is worth 2 points)

PART I: MULTIPLE CHOICE (30 multiple choice questions. Each multiple choice question is worth 2 points) CHEMISTRY 123-07 Midterm #1 Answer key October 14, 2010 Statistics: Average: 74 p (74%); Highest: 97 p (95%); Lowest: 33 p (33%) Number of students performing at or above average: 67 (57%) Number of students

More information

Operation Oil Spill Cleanup

Operation Oil Spill Cleanup Name Class Date Inquiry Lab Operation Oil Spill Cleanup DESIGN YOUR OWN Offshore oil drilling and the use of supertankers for transporting oil pose the risk of oil spills. Oil spills can damage commercial

More information

Science Crime Busters B & Forensics C. NC Event Only

Science Crime Busters B & Forensics C. NC Event Only Science Crime Busters B & Forensics C NC Event Only Presenters Aarti Thakkar Student at Duke University Four-time state medalist in Forensics Competed in Forensics at National Science Olympiad Jessica

More information

Training on Standard Operating Procedures for Health Care Waste Management Swaziland 12 May, 2011

Training on Standard Operating Procedures for Health Care Waste Management Swaziland 12 May, 2011 Training on Standard Operating Procedures for Health Care Waste Management Swaziland 12 May, 2011 Safe Infectious Waste Handling and Transport Objective Waste Overview Roles and Responsibilities of Waste

More information

5. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory

5. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory 5. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory A considerable part of the work in an organic chemistry laboratory involves using materials and processes that can be dangerous if not properly handled. With careful

More information

Ultrasonic support removal tank

Ultrasonic support removal tank Ultrasonic support removal tank User guide and safety manual See inside for use and safety information. The Ultrasonic support removal tank automatically removes PLA support material from a printed ABS

More information

Metalloids will also react with oxygen. Upon reaction with oxygen silicon forms silicon dioxide, the main component of sand.

Metalloids will also react with oxygen. Upon reaction with oxygen silicon forms silicon dioxide, the main component of sand. The Preparation and Properties of xygen Reading assignment: Chang, Chemistry 10 th edition, pp. 135-141. Goals We will observe the thermal decomposition of several oxygen-containing compounds called oxides.

More information

Courtesy of Professor Daley, Foothill College Chemistry Dept. 1

Courtesy of Professor Daley, Foothill College Chemistry Dept. 1 Foothill College Department of Chemistry Safety Rules and Regulations Safety Rules: 1. Prepare for each experiment by reading all of the directions before lab starts. 2. Locate the Safety Equipment. Know

More information

Nomenclature and Household Items

Nomenclature and Household Items Nomenclature and Household Items NAME: DATE: PERIOD: Background: Many household items contain chemicals that are commonly used in everyday life. Some chemicals are edible while other compounds would be

More information

Chapter 3 Stoichiometry

Chapter 3 Stoichiometry Chapter 3 Stoichiometry 3-1 Chapter 3 Stoichiometry In This Chapter As you have learned in previous chapters, much of chemistry involves using macroscopic measurements to deduce what happens between atoms

More information

Chapter 13 & 14 Practice Exam

Chapter 13 & 14 Practice Exam Name: Class: Date: Chapter 13 & 14 Practice Exam Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Acids generally release H 2 gas when they react with a.

More information

Environmental Water Testing: Surface Water, Groundwater, Hard Water, Wastewater, & Seawater

Environmental Water Testing: Surface Water, Groundwater, Hard Water, Wastewater, & Seawater Document: AND Sol Env 08 2013 Environmental Water Testing: Surface Water, Groundwater, Hard Water, Wastewater, & Seawater Matrix specific sample preparation and testing methods for environmental waters

More information

A Volumetric Analysis (Redox Titration) of Hypochlorite in Bleach

A Volumetric Analysis (Redox Titration) of Hypochlorite in Bleach CHEM 311L Quantitative Analysis Laboratory Revision 2.3 A Volumetric Analysis (Redox Titration) of Hypochlorite in Bleach In this laboratory exercise, we will determine the concentration of the active

More information

Chemists use the ph value to measure how acidic or basic a solution is. The ph scale runs from 0 to 14:

Chemists use the ph value to measure how acidic or basic a solution is. The ph scale runs from 0 to 14: The ph Value Chemists use the ph value to measure how acidic or basic a solution is. The ph scale runs from 0 to 14: If the ph value is lower than 7 (0 to 6.99) the solution contains more H + ions than

More information

Concept 1. The meaning and usefulness of the mole. The mole (or mol) represents a certain number of objects.

Concept 1. The meaning and usefulness of the mole. The mole (or mol) represents a certain number of objects. Chapter 3. Stoichiometry: Mole-Mass Relationships in Chemical Reactions Concept 1. The meaning and usefulness of the mole The mole (or mol) represents a certain number of objects. SI def.: the amount of

More information

Acids and Bases. Chapter 16

Acids and Bases. Chapter 16 Acids and Bases Chapter 16 The Arrhenius Model An acid is any substance that produces hydrogen ions, H +, in an aqueous solution. Example: when hydrogen chloride gas is dissolved in water, the following

More information

Basic Toxicology Lab Stations. Modified By Stefani D. Hines, M.A., M.S. Station 1: SEPUP Determining Threshold Limits: Taste Test for Salt Solution

Basic Toxicology Lab Stations. Modified By Stefani D. Hines, M.A., M.S. Station 1: SEPUP Determining Threshold Limits: Taste Test for Salt Solution Basic Toxicology Lab Stations Modified By Stefani D. Hines, M.A., M.S. University of Arizona, Southwest Environmental Health Sciences Center, funded by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences

More information

Formulas, Equations and Moles

Formulas, Equations and Moles Chapter 3 Formulas, Equations and Moles Interpreting Chemical Equations You can interpret a balanced chemical equation in many ways. On a microscopic level, two molecules of H 2 react with one molecule

More information

Coimisiún na Scrúduithe Stáit State Examinations Commission

Coimisiún na Scrúduithe Stáit State Examinations Commission Coimisiún na Scrúduithe Stáit State Examinations Commission LEAVING CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION, 2007 CHEMISTRY - ORDINARY LEVEL TUESDAY, 19 JUNE AFTERNOON 2.00 TO 5.00 400 MARKS Answer eight questions in

More information

Phosphates (ortho- and total)

Phosphates (ortho- and total) INTRODUCTION Phosphates (ortho- and total) Phosphorus is an essential nutrient for all aquatic plants and algae. Only a very small amount is needed, however, so an excess of phosphorus can easily occur.

More information

RECITATION NOTES FOR EXPERIMENT # 5 A&B THIN LAYER CHROMATOGRAPHY

RECITATION NOTES FOR EXPERIMENT # 5 A&B THIN LAYER CHROMATOGRAPHY RECITATION NOTES FOR EXPERIMENT # 5 A&B THIN LAYER CHROMATOGRAPHY Have your lab textbook available for quick reference to specific pages, indicated in red. BASIC PRINCIPLES OF CHROMATOGRAPHY Chromatography

More information

Hot water extractable acidity or alkalinity of paper (Reaffirmation of T 428 om-08) (No changes from Draft 1)

Hot water extractable acidity or alkalinity of paper (Reaffirmation of T 428 om-08) (No changes from Draft 1) NOTICE: This is a DRAFT of a TAPPI Standard in ballot. Although available for public viewing, it is still under TAPPI s copyright and may not be reproduced or distributed without permission of TAPPI. This

More information

OSMOSIS AND DIALYSIS 2003 BY Wendy Weeks-Galindo with modifications by David A. Katz

OSMOSIS AND DIALYSIS 2003 BY Wendy Weeks-Galindo with modifications by David A. Katz OSMOSIS AND DIALYSIS 2003 BY Wendy Weeks-Galindo with modifications by David A. Katz OSMOSIS Osmosis is the reason that a fresh water fish placed in the ocean desiccates and dies. Osmosis is the reason

More information

NCW and Community Activity SAFETY GUIDELINES

NCW and Community Activity SAFETY GUIDELINES NCW and Community Activity SAFETY GUIDELINES These guidelines are based on the premise that all presenters care very much about the safety of their audiences and participants during demonstration shows

More information