Cuyahoga County WORKFORCE INDICATORS, Joseph G. Ahern, Fellow

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1 Cuyahoga County WORKFORCE INDICATORS, 2014 Joseph G. Ahern, Fellow August, 2014

2 CUYAHOGA COUNTY WORKFORCE INDICATORS, 2014 Table of Contents Introduction... 3 Key Findings... 3 A. Labor Force Participation and Unemployment... 6 Labor Force Participation... 6 Unemployment... 9 Comparison between Cleveland and Cuyahoga Suburbs B. Demographics of Labor Force Subpopulations Age Gender Race/Hispanic Origin Educational Attainment Household Type Household Relationship Marital Status Presence of Children Household Income C. Occupation Cuyahoga County Cleveland Demographic Characteristics of Employed Persons by Occupation D. Median Earned Income Age Gender Race/Hispanic Origin Educational Attainment Occupation Conclusion Where Do We Go From Here?... 41

3 CUYAHOGA COUNTY WORKFORCE INDICATORS, 2014 Introduction This report is an update of a previous study, 2008 Cuyahoga County Workforce Indicators, 1 prepared by Community Solutions for the Cleveland/Cuyahoga County Workforce Investment Board. That study examined the characteristics of the county s workforce using data from the 2006 American Community Survey (ACS). This updated report uses a three year pooled sample from the ACS Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS), 2 covering , with some comparisons to the period. 3 As employment is a lagging indicator of economic growth, these two periods can approximate workforce conditions just before ( ) and in the depth of ( ) the Great Recession of 2007 to It is the goal of these analyses to assist local workforce development programs to identify the subpopulations most in need of assistance, such as younger workers, those with educational deficits, and racial/ethnic minorities. Key Findings Labor force participation declined and unemployment greatly increased for most demographic groups in Cuyahoga County between and Although more males than females were in the labor force, males also experienced higher unemployment rates. Labor force participation was lower and unemployment higher in both periods for young workers age 16 to 24, African Americans, those with only a 12 th grade education or less, and residents of the city of Cleveland compared to Cuyahoga County suburbs. These disparities in labor force participation and unemployment rates were reflected in the composition of the three labor force subpopulations: the employed, the unemployed, and those not in the labor force. For example, the unemployed are disproportionately younger (age 16 to 24), African American, having only a high school diploma or less, living in a female headed family, never married, or having a household income less than $25,000. Almost half of all employed persons in the county were in the following five occupational groups in : Office and Administrative Support; Sales; Management; Production; and Food Preparation and Serving. The Center for Community Solutions Page 3

4 The unemployment rate in the county was above 20 percent in for workers in Construction and Extraction; Building and Grounds Cleaning and Maintenance; and Transportation and Material Moving occupations. Unemployment was below 4 percent in the following occupations: Healthcare Practitioners and Technical; Computer and Mathematical; Education, Training, and Library; and Legal. The demographic makeup of the employed workforce differed by occupation. o Young workers age 16 to 24 tended to be concentrated in Health Care Support; Personal Care and Service; Sales; and Food Preparation and Serving occupations. o Females predominated in Community and Social Services; Education, Training, and Library; Healthcare Practitioners and Technical; Healthcare Support; Personal Care and Service (including child care); and Office and Administrative Support. o The highest proportion of African American workers were found in Community and Social Services; Healthcare Support; Building and Grounds Cleaning and Maintenance; Personal Care and Service; and Transportation and Material Moving. Compared to their share of the population, Asians and Pacific Islanders had higher proportions of jobs in Computer and Mathematical; Life, Physical, and Social Sciences; and Healthcare Practitioners and Technical. o Workers with only a high school diploma clustered in occupations not requiring more formal academic education, although they may require some additional vocational or on the job training, such as in Installation, Maintenance, and Repair. Many of these occupations were also prevalent among those workers who did not complete high school. As noted above, some of these occupations, such as Transportation and Building and Grounds Cleaning, had unemployment rates exceeding 20 percent in Median earned income in the county (in 2011 dollars) declined 9.4 percent, from $30,333 in , to $27,478 in o Median income was highest among workers age 45 to 64 and lowest among those age 16 to 24. o Males had significantly higher median earned income ($31,709 in ) than females ($23,391). o African Americans had significantly lower median income ($20,696) than Whites ($30,222) or Asian/Pacific Islanders ($33,589). The Center for Community Solutions Page 4

5 o o o Higher levels of educational attainment were significantly associated with higher median incomes. The occupations with the highest median incomes in were: Computer and Mathematical; Legal; Architecture and Engineering; Management; and Financial Specialists. The occupations with the lowest median incomes were: Food Preparation and Serving; Personal Care and Service; Building and Grounds Cleaning and Maintenance; Healthcare Support; and Sales. The Center for Community Solutions Page 5

6 A. Labor Force Participation and Unemployment In the aftermath of the Great Recession of 2007 to 2009, unemployment rates rose dramatically and only slowly subsided. Labor force participation is closely related to unemployment and sometimes confounds its interpretation. The labor force consists of those age 16 or over who are working (employed) and those who are not working but actively seeking work (unemployed). The official unemployment rate only counts those who are looking for work, and excludes those who, among others, have given up looking for work ( discouraged workers ), have retired early, or become full time homemakers. This section examines the labor force participation and unemployment rates for Cuyahoga County by age, gender, race, and educational attainment for the period during the worst of the recession. Labor Force Participation The Cuyahoga County labor force numbered 653,000 in , or 63.5 percent of the population age 16 and over. This was significantly 4 lower than the statewide rate of 64.3 percent, and a significant decline from the county s rate of 64.8 percent in (see Figure A 1). Figure A-1 Labor Force Participation Rates and Ohio 65.4% 64.3% Cuyahoga County 64.8% 63.5% Cleveland 60.1% 59.0% Suburbs 66.8% 65.6% 0.0% 20.0% 40.0% 60.0% 80.0% 100.0% The Center for Community Solutions Page 6

7 Age, Gender, Race, and Ethnicity: Labor force participation in the county was highest among adults age 25 to 44, 84.6 percent, compared to 60.9 percent for young adults age 16 to 24, 73.0 percent for adults 45 to 64, and 15.0 percent for seniors 65 and over (see Figure A 2). Males had a significantly higher participation rate (67.8 percent) than females (59.8 percent) (see Figure A 3). African Americans had a significantly lower rate (59.9 percent) than Whites (64.8 percent), Asian/Pacific Americans (66.8 percent), and other or multiple race individuals (67.7 percent) (see Figure A 4). Hispanics, who may be of any race, had a participation rate of 67.0 percent. Educational Attainment: Labor force participation was significantly highest among those with four or more years of college (77.9 percent), compared to 72.5 percent of those with one to three years of college, and 59.6 percent of those with only a high school diploma. Only 35.0 percent of those 16 and over without a high school diploma were in the labor force, not significantly different from the statewide rate of 35.7 percent. Counting only those in the prime working ages of 18 to 64, just over half 41,300 of 78,500 of high school dropouts in the county (52.6 percent) were in the labor force (see Figure A 5). Figure A-2 Labor Force Participation Rates by Age Cuyahoga County, and All Ages 16 and Over 16 to % 63.5% 63.5% 60.9% 25 to to % 84.6% 75.0% 73.0% 65 and over 14.3% 15.0% 0.0% 20.0% 40.0% 60.0% 80.0% 100.0% The Center for Community Solutions Page 7

8 Figure A-3 Labor Force Participation Rates by Gender Cuyahoga County, and Both Sexes 64.8% 63.5% Male 70.2% 67.8% Female 60.0% 59.8% 0.0% 20.0% 40.0% 60.0% 80.0% 100.0% Figure A-4 Labor Force Participation Rates by Race and Hispanic Origin Cuyahoga County, and All Races White African American Asian/Pacific Other/Multiple Hispanic (Any Race) 64.8% 63.5% 65.0% 64.8% 63.3% 59.9% 72.8% 66.8% 67.0% 67.7% 68.3% 67.0% 0.0% 20.0% 40.0% 60.0% 80.0% 100.0% The Center for Community Solutions Page 8

9 Figure A-5 Labor Force Participation Rates by Educational Attainment Cuyahoga County, and All Levels 64.8% 63.5% Less than Grade % 35.0% Grade % 59.6% 1 to 3 Years College 4 or More Years College 74.1% 72.5% 78.7% 77.9% 0.0% 20.0% 40.0% 60.0% 80.0% 100.0% Unemployment In , more than 85,000 Cuyahoga County residents were unemployed (i.e., not working but actively seeking work), 13.1 percent of all residents in the labor force. The county s unemployment rate was significantly higher than the statewide rate (11.0 percent) in It was also significantly higher than the corresponding rate of 8.9 percent in (see Figure A 6). The Center for Community Solutions Page 9

10 Figure A-6 Unemployment Rates and Ohio 7.1% 11.0% Cuyahoga County 8.9% 13.1% Cleveland 15.6% 21.2% Suburbs 6.3% 9.8% 0.0% 5.0% 10.0% 15.0% 20.0% 25.0% 30.0% Age, Gender, Race, and Ethnicity: Young workers, males, and African Americans experienced higher levels of unemployment in The unemployment rate in the county was highest among the youngest workers age 16 to 24 (26.0 percent), compared to 12.9 percent of those age 25 to 44, 9.5 percent of those age 45 to 64, and 6.6 percent of those age 65 or over (see Figure A 7). It was also significantly higher for males (14.7 percent) than for females (11.4 percent) (see Figure A 8). Almost one fourth (22.7 percent) of African Americans in the county s labor force were unemployed, more than twice the rate for Whites (9.3 percent) and Asian/Pacific workers (6.4 percent). The unemployment rate was also high for those of other or multiple races (21.1 percent) and Hispanics of any race (17.9 percent) (see Figure A 9). Educational Attainment: As education increases, unemployment decreases. Those without a high school diploma had the highest unemployment rate (33.7 percent), and those with at least a bachelor s degree had the lowest (5.1 percent). Those with only a high school diploma had an unemployment rate of 16.7 percent and those with some college but no degree had a rate of 11.3 percent (see Figure A 10). The Center for Community Solutions Page 10

11 Figure A-7 Unemployment Rates by Age Cuyahoga County, and All Ages 16 and Over 8.9% 13.1% 16 to % 26.0% 25 to % 12.9% 45 to % 9.5% 65 and over 4.8% 6.6% 0.0% 10.0% 20.0% 30.0% 40.0% Figure A-8 Unemployment Rates by Gender Cuyahoga County, and Both Sexes 8.9% 13.1% Male 9.3% 14.7% Female 8.4% 11.4% 0.0% 5.0% 10.0% 15.0% 20.0% The Center for Community Solutions Page 11

12 Figure A-9 Unemployment Rates by Race and Hispanic Origin Cuyahoga County, and All Races White 8.9% 6.2% 9.3% 13.1% African American 16.0% 22.7% Asian/Pacific 4.5% 6.4% Other/Multiple Hispanic (Any Race) 10.9% 12.2% 17.9% 21.1% 0.0% 10.0% 20.0% 30.0% 40.0% Figure A-10 Unemployment Rates by Educational Attainment Cuyahoga County, and All Levels 8.9% 13.1% Less than Grade % 33.7% Grade % 16.7% 1 to 3 Years College 7.3% 11.3% 4 or More Years College 2.8% 5.1% 0.0% 10.0% 20.0% 30.0% 40.0% 50.0% The Center for Community Solutions Page 12

13 Comparison between Cleveland and Cuyahoga Suburbs Labor force participation was significantly lower, and unemployment significantly higher, in the city of Cleveland compared to Cuyahoga County suburbs. In , only 59.0 percent of Cleveland residents age 16 and over were in the labor force, compared to 65.6 percent of suburbanites (see Figure A 1). In the same period, the unemployment rate in Cleveland was 21.2 percent, compared to the suburban rate of 9.8 percent (see Figure A 6). Labor force participation was significantly lower in Cleveland than in the suburbs for all age, gender, and racial groups, except for age 16 to 24 and those of Asian/Pacific races; there was no significant difference by level of educational attainment. Likewise, unemployment was significantly higher in Cleveland for all age, gender, and racial groups, except those age 65 and over and those of Asian/Pacific background; however, unemployment was significantly higher in Cleveland than in the suburbs for all educational groups except college graduates. The Center for Community Solutions Page 13

14 B. Demographics of Labor Force Subpopulations This section compares the demographic characteristics of the three labor force subpopulations: (1) the employed; (2) the unemployed (i.e., looking for work): and (3) those not in the labor force (i.e., not looking for work). These characteristics are given for persons age 16 to 64 in Cuyahoga County in Age Figure B-1 Age Group by Labor Force Status, Ages 16 to 64 Cuyahoga County, % 80% 44.3% 30.2% 47.7% 43.7% 60% 40% 43.2% 41.3% 23.8% 38.2% 45 to to to 24 20% 0% 12.5% 28.5% 28.6% Employed Unemployed Not in the Labor Force 18.1% Total Population Young adults age 16 to 24 made up only 12.5 percent of the employed population in the county, but 28.5 percent of the unemployed and 28.6 percent of persons not in the labor force. Statewide, young adults comprised a slight but statistically significant higher proportion (13.6 percent) of the employed. Adults 25 to 44 made up almost equal proportions of the employed (43.2 percent) and unemployed (41.3 percent of the unemployed) and a quarter (23.8 percent) of those not in the labor force. Older working age adults 45 to 64 made up 44.3 percent of the employed, 30.2 percent of the unemployed, and 47.7 percent of those not in the labor force (see Figure B 1). The median age of the unemployed in Cuyahoga County was 34.6 years, significantly younger than the median of the employed (41.4 years) and those not in the labor force (42.4 years). These were all slightly but significantly older than the corresponding median ages statewide: 33.7 The Center for Community Solutions Page 14

15 years for the unemployed, 41.0 years for the employed, and 40.6 years for those not in the labor force. Gender Figure B-2 Gender by Labor Force Status, Age 16 to 64 Cuyahoga County, % 80% 51.4% 44.0% 56.4% 51.9% 60% 40% Female Male 20% 48.7% 56.0% 43.6% 48.1% 0% Employed Unemployed Not in the Labor Force Total Population Significantly more females than males were employed in the county (51.4 percent female to 48.7 percent males), and significantly more males (56.0 percent) than females (44.0 percent) were unemployed. Of those not in the labor force, 56.4 percent were female and 43.6 percent were male (see Figure B 2). Among the employed statewide, a slight majority were male (51.0 percent), although more males (57.0 percent) than females were unemployed, and more females (57.1 percent) than males were not in the labor force. The Center for Community Solutions Page 15

16 Race/Hispanic Origin Figure B-3 Race by Labor Force Status, Age 16 to 64 Cuyahoga County, % 80% 23.8% 46.7% 37.4% 29.5% 60% Other/Multiple Asian/Pacific 40% 20% 70.9% 48.0% 56.5% 65.1% African American White 0% Employed Unemployed Not in the Labor Force Total Population Whites comprised 70.9 percent of the employed in the county, but only 48.0 percent of the unemployed and 56.5 percent of those not in the labor force. African Americans made up 46.7 percent of the unemployed, but only 23.8 percent of the employed and 37.4 percent of those not in the labor force. The remainder of each category was composed of persons of Asian, Pacific Islander, other, or multiple races (see Figure B 3). Hispanics of all races made up 4.6 percent of the total working age population; they comprised a significantly higher proportion of the unemployed (5.9 percent) than of the employed (4.1 percent), and 5.3 percent of those not in the labor force. In Ohio as a whole, Whites made up 86.1 percent of the employed and 74.7 percent of the unemployed, while African Americans were 9.8 percent of the employed but 20.8 percent of the unemployed. Hispanics comprised 2.7 percent of the employed and 3.4 percent of the unemployed, a significant difference. Of those not in the labor force statewide, 79.3 percent were white and 15.7 percent were African Americans; 3.2 percent were Hispanic. The Center for Community Solutions Page 16

17 Educational Attainment Figure B-4 Educational Attainment by Labor Force Status, Age 16 to 64 Cuyahoga County, % 12.0% 14.1% 80% 34.4% 22.2% 19.5% 27.2% 60% 40% 26.3% 44.4% 36.2% 24.2% 4+ Years College 1-3 Years College Grade % Less than Grade 12 20% 0% 33.1% 6.2% 21.4% 30.2% Employed Unemployed Not in the Labor Force 13.7% Total Population Workers without a high school diploma made up 6.2 percent of the county s employed, but more than one fifth (21.4 percent) of the unemployed and almost one third (30.2 percent) of persons not in the labor force. One third (33.1 percent) of the employed, but more than twofifths (44.4 percent) of the unemployed had only a high school diploma; they also made up more than one third (36.2 percent) of those not in the labor force. Altogether, persons with at most a high school diploma made up 39.3 percent of the employed and almost two thirds (65.8 percent) of the unemployed. Those with some college but no degree fared somewhat better, comprising 26.3 percent of the employed and 22.2 percent of the unemployed, as well as 19.5 percent of those not in the labor force. Persons with at least a bachelor s degree made up more than one third (34.4 percent) of the employed, but only 12.0 percent of the unemployed and 14.1 percent of those not in the labor force (see Figure B 4). Statewide, both the employed and the unemployed had significantly lower educational attainment than in Cuyahoga County. Thirty nine percent of Ohio s employed had only a high school diploma, higher than the county proportion, and 28.6 had at least a bachelor s degree, lower than the county. Among the state s unemployed, almost half (49.4 percent) had only a high school diploma, while only 9.7 percent had four years of college or more. The Center for Community Solutions Page 17

18 Household Type Figure B-5 Household Type by Labor Force Status, Age 16 to 64 Cuyahoga County, % 80% 29.1% 29.0% 27.4% 28.7% 60% 18.1% 35.6% 25.5% 21.6% All Other 40% Female-Headed Family Married-Couple Family 20% 52.8% 35.4% 47.2% 49.7% 0% Employed Unemployed Not in the Labor Force Total Population More than half (52.8 percent) of the county s employed persons lived in married couple families, compared to a third (35.4 percent) of the unemployed and almost half (47.2 percent) of those not in the labor force. Persons living in female headed families made up only 18.1 percent of the employed, compared to 35.6 percent of the unemployed and 25.5 percent of those not in the labor force. All other household types (including persons living alone) accounted for 29.1 percent of the employed, 29.0 percent of the unemployed, and 27.4 percent of those not in the labor force (see Figure B 5). In Ohio as a whole, a significantly higher proportion in all labor force categories were married, and a significantly lower proportion were in female headed families. The Center for Community Solutions Page 18

19 Household Relationship Figure B-6 Household Relationship by Labor Force Status, Age 16 to 64 Cuyahoga County, % 80% 23.5% 48.9% 47.1% 31.9% 60% 21.4% 19.4% Other 40% 11.3% 17.6% Spouse Householder 20% 55.1% 39.8% 35.3% 48.7% 0% Employed Unemployed Not in the Labor Force Total Population More than half (55.1 percent) of employed persons in the county were householders (formerly known as head of household ), 5 compared to 39.8 percent of the unemployed and 35.3 percent of those not in the labor force. Spouses of householders made up 21.4 percent of the employed, 11.3 percent of the unemployed, and 17.6 percent of those not in the labor force. All other household members comprised 23.5 percent of the employed, 48.5 percent of the unemployed, and 47.1 percent of those not in the labor force (see Figure B 6). Among the employed statewide, a slight but significantly lower proportion were householders (52.7 percent), and a significantly higher proportion were spouses (25.5 percent). The Center for Community Solutions Page 19

20 Marital Status Figure B-7 Marital Status by Labor Force Status, Age 16 to 64 Cuyahoga County, % Married Separated / Divorced / Widowed Never Married 80% 37.3% 58.6% 50.5% 42.7% 60% 16.5% 17.0% 40% 17.5% 18.3% 20% 46.3% 23.9% 31.2% 40.3% 0% Employed Unemployed Not in the Labor Force Total Population Married persons made up almost half (46.3 percent) of the employed in the county, but only about a quarter of the unemployed (23.9 percent) and a third of those not in the labor force (31.2 percent). Those who were separated, divorced, or widowed comprised similar proportions of each category 16.5 percent of the employed, 17.5 percent of the unemployed, and 18.3 percent of those not in the labor force. The never married made up 37.3 percent of the employed, but more than half (58.6 percent) of the unemployed and 50.5 percent of those not in the labor force (see Figure B 7). Statewide, in all three labor force categories, there was a significantly greater proportion who were married than in the county and a significantly smaller proportion who were never married. The Center for Community Solutions Page 20

21 Presence of Children Figure B-8 Presence of Children by Labor Force Status, Age 16 to 64 Cuyahoga County, % 80% 61.1% 56.7% 59.0% 60.2% 60% None 40% One or More 20% 38.9% 43.3% 41.0% 39.8% 0% Employed Unemployed Not in the Labor Force Total Population Thirty nine percent of employed persons in the county lived in households with one or more children under 18, significantly lower than the 43.3 percent of the unemployed, but not significantly different from the 41.0 percent of those not in the labor force (see Figure B 8). Statewide, there were significantly more employed people with children, 41.9 percent. The Center for Community Solutions Page 21

22 Household Income Figure B-9 Household Income by Labor Force Status, Age 16 to 64 Cuyahoga County, % 80% 25.9% 8.7% 20.7% 19.7% 22.6% 21.0% 60% 40% 20% 38.0% 23.9% 25.9% 44.7% 22.4% 36.9% 32.0% 23.7% $100,000 and Over $50,000 to $99,999 $25,000 to $49,999 Under $25,000 0% 12.2% Employed Unemployed Not in the Labor Force 21.6% Total Population Twelve percent of employed persons in the county lived in households whose total annual income was under $25,000 (in 2011 dollars), compared to almost half (44.7 percent) of the unemployed, and more than a third (36.9 percent) of those not in the labor force. About a quarter in each category had household incomes between $25,000 and $50,000. Thirty eight percent of the employed had household incomes of $50,000 to $100,000, compared to 21 percent of the unemployed and those not in the labor force. At the highest level, a quarter (25.9 percent) of the employed had household incomes of $100,000 and over, compared to 8.7 percent of the unemployed and 19.7 percent of those not in the labor force (see Figure B 9). In all labor force categories statewide, there was a significantly lower proportion of persons in households at the lowest income level (under $25,000) and a significantly higher proportion in the upper middle level ($50,000 to $100,000). The Center for Community Solutions Page 22

23 C. Occupation Cuyahoga County: The occupational groups 6 with the most workers in the county in were: Office and Administrative Support (79,266 persons employed) Sales (58,551) Management (50,346) Production (33,682) Food Preparation and Serving (33,596) Together, these five categories represented almost half (48.1 percent) of all employed persons. Three of these five groups Office and Administrative Support, Sales, and Production showed a significant decline in the number employed since Employment for all categories for both time periods is detailed in Table C 1 below. The unemployment rate in in the county was highest for Construction and Extraction workers (25.3 percent), followed by Building and Grounds Cleaning and Maintenance (21.0 percent), Transportation and Material Moving (20.0 percent), Food Preparation and Serving (17.6 percent), and Sales (13.3 percent). The lowest unemployment rates were experienced by Healthcare Practitioners and Technical (1.7 percent); Computer and Mathematical (2.6 percent); Educational, Training, and Library (3.3 percent); and Legal (3.5 percent). For most occupational groups the unemployment rate was significantly higher in than in ; these are denoted by an (*) in Table C 1. The Center for Community Solutions Page 23

24 Table C-1: Employment by Occupation, Age 16 to 64, Cuyahoga County Number Employed Percent of Labor Force, Unemployment Rate SOC Major Category Management 52,341 50, % 3.1% *6.0% Business Operations Specialists 13,001 13, % 4.1% *7.2% Financial Specialists 15,907 15, % 3.1% *6.1% Computer and Mathematical 13,035 14, % 3.2% 2.6% Architecture and Engineering 10,322 9, % 2.2% *6.3% Life, Physical, and Social Scientists 5,671 5, % 3.2% 4.3% Community and Social Services 10,049 9, % 3.9% 5.0% Legal 9,144 7, % 1.6% *3.5% Education, Training, and Library 31,979 31, % 3.5% 3.3% Arts, Design, Entertainment, Sports, Media 10,197 8, % 4.7% *10.4% Healthcare Practitioners and Technical 35,887 38, % 1.8% 1.7% Healthcare Support 16,666 18, % 10.5% 10.9% Protective Services 13,961 *10, % 4.3% *8.5% Food Preparation and Serving 31,904 33, % 15.6% 17.6% Building and Grounds Cleaning and Maintenance 23,634 21, % 10.8% *21.0% Personal Care and Service 17,900 18, % 9.8% *8.8% Sales 64,096 *58, % 8.2% *13.3% Office and Administrative Support 92,180 *79, % 7.3% *10.9% Construction and Extraction 18,618 17, % 15.7% *25.3% Installation, Maintenance, and Repair 15,401 15, % 5.8% *10.6% Production 44,392 *33, % 11.0% *19.9% Transportation and Material Moving 32,571 29, % 13.0% *20.0% Total 578, , % 7.6% *11.5% * Statistically significant change from at the 90 percent confidence level. The Center for Community Solutions Page 24

25 Cleveland: The occupational groups with the highest number of employed among Cleveland workers in were: Office and Administrative Support (20,282 persons employed) Production (12,594) Sales (12,718) Food Preparation and Serving (11,465) Transportation and Material Moving (10,482) Workers in these categories comprised just over half (50.2 percent) of employed Cleveland residents in Employment in Office and Administrative Support and Production occupations declined significantly from levels, while Healthcare Practitioner and Technical workers experienced a significant increase of more than 2,000 jobs between the two periods. Table C 2 summarizes Cleveland employment for all occupational groups. Six Cleveland occupational groups had unemployment rates over 20 percent in : Construction and Extraction (29.2 percent), Production (27.3 percent), Transportation and Material Moving (26.5 percent), Sales (23.3 percent), Building and Grounds Cleaning and Maintenance (23.0 percent), and Food Preparation and Serving (22.2 percent). Unemployment rates were also over 20 percent in for workers in Food Preparation and Serving, and Construction and Extraction. Occupations with significantly higher unemployment rates in than in are denoted by an (*) in Table C 2. The Center for Community Solutions Page 25

26 Table C-2: Employment by Occupation, Age 16 to 64, Cleveland Number Employed Percent of Labor Force, Unemployment Rate SOC Major Category Management 9,322 7, % 6.8% 13.2% Business Operations Specialists 2,278 2, % 8.0% 9.3% Financial Specialists 2,696 2, % 3.9% 16.4% Computer and Mathematical 1,653 2, % 6.4% 2.7% Architecture and Engineering 1,174 1, % 1.9% 8.9% Life, Physical, and Social Scientists % 8.6% 7.7% Community and Social Services 3,316 2, % 2.5% 4.9% Legal 1,112 1, % 6.6% 3.0% Education, Training, and Library 5,677 6, % 5.7% 5.1% Arts, Design, Entertainment, Sports, Media 1,944 1, % 2.1% 7.7% Healthcare Practitioners and Technical 5,950 *7, % 2.0% 3.7% Healthcare Support 7,196 8, % 16.0% 13.6% Protective Services 6,149 *4, % 4.3% *13.3% Food Preparation and Serving 11,208 11, % 20.7% 22.2% Building and Grounds Cleaning and Maintenance 10,178 10, % 14.2% *23.0% Personal Care and Service 5,032 5, % 13.9% 17.1% Sales 13,705 12, % 16.9% 23.3% Office and Administrative Support 24,214 *20, % 11.5% *17.3% Construction and Extraction 5,809 5, % 25.5% 29.2% Installation, Maintenance, and Repair 4,530 4, % 11.5% 18.7% Production 16,255 *12, % 16.2% *27.3% Transportation and Material Moving 12,811 10, % 16.2% *26.5% Total 152, , % 13.1% *18.5% * Statistically significant change from at the 90 percent confidence level. The Center for Community Solutions Page 26

27 Demographic Characteristics of Employed Persons by Occupation Age: Workers age 16 to 24 made up 11.9 percent of all employed persons in Cuyahoga County in However, they comprised one fifth of Health Care Support workers (20.1 percent), Personal Care and Service workers (21.5 percent), and Sales workers (19.9 percent). This age group also made up two fifths (40.4 percent) of Food Preparation and Serving jobs (see Table C 3). More than half of all Computer and Mathematical jobs (51.0 percent) and Life, Physical, and Social Science jobs (58.2 percent) were held by workers age 25 to 44, who made up 41.1 percent of all employed persons. Half (50.1 percent) of Management jobs were held by persons age 45 to 64, while they comprised 42.1 percent of all employed persons. Although persons 65 and over made up only 4.9 percent of all employed persons, they held 9.6 percent of all Protective Service jobs. Table C-3: Employed Persons by Age and Occupational Group, Cuyahoga County, SOC Major Category 16 to to to and Over Management 2.8% 42.3% 50.1% 4.8% Business Operations Specialists *5.7% 46.0% 43.3% 5.1% Financial Specialists *4.9% 47.7% 42.1% 5.2% Computer and Mathematical 6.6% 51.0% 41.4% *1.0% Architecture and Engineering *8.8% 48.1% 38.6% *4.5% Life, Physical, and Social Scientists *6.3% 58.2% 31.2% *4.2% Community and Social Services *2.5% 44.2% 46.9% 6.4% Legal *1.8% 45.7% 47.3% *5.2% Education, Training, and Library 8.5% 40.5% 43.5% 7.5% Arts, Design, Entertainment, Sports, Media *8.3% 49.3% 38.0% *4.4% Healthcare Practitioners and Technical 5.5% 47.4% 43.3% 3.8% Healthcare Support 20.1% 43.5% 33.8% *2.6% The Center for Community Solutions Page 27

28 SOC Major Category 16 to to to and Over Protective Services *8.8% 39.3% 42.2% 9.6% Food Preparation and Serving 40.4% 36.0% 21.5% *2.1% Building and Grounds Cleaning and Maintenance 12.1% 36.3% 45.8% 5.9% Personal Care and Service 21.5% 41.2% 32.3% 5.1% Sales 19.9% 38.3% 35.8% 6.0% Office and Administrative Support 10.9% 37.7% 45.4% 6.0% Construction and Extraction *9.2% 45.1% 44.1% *1.6% Installation, Maintenance, and Repair 10.8% 35.1% 51.4% *2.8% Production 7.1% 37.7% 51.3% 3.9% Transportation and Material Moving 10.3% 39.1% 45.1% 5.6% All Occupations 11.9% 41.1% 42.1% 4.9% * Use with Caution: Relative Standard Error Above 20.0% Gender: Just over half of employed persons in the county were female (51.3 percent) and 48.7 percent were male. Males held 57.1 percent of Management jobs, and females 42.9 percent. These proportions were reversed for Business Operations Specialists, 57.0 percent female and 43.0 percent male (see Table C 4). Males also held a much larger proportion of jobs in the following fields: Computer and Mathematical (68.4 percent) Architecture and Engineering (87.3 percent) Life, Physical, and Social Sciences (60.7 percent) Protective Services (78.1 percent) Building and Grounds Cleaning and Maintenance (60.2 percent) Construction and Extraction (95.5 percent) Installation, Maintenance and Repair (94.8 percent) Production (70.5 percent) Transportation and Material Moving (81.4 percent). Females predominated in the following occupations: The Center for Community Solutions Page 28

29 Community and Social Services (65.6 percent) Education, Training, and Library (72.3 percent) Healthcare Practitioners and Technical (72.2 percent) Healthcare Support (85.0 percent) Personal Care and Service (including childcare workers) (85.0 percent) Office and Administrative Support (74.1 percent) Table C-4: Employed Persons by Gender and Occupational Group, Cuyahoga County, SOC Major Category Male Female Management 57.1% 42.9% Business Operations Specialists 43.0% Financial Specialists 50.6% 49.4% Computer and Mathematical 68.4% 31.6% Architecture and Engineering 87.3% 12.7% Life, Physical, and Social Scientists 60.7% 39.3% Community and Social Services 34.4% 65.6% Legal 54.2% 45.8% Education, Training, and Library 27.7% 72.3% Arts, Design, Entertainment, Sports, Media 54.5% 45.5% Healthcare Practitioners and Technical 27.8% 72.2% Healthcare Support 15.0% 85.0% Protective Services 78.1% 21.9% Food Preparation and Serving 42.6% 57.4% Building and Grounds Cleaning and Maintenance 60.2% 39.8% Personal Care and Service 20.0% 80.0% Sales 46.8% 53.2% The Center for Community Solutions Page 29

30 Male Female SOC Major Category Office and Administrative Support 25.9% 74.1% Construction and Extraction 95.9% *4.1% Installation, Maintenance, and Repair 94.8% *5.2% Production 70.5% 29.5% Transportation and Material Moving 81.4% 18.6% All Occupations 48.7% 51.3% * Use with Caution: Relative Standard Error Above 20.0% Race and Ethnicity: Of all employed persons in the county in , 71.2 percent were White, 23.6 percent were African American, 3.0 percent were Asian or Pacific Islander, and 2.2 percent were of other or multiple races. Hispanics of any race comprised 4.0 percent of the employed (see Table C 5) Whites held more than 80 percent of jobs in the following occupations: Management (82.2 percent) Business Operations Specialists (84.9 percent) Architecture and Engineering (85.2 percent) Legal (85.4 percent). The following occupations had the highest proportions of African American workers: Community and Social Services (32.3 percent) Healthcare Support (57.8 percent) Building and Grounds Cleaning and Maintenance (40.5 percent) Personal Care and Service (34.2 percent) Transportation and Material Moving (32.3 percent). Among technical professions, African Americans made up 10.8 percent of Computer and Mathematical occupations, 7.5 percent of Architecture and Engineering positions, and 9.2 percent of Life, Physical, and Social Scientists. Although they represent only 3 percent of total employment, Asians and Pacific Islanders held 14.7 percent of Computer and Mathematical jobs, almost a quarter (23.8 percent) of Life, Physical, and Social Science jobs, and 7.5 percent of Healthcare Practitioners and Technicians. The Center for Community Solutions Page 30

31 While only 4 percent of total employment, Hispanics were disproportionately represented in Building and Grounds Cleaning and Maintenance, where they held 9.4 percent of jobs. Table C-5: Employed Persons by Race/Ethnicity and Occupational Group, Cuyahoga County, SOC Major Category White African American Asian/ Pacific Other or Multiple Hispanic (Any Race) Management 82.2% 13.0% 2.8% *2.0% 2.6% Business Operations Specialists 84.9% 12.0% *1.4% *1.6% *3.2% Financial Specialists 79.4% 17.4% *3.2% *0.0% *1.6% Computer and Mathematical 73.7% 10.8% 14.7% *0.8% *1.7% Architecture and Engineering 85.2% *7.5% *6.1% *1.2% *1.2% Life, Physical, and Social Scientists 66.7% *9.2% 23.8% *0.3% *2.8% Community and Social Services 59.5% 32.3% *1.4% *6.9% *6.3% Legal 85.4% *13.3% *1.1% *0.3% *1.6% Education, Training, and Library 74.9% 19.1% 4.1% *1.9% *2.7% Arts, Design, Entertainment, Sports, Media 84.3% *11.9% *1.6% *2.2% *2.1% Healthcare Practitioners and Technical 71.6% 19.0% 7.5% *1.8% *2.8% Healthcare Support 38.9% 57.8% *1.1% *2.2% *5.9% Protective Services 71.5% 25.5% *0.4% *2.6% *6.1% Food Preparation and Serving 68.9% 24.4% *3.2% *3.6% 5.2% Building and Grounds Cleaning and Maintenance 55.3% 40.5% *0.6% *3.7% *9.4% Personal Care and Service 60.3% 34.2% *4.1% *1.4% *6.3% Sales 78.6% 18.4% 1.5% *1.4% 3.2% Office and Administrative Support 69.4% 27.3% *1.0% 2.3% 3.4% Construction and Extraction 75.8% 21.9% *0.4% *2.0% *4.1% Installation, Maintenance, and Repair 75.3% 22.0% *0.2% *2.5% *4.8% The Center for Community Solutions Page 31

32 SOC Major Category White African American Asian/ Pacific Other or Multiple Hispanic (Any Race) Production 64.1% 28.6% 3.6% 3.7% 6.7% Transportation and Material Moving 64.2% 32.3% *1.6% *1.9% *4.8% All Occupations 71.2% 23.6% 3.0% 2.2% 4.0% * Use with Caution: Relative Standard Error Above 20.0% Educational Attainment: College graduates (those with four or more years of college) made up about a third (34.5 percent) of total employment in the county; about another quarter (25.9 percent) had one to three years of college, including associate s degrees. Those with a high school diploma but no post secondary education made up a third (33.3 percent) of the employed, and 6.3 percent of the employed had no high school diploma (see Table C 6). The following occupations had the largest proportions of college graduates: Financial Specialists (78.2 percent) Life, Physical, and Social Sciences (80.3 percent) Community and Social Services (77.6 percent) Legal (81.6 percent) Education, Training, and Library (80.3 percent) Occupations with more than 30 percent of their employed with one to three years of college include: Healthcare Practitioners and Technical (31.9 percent) Healthcare Support (35.2 percent) Protective Services (32.9 percent) Personal Care and Service (31.8 percent) Office and Administrative Support (36.1 percent) Installation, Maintenance and Repair (33.6 percent) One half or more of those employed in the following occupations had only a high school diploma: Healthcare Support (49.9 percent) Building and Grounds Cleaning and Maintenance (55.0 percent) Construction and Extraction (54.8 percent) Installation, Maintenance, and Repair (55.6 percent) Production (55.5 percent) The Center for Community Solutions Page 32

33 Transportation and Material Moving (55.3 percent) Although only 6 percent of total employment, workers without a high school diploma make up more than 10 percent of these occupations: Food Preparation and Serving (19.5 percent) Building and Grounds Cleaning and Maintenance (19.2 percent) Construction and Extraction (11.1 percent) Production (14.2 percent) Transportation and Material Moving (12.3 percent) Table C-6: Employed Persons by Educational Attainment and Occupational Group, Cuyahoga County, SOC Major Category Less Than Grade 12 Grade 12 1 to 3 Years Of College 4 or More Years of College Management *1.1% 16.2% 21.6% 61.0% Business Operations Specialists *0.8% 16.1% 20.8% 62.3% Financial Specialists *0.0% 5.2% 16.6% 78.2% Computer and Mathematical *0.9% 8.7% 25.2% 65.2% Architecture and Engineering *0.2% 8.5% 26.7% 64.6% Life, Physical, and Social Scientists *0.0% *8.1% *11.7% 80.3% Community and Social Services *1.8% *9.0% *11.6% 77.6% Legal *0.0% *6.0% *12.4% 81.6% Education, Training, and Library *0.5% 9.7% 9.6% 80.3% Arts, Design, Entertainment, Sports, Media *0.6% 11.7% 21.8% 65.9% Healthcare Practitioners and Technical *0.4% 9.6% 31.9% 58.1% Healthcare Support 7.5% 49.9% 35.2% *7.5% Protective Services *5.3% 40.1% 32.9% 21.6% Food Preparation and Serving 19.5% 48.9% 23.2% 8.4% Building and Grounds Cleaning and Maintenance 19.2% 55.0% 20.7% 5.1% Personal Care and Service 7.8% 48.4% 31.8% 12.0% The Center for Community Solutions Page 33

34 SOC Major Category Less Than Grade 12 Grade 12 1 to 3 Years Of College 4 or More Years of College Sales 7.7% 34.8% 27.9% 29.6% Office and Administrative Support 3.5% 42.0% 36.1% 18.3% Construction and Extraction 11.1% 54.8% 28.2% *5.9% Installation, Maintenance, and Repair *6.0% 55.6% 33.6% 4.8% Production 14.2% 55.5% 23.8% 6.4% Transportation and Material Moving 12.3% 55.3% 23.6% 8.8% All Occupations 6.3% 33.3% 25.9% 34.5% * Use with Caution: Relative Standard Error Above 20.0% The Center for Community Solutions Page 34

35 D. Median Earned Income, AND The median annual earned income in Cuyahoga County in , whether from wages or self employment, declined significantly by 9.4 percent from $30,333 (in 2011 dollars) in to $27,478 in for all persons ages 16 and over who had earned income (see Figure D 1). The county s median was significantly higher than the median for Ohio as a whole in both periods, $28,966 in and $26,420 in ; the decline over time was also significant at the state level. Age Figure D-1 Median Earned Income by Age Cuyahoga County, and All Ages 16 and Over $30,333 $27, to 24 $5,428 $5, to to 64 $33,425 $29,990 $38,649 $35, and Over $16,721 $16,295 $0 $10,000 $20,000 $30,000 $40,000 $50,000 In , the median income in the county was $5,998 for age 16 to 24, not significantly different from $5,428 in The age groups 25 to 44 and 45 to 64 both experienced a significant decline. In , workers age 25 to 44 earned a median of $33,425, but only $29,990 in Workers age 45 to 64 earned a median of $38,649 in but only $35,350 in Among those 65 and over in the county with earned income, their median declined slightly but not significantly from $16,721 in to $16,295 in ; in both periods, Cuyahoga seniors earned significantly more than seniors statewide, who earned a median of $14,451 in and $13,824 in The Center for Community Solutions Page 35

36 Gender Figure D-2 Median Earned Income by Gender Cuyahoga County, and Both Sexes $27,478 $30,333 Male $31,709 $36,061 Female $26,012 $23,391 $0 $10,000 $20,000 $30,000 $40,000 Males in the county had a significantly higher median ($31,709) than females ($23,391) in , although the latter was significantly higher than the statewide median for females ($21,962). Both genders in the county experienced a significant decline from , when the median was $36,061 for males and $26,012 for females (see Figure D 2). The Center for Community Solutions Page 36

37 Race/Hispanic Origin Figure D-3 Median Earned Income by Race and Hispanic Origin Cuyahoga County, and All Races White African American Asian/Pacific $24,089 $20,696 $30,333 $27,478 $33,438 $30,222 $33,454 $33,589 Other/Multiple $18,342 $23,586 Hispanic (any race) $21,863 $19,818 $0 $10,000 $20,000 $30,000 $40,000 In , the median for Whites in the county ($30,222) was significantly higher than that for Whites in Ohio as a whole ($27,649), but African Americans had a median of only $20,696, significantly lower than Whites. Workers of Asian/Pacific background had a non significantly higher median ($33,589) than Whites, and persons of other or multiple race had a significantly lower median ($18,342). Hispanics of any race had a median of $19,818. There was a significant decline from levels for both whites ($33,438) and African Americans ($24,089) in the county (see Figure D 3). The Center for Community Solutions Page 37

38 Educational Attainment Figure D-4 Median Earned Income by Educational Attainment Cuyahoga County, and All Levels $30,333 $27,478 Less Than Grade 12 $7,294 $7,940 Grade 12 $24,527 $20, Years College $30,946 $25, Years College $52,200 $46,752 $0 $10,000 $20,000 $30,000 $40,000 $50,000 $60,000 Higher levels of educational attainment were significantly associated with higher median incomes. Workers in the county without a high school diploma had a median of $7,940 in , compared to $20,900 for those with a diploma only, although the latter is significantly lower than the statewide median for high school graduates ($22,103). Workers with some college but no degree had a median of $25,402, and those with a bachelor s degree or higher had a median of $46,752. While there was no significant change in the county from for those without a high school diploma, the median for all other educational groups significantly declined. In , the county median was $24,527 for those with only a high school diploma, $30,946 for those with one to three years of college, and $52,200 for college graduates (see Figure D 4). The Center for Community Solutions Page 38

39 Occupation The occupational groups with the highest and lowest median earned income in Cuyahoga County in were: Highest Computer and Mathematical ($59,942) Legal ($55,176) Architecture and Engineering ($55,101) Management ($52,677) Financial Specialists ($49,913) Lowest Food Preparation and Serving ($9,404) Personal Care and Service ($12,177) Building and Grounds Cleaning and Maintenance ($13,732) Healthcare Support ($16,960) Sales ($19,001) Six occupational groups experienced a significant decline in their median income between and : Management; Architecture and Engineering; Healthcare Support; Sales; Installation, Maintenance, and Repair; and Transportation and Material Moving. Four groups in the county had median incomes significantly higher than the statewide median in : Financial Specialists; Community and Social Services; Food Preparation and Serving; and Office and Administrative Support. However, Production workers in Cuyahoga County had a significantly lower median ($25,401) than Production workers statewide ($27,653). Detailed median earned incomes for all major occupational groups for the county and the state in both periods are shown in Table D 1. The Center for Community Solutions Page 39

40 Table D-1: Median Earned Income (2011 Dollars) by Occupation SOC Major Category Cuyahoga County Cuyahoga Signif. Diff from Ohio? Ohio Management $58,997 *$52,677 $56,408 *$52,840 Business Operations Specialists $46,128 $43,026 $45,522 $43,615 Financial Specialists $46,884 $49,913 H $46,868 $46,076 Computer and Mathematical $62,474 $59,942 $60,919 $59,575 Architecture and Engineering $63,615 *$55,101 $62,605 *$57,949 Life, Physical, and Social Scientists $46,563 $38,955 $48,751 $44,802 Community and Social Services $37,349 $37,756 H $34,415 $33,116 Legal $69,476 $55,176 $59,574 $55,184 Education, Training, and Library $35,754 $30,481 $35,666 *$32,514 Arts, Design, Entertainment, Sports, Media $28,988 $24,997 $27,836 *$23,215 Healthcare Practitioners and Technical $48,730 $45,630 H $44,617 $43,988 Healthcare Support $20,875 *$16,960 H $18,950 $17,684 Protective Services $33,450 $33,885 $37,940 *$35,020 Food Preparation and Serving $8,673 $9,404 H $8,147 $8,122 Building and Grounds Cleaning and Maintenance $14,468 $13,732 $14,417 $13,216 Personal Care and Service $12,375 $12,177 $11,154 $11,160 Sales $23,508 *$19,001 $21,660 *$19,764 Office and Administrative Support $27,250 $25,807 H H $25,079 $23,999 Construction and Extraction $30,206 $25,389 $31,324 *$27,423 Installation, Maintenance, and Repair $41,685 *$32,432 $39,661 *$35,483 Production $29,252 $25,401 L $31,241 *$27,653 Transportation and Material Moving $25,728 *$21,305 $25,609 *$21,973 * Statistically significant change from at the 90 percent confidence level. H=Cuyahoga significantly higher than Ohio L=Cuyahoga significantly lower than Ohio The Center for Community Solutions Page 40

41 Conclusion Where Do We Go From Here? The data presented in this report describe the Cuyahoga County labor force as it existed in , with some comparisons to the period. Although the Great Recession officially ended in June, 2009, employment is a lagging indicator of economic growth, and we may regard the data as reflecting the depth of the recession. More recently, between May, 2012, and May, 2013, the Cleveland Elyria Mentor MSA lost 5,600 jobs, more than any other metropolitan area in the country. 7 Although workers with a bachelor s degree or higher have the lowest unemployment rates, 53.6 percent of college graduates under age 25 nationally were unemployed or underemployed in 2011, up from 41 percent in In general, much of the decline in the unemployment rate during the recovery has been due to people dropping out of the labor force rather than to an increase in the number of people with jobs. 9 Both nationally 10 and locally, 11 middle wage occupations suffered the greatest losses during the recession, but growth in low wage jobs has predominated during the recovery, contributing to the long term rise in income inequality. Strategies to increase labor force participation and reduce unemployment are widely varied. They can address the workforce by helping people get and retain jobs, or focus on employers to create additional employment opportunities. In Ohio, local Workforce Investment Boards administer federal funding through the Workforce Investment Act, including programs that provide training, services to dislocated workers, job search assistance, and career advancement. Eligibility for federal unemployment benefits is an important component of helping job seekers cope with the effects of high unemployment. On the job creation side, several public and private economic development initiatives such as Jobs Ohio, Fund for Our Economic Future, Nor Tech, and Team NEO are underway to expand existing industries and grow new businesses in the region. One such strategy is to modernize and revive the area s manufacturing sector. In April, 2014, there were 7,400 open manufacturing jobs in the region. 12 One reason these jobs remain unfilled is a lack of skills in the workforce to operate computerized manufacturing technology. Businesses and educational institutions, especially technical and community colleges, are collaborating not only to train workers but to direct their efforts toward innovation and entrepreneurship to further grow the local economy and remain competitive with other regions. This emphasis on STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) education has also extended to the K 12 curriculum in many school districts. The health care sector, long a regional strength, represents another opportunity for job growth. According to a recent report by the Bookings Institute, there were 53,000 workers in health The Center for Community Solutions Page 41

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