Our solar system. How many planets are known in our solar system?

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1 Our solar system How many planets are known in our solar system?

2 Our Solar System The Sun 8 planets 165 known moons 4 identified dwarf planets and their known moons The smaller bodies of the solar system: asteroids, comets, interplanetary dust

3 The planets around the Sun

4 Our Solar System

5 What are?!? Stars: Light-producing balls of gas. Energy mostly produced through hydrogen burning. Planets and dwarf planets: don t emit light, bound to stars through gravity Asteroids: mostly stony bodies, diameter km down to below 1 km Even smaller objects, can become meteors and meteorites! Comets: 5-20 km cores made of stony material, dust and frozen gases (H2O, CH4, NH3, ) with a gas envelope up to km

6 The planets around the Sun

7

8 Prague August 2006: International Astronomical Union decides on the definition of a planet.

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10 Planets: Orbit around the Sun What are?!? Enough mass so that they are approximately spherically symmetric Have freed their environment from other cosmic material Dwarf Planets: An object which is not a moon And which fulfills the same conditions as a planet but has other objects around, such as Pluto and Charon Small bodies of the solar system: all the rest!

11 Formation of Stars and Planets Stars are born when interstellar clouds collapse due to gravitation Protoplanetary disk, formed from a giant molecular cloud

12

13

14 The Inner Solar System Terrestrial planets Mercury Venus Earth Mars

15 Mercury Mass: M = 0,33 x kg (0,55 Earth masses) Radius: R = 2439 km Orbit: P(orb) = 87,969d Rotation period: P(rot) = 58,646d = 2/3 P(orb) Angle: a = 4,7 bis 12 Mean distance from the Sun: d = 57,9 x 10 6 km Apparent brightness: m v = -1,9 bis +3 mag

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17

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19 Venus: Mass: M = 4,87 x kg (0,815 Earth masses) Radius: R = 6052 km Mean distance to the Sun: d = 108,2 x 10 6 km Orbit: 224,70 days Angle: a = 10 bis 63 Apparent brightness: m v = -3 m,9 bis +4 m,7

20 Venus

21

22

23 Inner Planet Orbits (Venus) Upper Conjunction Earth orbit Venus orbit Highest eastern Elongation 48 Evening Star Lower Conjunction Earth Highest western Elongation 48 Morning Star

24 Venus as an evening star

25 Venus as an evening star - phases

26 Earth: Mass: M = 6 x kg Radius: R = km Distance to Sun: ~150 million km 1 Astronomical Unit (AU)!! Moon: Mass: M ~ 1,2% M(Earth) Radius: R = 1750 km Distance to Earth: d = km Angle: a = 31 28

27

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29 Earth is special!!!

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32 The far side of the Moon

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40 Outer Planet Orbits (Mars) Conjunction Mars orbit Earth orbit Earth Opposition

41 Mars: Mass: M = 6,42 x kg Radius: R = 3397 km Mean distance: d = 227,9 x 10 6 km Orbit: y = 686,98 Tage Angle: a = 4 bis 25 Apparent magnitude: m v = -2 m,1

42 Mars Moons: Phobos, Deimos Orbit: km, km Mass: kg, 1.8 * kg Diameter: (27 x 21.6 x 18.8) km, (15 x 12.2 x 11) km

43

44

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46 Olympus Mons

47 The Inner Solar System Terrestrial planets Mercury Venus Earth Mars

48 Surface temperatures on the inner planets: Mercury: -183 to 427 degrees Celcius Venus: 470 to 500 degrees Celcius Earth: (going up ) Mars: -100 to 20 degrees Celcius

49 Jupiter orbit Mars orbit Asteroid belt

50 Asteroid belt: 98,5% of the asteroids can be found here

51 Asteroids (Planetoids): Vesta Gaspra Ida Mathilda Castalia On orbits between Mars and Jupiter: over 300,000 smaller bodies Their orbits could be the orbit of a further planet Mostly stony bodies, with a varying content in heavy metals Due to resonances with Jupiter s orbit, there are more and less dense areas in the asteroid belt

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53 Ceres: a dwarf planet in the asteroid belt

54 Ceres: a dwarf planet in the asteroid belt

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62 Barringer Crater, Arizona 1,200 m diameter, some 170 m deep, surrounded by a rim that rises 45 above the surrounding

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64 Jupiter: Mass: M = 1,899 x kg Radius: R = km Mean distance: d = 779 x 10 6 km Orbit: y = years Angle: a = 30 bis 50

65 Jupiter

66 Jupiter Giant Red Spot

67 Small Red Spot

68

69 The Galilean Moons

70 The Galilean Moons

71 Jupiter

72 Europa

73 Io by New Horizon spacecraft

74 Saturn: Mass: M = 5,684 x kg Radius: R = km Mean distance: d = 1432 x 10 6 km Orbit: y = years Angle: a = 14 bis 20

75 Ring system of Saturn Angle to Saturn s orbit: 27 Diameter: km Rotation: differential Composition: meteoritic particles

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77

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79 Uranus: Mass: M = 8,685 x kg Radius: R = km Mean distance: d =2.884 x 10 6 km Rotation: y = 84,67 Jahre Angle: a = 3 bis 4 Apparent magnitude: m v = +5 m,5

80 Uranus:

81 Uranus:

82 Neptune: Mass: M = 1,028 x kg Radius: R = km Mean distance: d =4.509 x 10 6 km Orbit: y = 165,49 Jahre Angle: a = 2.3 Apparent magnitude: m v = +7 m,8

83 Neptune: Great Dark Spot

84 Neptune s moon Triton: Coldest moon in the solar system (measured): -235 degrees Celcius:

85 Neptune s moon Triton: Voyager 2 image of thin atmosphere of Triton

86 Orbit around Sun (years) Distance from Sun (AE) Excentricity Orbit angle (with ecliptic)) Mercury Venus Earth Mars Small bodies* Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune

87 Titius-Bode-Law Pluto 9 Neptune 8 Uranus 7 6 Saturn Jupiter Planet number Asteroise Mars Earth Venus Mercury Mean distance in AE

88 30 to 50 AU

89 Oort cloud: to AU from the Sun

90 Oort cloud

91 Comets Comet Kohoutek (1974) 75,000 years

92 Long-periodic: Periods > 200 years (West) Short-periodic: Periods < 100 years (Halley ) - Core 15 x 9 km - Orbit diameter d~76.03 AU Origin of comets: Gravitional disturbance of the circumsolar Oort cloud ( ~ AU)

93

94 Comet West (1976) years

95 Comet West (1976) years

96 Comet Hyakutake (1996) years

97 Comet Halley (1984) 76 years

98 Halley s comet on 1066 tapestry

99 Comet McNaught

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