Lecture #2: The Nervous System. A.P. Psychology Mrs. Hall Unit 4: Biology of Behavior

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1 Lecture #2: The Nervous System A.P. Psychology Mrs. Hall Unit 4: Biology of Behavior

2 Divisions of Nervous System I. Peripheral Nervous System A. Somatic Nervous System B. Autonomic Nervous System 1. Sympathetic Nervous System 2. Parasympathetic Nervous System II. Central Nervous System A. Spinal Cord B. Brain

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4 I. Peripheral Nervous System Consists of neurons which carry information to and from the CNS by way of nerves Nerves > > bundles of axons routed together in PNS Extremities of ourselves (outside the CNS)

5 Divisions of PNS: A. Somatic Nervous System B. Autonomic Nervous System

6 A. Somatic Nervous System Carries messages to/from sensory organs and back to skeletal muscles Voluntary activity 2 types of nerves: 1. Afferent (sensory) 2. Efferent (motor)

7 Nerve Fibers in Somatic N.S. 1. Afferent (sensory) nerves Pick up outside info. from sensory organs (periphery of body) Transfers info. TO the CNS 5 senses

8 Nerve Fibers in SNS 2. Efferent (motor) nerves Send info. FROM the CNS to periphery of body Carry out CNS commands Control skeletal muscles

9 B. Autonomic Nervous System Carries messages between internal organs, glands and CNS Involuntary activity Fight or Flight Regulates smooth muscles, cardiac muscles, and glands Two divisions: 1. Sympathetic Nervous System 2. Parasympathetic Nervous System

10 B. Autonomic Nervous System 1. Sympathetic Nervous System Prepares body for fight or flight Body s resources for action protection Increases heart rate, breathing rate, etc. Decreases digestive system activity, etc. Drains blood from periphery Mobilizing for trouble

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12 B. Autonomic Nervous System 2. Parasympathetic Nervous System Quiets, repairs body after stressful situation ( fight or flight ) Homeostasis Returns system back to normal after trouble has passed Works to build up reserves to prepare for next sympathetic take-over Opposite of sympathetic functions (decrease heart rate, breathing; increase digestive activity, etc.)

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14 II. Central Nervous System Integrated unit which is responsible for every activity of the body UNIQUE: encased in bone Consists of brain and spinal cord Protected by meninges enclosing sheaths Cerebral spinal fluid nourishes and protects/cushions brain & spinal cord

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16 A. Spinal Cord Connects brain to rest of body (extension of brain) Bundles of nerve fibers 3 main jobs Receives info. from periphery Final relay station for issuing commands of movements Receives sensory info. from internal organs / controls many autonomic functions

17 A. Spinal Cord 2 pathways: 1. Ascending pathways Bringing in afferent (sensory) signals 2. Descending pathways Taking out efferent (motor) signals

18 B. The Brain 3 Divisions: Hindbrain Midbrain Forebrain

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23 1. Hindbrain Controls reflexes and vital functions Structures A. Medulla B. Cerebellum C. Pons

24 a. Medulla Attaches to spinal cord Controls survival (unconscious)reflexes: Breathing Heart rate Blood pressure Vomiting Sneezing Coughing Etc.

25 b. Cerebellum Located along back surface of brain stem Literally little brain Controls Finely coordinated muscle movements Balance Muscle tone Muscle memory

26 c. Pons Connects brain stem and cerebellum Literally bridge between lower and upper brain structures Controls Feeding behaviors Facial expressions Contributions to sleep and arousal

27 2. Midbrain Part of the brainstem between the hindbrain and forebrain Integrates sensory processes Contains a. Superior colliculus b. Inferior colliculus c. Reticular formation

28 2. Structures in Midbrain a. a. Superior Colliculus Specialized area; serves visual system b. Inferior Colliculus Specialized area; serves auditory system c. Reticular Formation Extends into hindbrain Regulates sleep,

29 3. Forebrain Largest / most complex portion of brain 2 divisions: a. Diencephalon 1. Thalamus 2. Hypothalamus b. Cerebrum (Telencephalon) 1. Limbic System 2. Basal Ganglia 3. Corpus Callosum 4. Cerebral Cortex Lobes

30 a. Diencephalon 1. Thalamus All sensory info (except smell) must go through Integrates sensory info and relays it to appropriate part of cerebral cortex

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32 a. Diencephalon 2. Hypothalamus Controls autonomic NS & endocrine system Regulates basic biological needs related to survival Feeding, fighting, fleeing, mating Thirst, temperature regulation

33 b. Cerebrum 3. Limbic System Interconnecting structures involved in emotional behavior, motivation, learning, and memory Amygdala Fear / aggression Hippocampus Storage of memories

34 b. Cerebrum 4. Basal Ganglia Interconnecting structures playing a role in the motor system

35 b. Cerebrum 5. Corpus Callosum Band of fibers connecting right and left hemispheres of brain Allows for cross-communication communication Anterior Commissure secondary connector

36 b. Cerebrum 6. Cerebral Cortex Outer layer of brain Convoluted (folded) allows for more surface area Each hemisphere contains 4 lobes a) Occipital b) Parietal c) Temporal d) Frontal

37 6. Lobes of Cerebral Cortex a) Occipital Lobes Contain Primary Visual Cortex Receives info. from visual system Contribute to learning

38 6. Lobes of Cerebral Cortex b) Parietal Lobes Contain Primary Somatosensory Cortex Register sense of touch Specialized for dealing with body information (touch, pain, temperature, muscle, joints, etc.) Relate visual info. to spatial info.

39 6. Lobes of Cerebral Cortex c) Temporal Lobes Contain Primary Auditory Cortex Receives info. from auditory and vestibular systems Contribute to perception of complex visual patterns; emotional and motivational behaviors Wernicke s Area (on left hemisphere) Crucial for language comprehension (both oral & written)

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41 6. Lobes of Cerebral Cortex d) Frontal Lobes (largest lobes) Contain Primary Motor Cortex Specializes in motor movement: planning, execution, and control Thought to be heavily involved in thinking, memory, and personality (social inhibitions) Prefrontal Cortex only area of cortex known to receive input from all sensory modalities Broca s Area (on left hemisphere) Crucial for language production

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