Arrhenius Model. Hydronium Ion. Chapter 13 Acids and Bases

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Arrhenius Model. Hydronium Ion. Chapter 13 Acids and Bases"

Transcription

1 Chapter 13 Acids and Bases What are Acids and Bases? Strong and Weak Acids and Bases Relative Strengths of Weak Acids Acidic, Basic, and Neutral Solutions The ph Scale Buffered Solutions 131 Copyright The McGrawHill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Arrhenius Model Arrhenius Model Acids and Bases Proposed by Svante Arrhenius in late 1800s An acid in aqueous solution produces hydrogen ions, H + H HCl(g) 2 O H + (aq) + Cl (aq) A base in aqueous solution produces hydroxide ions, OH H 2 O 2 Hydronium Ion A fundamental problem with the Arrhenius model is the treatment of the behavior of the hydrogen ion, H + Hydrogen ions are better represented as hydronium ions, H 3 O +, in solution NaOH(s) Na + (aq) + OH (aq) Also explains neutralization of acids and bases; when H + reacts with OH, water is formed H + (aq) + OH (aq) H 2 O(l)

2 BronstedLowry Theory An acid is any substance that can donate an H + ion to another substance A base is any substance that can accept an H + ion from another substance Inclusive of all Arrhenius acids and bases Practice BronstedLowry Acids and Bases For each reaction, identify the BronsteadLowry acid and base reactants. 1. OCl (aq) + H 2 O(l) HOCl(aq) + OH (aq) 2. H 2 SO 4 (aq) + F (aq) HSO 4 (aq) + HF(aq) 3. NH 4+ (aq) + H 2 O(l) NH 3 (aq) + H 3 O + (aq) Practice Solutions Bronsted Lowry Acids and Bases For each reaction, identify the BronsteadLowry acid and base reactants. 1. OCl (aq) + H 2 O(l) HOCl(aq) + OH (aq) The water (H 2 O) donates an H + to the OCl to form HOCl. The water is an acid. The OCl accepts a H + from the water (H 2 O), therefore it is the base

3 Practice Solutions Bronsted Lowry Acids and Bases 2. H 2 SO 4 (aq) + F (aq) HSO 4 (aq) + HF(aq) H 2 SO 4, sulfuric acid, is the acid and it donates an H + to the F. F accepts H + from the sulfuric acid and is therefore the base. 3. NH 4+ (aq) + H 2 O(l) NH 3 (aq) + H 3 O + (aq) NH 4+ donates an H + to the water and thus is the acid. H 2 O accepts the H + and is the base. Conjugate AcidBase Pairs When an acid donates an H + to a base, the two products differ from the reactants by one H + ion. Conjugate acid The product that forms as a result of gaining an H + ion Conjugate base The product that forms as a result of losing an H + ion HCl(g) + H 2 O(l) H 3 O + (aq) + Cl (aq) acid base conjugate conjugate acid base Practice Conjugate Acids and Bases Identify the conjugate acid for each base. a)f b)hco 3 c)h 2 O

4 Practice Solutions Conjugate Acids and Bases Identify the conjugate acid for each base. The conjugate acid will have one more H + ion than the base has. a) F The conjugate acid for F is HF. b) HCO 3 The conjugate acid for HCO 3 is H 2 CO 3. c) H 2 O The conjugate acid for H 2 O is H 3 O +. Amphoteric Substances A substance that can act as either an acid or a base Water is the most common amphoteric substance. Another common amphoteric substance is the bicarbonate ion, HCO 3 : HCO 3 (aq) + OH (aq) CO3 2 (aq) + H2 O(l) acid base conjugate conjugate base acid HCO 3 (aq) + H3 O + (aq) H 2 CO 3 (aq) + H 2 O(l) base acid conjugate conjugate acid base Acidic Hydrogen Atoms If an acid has more than one hydrogen atom, we need to determine which hydrogen atoms are acidic. Typically, in oxoacids, any hydrogen atoms bonded to oxygen atoms are acidic. Figure

5 Strong Acids and Bases An acid or a base that is a strong electrolyte and completely ionizes or dissociates in water Strong acid examples: HCl(aq) H 2 SO 4 (aq) HNO 3 (aq) Strong base examples: KOH(aq) Ca(OH) 2 (aq) HCl Example of a Strong Acid An example of a strong acid is HCl: HCl(aq) + H 2 O(l) H 3 O + (aq) + Cl (aq) Table 13.1 Common Strong Acids Formula HCl HBr HI HNO 3 HClO 3 HClO 4 H 2 SO 4 Name hydrochloric acid hydrobromic acid hydroiodic acid nitric acid chloric acid perchloric acid sulfuric acid

6 NaOH Example of a Strong Base Table 13.2 Common Strong Bases Formula LiOH NaOH KOH Mg(OH) 2 Ca(OH) 2 Ba(OH) 2 Name lithium hydroxide sodium hydroxide potassium hydroxide magnesium hydroxide calcium hydroxide barium hydroxide Weak Acids and Bases An acid or base that is a weak electrolyte and therefore, only partially ionizes in water If an acid or base is not strong, then it is weak

7 CH 3 COOH Example of a Weak Acid NH 3 Example of a Weak Base Table 13.3 Some Common Weak Acids Formula CH 3 CO 2 H H 2 CO 3 H 3 C 6 H 5 O 7 HF HOCl HC 3 H 5 O 3 HC 4 H 4 O 5 H 2 C 2 O 4 H 3 PO 4 H 2 C 4 H 4 O 6 Name Acetic acid Carbonic acid Citric acid Hydrofluoric acid Hypochlorous acid Lactic acid Malic acid Oxalic acid Phosphoric acid Tartaric acid Occurrence Vinegar, sour wine Soda, blood Fruit, soda Glass etching Sanitize pool and drinking water Milk Fruit Nuts, cocoa, parsley Soda, blood Candy, wine, grapes

8 Formula NH 3 CaCO 3 Ca(ClO) 2 CH 3 NH 2 (CH 3 ) 3 N Table 13.4 Some Common Weak Bases Name Ammonia Calcium carbonate Calcium hypochorite Methylamine Trimethylamine Occurrence Glass cleaners Antacids, minerals Chlorine source for swimming pools Herring brine Rotting fish Practice Strong vs. Weak Acids and Bases Identify each of the following as a strong acid, weak acid, strong base, or weak base. Write an equation to describe its reaction in water. 1. HI(aq) 2. NaCH 3 CO 2 (aq) 3. NH 4+ (aq) 4. NH 3 (aq) Practice Solutions Strong vs. Weak Acids and Bases 1. HI(aq) Hydroiodic acid is a strong acid (it is on the list of strong acids in Table 13.1). Therefore, it completely dissociates in water. HI(aq) + H 2 O(l) H 3 O + (aq) + I (aq) 2. NaCH 3 CO 2 (aq) Sodium acetate is an ionic compound that partially dissociates in water to form Na + (aq) and CH 3 CO 2 (aq). The CH3 CO 2 ion is the conjugate base of the weak acid, HC 2 H 3 O 2, so it is a weak base and does not completely dissociate in water: CH 3 CO 2 (aq) + H2 O(l) CH 3 CO 2 H(aq) + OH (aq)

9 Practice Solutions Strong vs. Weak Acids and Bases 3. NH 4+ (aq) Ammonium ion is the conjugate acid of the weak base, ammonia (NH 3 ), so ammonium is therefore a weak acid. It does not completely dissociate in water. NH 4+ (aq) + H 2 O(l) NH 3 (aq) + H 3 O + (aq) 4. NH 3 (aq) Ammonia is a weak base, shown in Table 13.4, and does not dissociate completely in water. NH 3 (aq) + H 2 O(l) NH 4+ (aq) + OH (aq) Practice Acids and Bases on the Molecular Level One of the diagrams below represents HClO 4, and the other represents an aqueous solution of HSO 4. Which is which? Explain your reasoning. Practice Solutions Acids and Bases on the Microscopic Level The picture on the left (A) shows no acid molecules and therefore shows an acid that has completely dissociated. Diagram A would then be a strong acid and of the two choices, perchloric acid (HClO 4 ) is the strong one. Diagram B (the picture on the right) shows acid molecules that have not completely dissociated and are therefore the weak acid, HSO

10 Relative Strengths of Weak Acids Acid strength depends on the relative number of acid molecules that ionize when dissolved in water the degree of ionization. Remember that K eq describes the relative amounts of products over reactants. If the value of K eq is larger, then more products exist at equilibrium and the acid has a larger percentage of molecules which have been ionized. Acid Ionization Constants The acid ionization constant, K a, describes the equilibrium that forms when an acid reacts with water. The larger the K a value, the stronger the acid. When using K a values to determine the strengths of conjugate acids and cases, use this rule of thumb: The stronger the acid, the weaker the conjugate base Table 13.5 Weak Acids & K a Values Strongest Acids Acid HF HNO 2 HCO 2 H CH 3 CO 2 H HOCl K a Value 6.3 x x x x x 10 8 Conjugate Base F NO 2 HCO 2 CH 3 CO 2 OCl Weakest Bases Weakest Acids NH 4 + HCN 5.6 x x NH 3 CN Strongest Bases

11 Practice Significance of K a Which solution has the greater concentration of H 3 O +, 0.10 M HOCl [K a = 4.0 x 10 8 ] or 0.10 M HCN [K a = 6.2 x ]? Practice Solutions Significance of K a Which solution has the greater concentration of H 3 O +, 0.10 M HOCl or 0.10 M HCN? Because we have equal concentrations of each acid, we first need to determine which acid is stronger. The stronger acid will dissociate more completely in water, thus producing more H 3 O + ion. Practice Solutions Significance of K a Which solution has the greater concentration of H 3 O +, 0.10 M HOCl or 0.10 M HCN? Looking at the K a s of the two acids from Table 13.5: HOCl K a = 4.0 x 10 8 HCN K a = 6.2 x Since HOCl has the larger K a, it is the stronger acid and will therefore have a greater concentration of H 3 O + ion

12 Polyprotic Acids An acid that contains more than one acidic hydrogen and can thus donate more than one H + ion The acid donates one H + ion at a time in steps The K a values for polyprotic acids are often labeled to indicate the particular step in the overall ionization process (K a1, K a2, K a3, etc.) Figure Table 13.6 K a for Polyprotic Acids Name Carbonic acid Citric acid Hydrosulfuric acid Oxalic acid Phosphoric acid Sulfuric acid Tartaric acid Formula H 2 CO 3 H 3 C 6 H 5 O 7 H 2 S H 2 C 2 O 4 H 3 PO 4 H 2 SO 4 H 2 C 4 H 4 O 6 K a1 4.5 x x x x x 10 3 Strong 1.0 x 10 3 K a2 4.7 x x x x x x x 10 5 K a3 4.0x x10 13 Practice Polyprotic Acids in Water Oxalic acid, H 2 C 2 O 4, occurs in plants and foods such as parsley, rhubarb, almonds, and green beans. Its K a values are listed in Table a) Write equations that show the ionization of oxalic acid in water. b) Besides water, which ion or molecule has the highest concentration in solution when oxalic acid is added to water?

13 Practice Solutions Polyprotic Acids in Water a) Write equations that show the ionization of oxalic acid in water. H 2 C 2 O 4 (aq) + H 2 O(l) H 3 O + (aq) + HC 2 O 4 (aq) K a1 = 5.6 x 10 2 HC 2 O 4 (aq) + H2 O(l) H 3 O + (aq) + C 2 O 2 4 (aq) K a2 = 1.5 x 10 4 b) Besides water, which ion or molecule has the highest concentration in solution when oxalic acid is added to water? The K a1 value for H 2 C 2 O 4 shows that it is a weak acid and ionizes only to a small extent. That means that most of the H 2 C 2 O 4 and is present in water in the highest concentration. Acidic, Basic, and Neutral Solutions Acidic solution The H 3 O + ion concentration is greater than the OH ion concentration. Basic solution The OH ion concentration is greater than the H 3 O + ion concentration. Neutral solution Equal concentrations of OH and H 3 O + Neither acidic nor basic IonProduct Constant of Water Water reacts with itself in a process called selfionization, in which an H + ion is transferred from one water molecule to another: H 2 O(l) + H 2 O(l) OH (aq) + H 3 O + (aq) The equilibrium constant for this process, called the ionproduct constant of water, K w, is: K w = [OH ][H 3 O + ] = 1.0 x (at 25 C) and in pure water, the concentrations would be equal, so: [OH ] = [H 3 O + ] = 1.0 x

14 Table 13.7 Definitions of Neutral, Acidic, and Basic in Aqueous Solution Type of Solution Neutral Acidic Basic [OH ] = [H 3 O + ] [OH ] < [H 3 O + ] [OH ] > [H 3 O + ] [H 3 O + ] =1.0 x >1.0 x <1.0 x [OH ] =1.0 x <1.0 x >1.0 x K w 1.0 x x x Practice Calculating H 3 O + and OH Ion Concentrations Given the concentration of OH ion in each solution, calculate the concentration of H 3 O + in that solution. Identify each solution as acidic, basic, or neutral. a) [OH ] = 1.0 x 10 8 M b) [OH ] = M Practice Solutions Calculating H 3 O + and OH Ion Concentrations Given the concentration of OH ion in each solution, calculate the concentration of H 3 O + in that solution. Identify each solution as acidic, basic, or neutral. a) [OH ] = 1.0 x 10 8 M K w = [H 3 O + ][OH ] [H 3 O + ] = K w = 1.0 x = 1.0 x 10 6 M H 3 O + [OH ] 1.0 x 10 8 Acidic b) [OH ] = M K w = [H 3 O + ][OH ] [H 3 O + ] = K w = 1.0 x = 1.0 x M H 3 O + [OH ] 1.0 x 10 2 Basic Relative Concentration

15 The ph Scale The ph of a solution is the negative logarithm (base 10) of the H 3 O + concentration: ph = log [H 3 O + ] It is convenient to express the acidity of aqueous solutions on a ph scale (shown at right). Figure Practice Solutions Calculating ph What is the ph of each of the following solutions? Once you ve done the calculation, check your answer to make sure it makes sense. a) M HCl First, we need to find the [H 3 O + ]: [H 3 O + ] = M Next, calculate the ph: ph = log [H 3 O + ] = log ( ) = 3.1 Practice Calculating ph What is the ph of each of the following solutions? Once you ve done the calculation, check your answer to make sure it makes sense. b) M NaOH First, we need to find the [H 3 O + ]: K w = [OH ][H 3 O + ] [OH ] = M [H 3 O + ] = K w = 1.0 x = 1.0 x M [OH ] M Next, calculate the ph: ph = log [H 3 O + ] = log (1.0 x ) =

16 Practice Calculating ph What is the ph of each of the following solutions? Once you ve done the calculation, check your answer to make sure it makes sense. c) 1.0 M HNO 3 First, we need to find the [H 3 O + ]: [H 3 O + ] = 1.0 M Next, calculate the ph: ph = log [H 3 O + ] = log (1.0) = 0 Calculating poh poh is defined as the negative logarithm (base 10) of hydroxide ion concentration, [OH ]: poh = log [OH ] The relationship between ph and poh is: ph + poh = 14 Calculating Concentrations from ph and poh The equation to find ph is: ph = log [H 3 O + ] To find the H 3 O + ion concentration, we need to take the inverse log of the negative ph: [H 3 O + ] = 10 ph The equation to find poh is: poh = log [OH ] To find the OH ion concentration, we need to take the inverse log of the negative poh: [OH ] = 10 poh

17 Calculating Concentrations from ph and poh Practice Calculating OH and H 3 O + concentration When the ph of water in a lake falls below about 4.5, the lake may be considered dead because few organisms can survive in such an acidic environment. What is the ph of a lake that has an OH concentration of 1.0 x 10 9 M? Would this lake be considered dead? Practice Solutions Calculating OH and H 3 O + concentration When the ph of water in a lake falls below about 4.5, the lake may be considered dead because few organisms can survive in such an acidic environment. What is the ph of a lake that has an OH concentration of 1.0 x 10 9 M? Would this lake be considered dead? If the ph falls below 4.5, then the lake is dead. [OH ] = 1.0 x 10 9 M K w = [H 3 O + ][OH ] [H 3 O + ] = K w = 1.0 x = 1.0 x 10 5 M [OH ] 1.0 x 10 9 ph = log [H 3 O + ] = log (1.0 x 10 5 ) = 5 Since the ph of the lake is 5, then the lake is NOT dead

18 Measuring ph ph meters and ph indicators are often used to determine the ph of a solution. Figure Buffered Solutions A buffer (also known as a buffer system) is a combination of a weak acid and its conjugate base (or a weak base and its conjugate acid) in about equal concentrations. The main buffer system in the blood is made of H 2 CO 3 /HCO 3 : Figure Practice Buffer Systems Which of the following systems, when added to water, can act as a buffer system? For each buffer system, write a balanced equation. a) HCl and NaOH b) CH 3 CO 2 H and NaCH 3 CO 2 c) HBr and KBr

19 Practice Solutions Buffer Systems Which of the following systems, when added to water, can act as a buffer system? For each buffer system, write a balanced equation. a) HCl and NaOH This is not a buffer system, because HCl is a strong acid. Strong acids cannot be components of buffers, because they ionize completely in water and are not in equilibrium with their conjugate bases. Practice Solutions Buffer Systems Which of the following systems, when added to water, can act as a buffer system? For each buffer system, write a balanced equation. b) CH 3 CO 2 H and NaCH 3 CO 2 This is a buffer system because the acid CH 3 CO 2 H is a weak acid and its conjugate base, CH 3 CO 2, forms when NaCH 3 CO 2 dissolves in water. The equilibrium that forms in water is: CH 3 CO 2 H(aq) + H 2 O(l) CH 3 CO 2 (aq) + H 3 O + (aq) Practice Solutions Buffer Systems Which of the following systems, when added to water, can act as a buffer system? For each buffer system, write a balanced equation. c) HBr and KBr This is not a buffer system, because HBr is a strong acid. Strong acids cannot be components of buffers, because they ionize completely in water and are not in equilibrium with their conjugate bases

20 Math Toolbox 13.1: Log and Inverse Log Functions Using Log Functions on your calculator: ph = log [H 3 O + ] Step 1: Press the +/ (change of sign) key Step 2: Press the log key Step 3: Enter the H 3 O + concentration, and then the ENTER or = key (On some calculators the steps may be reversed) Practice Using Log Functions Use your calculator to find the ph of the following solutions: 1. [H 3 O + ] = 1.0 x 10 8 M 2. [H 3 O + ] = 6.2 x 10 1 M 3. [H 3 O + ] = 5.0 x 10 4 M Practice Solutions Using Log Functions Use your calculator to find the ph of the following solutions: 1. [H 3 O + ] = 1.0 x 10 8 M ph = log [H 3 O + ] = log (1.0 x 10 8 ) = [H 3 O + ] = 6.2 x 10 1 M ph = log [H 3 O + ] = log (6.2 x 10 1 ) = [H 3 O + ] = 5.0 x 10 4 M ph = log [H 3 O + ] = log (5.0 x 10 4 ) =

21 Math Toolbox 13.1: Log and Inverse Log Functions Using Inverse Log Functions: [H 3 O + ] = 10 ph Step 1: Press the INV, SHIFT, or 2 nd button Step 2: Press the log button Step 3: Press the +/ (change of sign) key Step 4: Enter the ph (or poh), and then the ENTER or = key (On some calculators you may need to perform Step 4 first, then step 3, then steps 1 and 2) Practice Using Inverse Log Functions Use your calculator to find the [H 3 O + ] of the following solutions: 1. ph = ph = Practice Solutions Using Inverse Log Functions Use your calculator to find the [H 3 O + ] of the following solutions: 1. ph = 5.00 [H 3 O + ] = 10 ph = = 1.00 x 10 5 M 2. ph = [H 3 O + ] = 10 ph = = x M

1. Read P. 368-375, P. 382-387 & P. 429-436; P. 375 # 1-11 & P. 389 # 1,7,9,12,15; P. 436 #1, 7, 8, 11

1. Read P. 368-375, P. 382-387 & P. 429-436; P. 375 # 1-11 & P. 389 # 1,7,9,12,15; P. 436 #1, 7, 8, 11 SCH3U- R.H.KING ACADEMY SOLUTION & ACID/BASE WORKSHEET Name: The importance of water - MAKING CONNECTION READING 1. Read P. 368-375, P. 382-387 & P. 429-436; P. 375 # 1-11 & P. 389 # 1,7,9,12,15; P. 436

More information

Acid-Base (Proton-Transfer) Reactions

Acid-Base (Proton-Transfer) Reactions Acid-Base (Proton-Transfer) Reactions Chapter 17 An example of equilibrium: Acid base chemistry What are acids and bases? Every day descriptions Chemical description of acidic and basic solutions by Arrhenius

More information

Acids and Bases. Chapter 16

Acids and Bases. Chapter 16 Acids and Bases Chapter 16 The Arrhenius Model An acid is any substance that produces hydrogen ions, H +, in an aqueous solution. Example: when hydrogen chloride gas is dissolved in water, the following

More information

Ch 15: Acids and Bases

Ch 15: Acids and Bases Ch 15: Acids and Bases A c i d s a n d B a s e s C h 1 5 P a g e 1 Homework: Read Chapter 15 Work out sample/practice exercises in the sections, Bonus problems: 39, 41, 49, 63, 67, 83, 91, 95, 99, 107,

More information

ACID-BASE REACTIONS/ THE PH CONCEPT.

ACID-BASE REACTIONS/ THE PH CONCEPT. Dr Mike Lyons School of Chemistry Trinity College Dublin. melyons@tcd.ie ACID-BASE REACTIONS/ THE PH CONCEPT. Chemistry Preliminary Course 2011 1 Lecture topics. 2 lectures dealing with some core chemistry

More information

4. Acid Base Chemistry

4. Acid Base Chemistry 4. Acid Base Chemistry 4.1. Terminology: 4.1.1. Bronsted / Lowry Acid: "An acid is a substance which can donate a hydrogen ion (H+) or a proton, while a base is a substance that accepts a proton. B + HA

More information

AP*Chemistry The Chemistry of Acids and Bases

AP*Chemistry The Chemistry of Acids and Bases AP*Chemistry The Chemistry of Acids and Bases "ACID"--Latin word acidus, meaning sour. (lemon) "ALKALI"--Arabic word for the ashes that come from burning certain plants; water solutions feel slippery and

More information

Chapter 13 & 14 Practice Exam

Chapter 13 & 14 Practice Exam Name: Class: Date: Chapter 13 & 14 Practice Exam Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Acids generally release H 2 gas when they react with a.

More information

Q1: What is the ph Scale? Q6: As acids become more acidic, their ph values

Q1: What is the ph Scale? Q6: As acids become more acidic, their ph values Q1: What is the ph Scale? Q6: As acids become more acidic, their ph values increase or decrease? Q2: The range of values of the ph scale is: Q7: As bases become more alkaline, their ph values increase

More information

I N V E S T I C E D O R O Z V O J E V Z D Ě L Á V Á N Í CHEMICAL REACTIONS

I N V E S T I C E D O R O Z V O J E V Z D Ě L Á V Á N Í CHEMICAL REACTIONS Chemical reaction = process during which original substances change to new substances, reactants turn to... The bonds of reactants... and new bonds are... The classification of reactions: 1. Classification

More information

Acid-Base Indicator Useful Indicators

Acid-Base Indicator Useful Indicators Chemistry 101 - H Acids and Bases This presentation was created by Professor Carl H. Snyder Chemistry Department University of Miami Coral Gables, FL 33124 CSnyder@miami.edu Chapter 10 - Acids and Bases

More information

Definition The property of exhibiting the qualities of a base

Definition The property of exhibiting the qualities of a base Acids and Bases Word Acidity Alkalinity Amphiprotic Amphoteric Arrhenius Acid Arrhenius Base Basicity Bronsted/Lowry Acid Bronsted/Lowry Base Buret Caustic Conjugate pair Corrosive Electrolyte Hydrolysis

More information

Name: Class: Date: 2 4 (aq)

Name: Class: Date: 2 4 (aq) Name: Class: Date: Unit 4 Practice Test Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) The balanced molecular equation for complete neutralization of

More information

Acid 7 Base. 1. Describe two things hydrochloric acid does in your body system. 2. What does sodium hydrogencarbonate do in your body system?

Acid 7 Base. 1. Describe two things hydrochloric acid does in your body system. 2. What does sodium hydrogencarbonate do in your body system? Acids and Bases acid: a compound that, when dissolved in water, forms a solution with a ph less than 7 base: a compound that, when dissolved in water, forms a solution with a ph greater than 7 ph: the

More information

1. When the following equation is balanced, the coefficient of Al is. Al (s) + H 2 O (l)? Al(OH) 3 (s) + H 2 (g)

1. When the following equation is balanced, the coefficient of Al is. Al (s) + H 2 O (l)? Al(OH) 3 (s) + H 2 (g) 1. When the following equation is balanced, the coefficient of Al is. Al (s) + H 2 O (l)? Al(OH) (s) + H 2 (g) A) 1 B) 2 C) 4 D) 5 E) Al (s) + H 2 O (l)? Al(OH) (s) + H 2 (g) Al (s) + H 2 O (l)? Al(OH)

More information

Chapter 6. Solution, Acids and Bases

Chapter 6. Solution, Acids and Bases Chapter 6 Solution, Acids and Bases Mixtures Two or more substances Heterogeneous- different from place to place Types of heterogeneous mixtures Suspensions- Large particles that eventually settle out

More information

Chemistry 201. Practical aspects of buffers. NC State University. Lecture 15

Chemistry 201. Practical aspects of buffers. NC State University. Lecture 15 Chemistry 201 Lecture 15 Practical aspects of buffers NC State University The everyday ph scale To review what ph means in practice, we consider the ph of everyday substances that we know from experience.

More information

Acids and Bases 7. Have You Ever Wondered?

Acids and Bases 7. Have You Ever Wondered? Acids and Bases 7 Have You Ever Wondered? 1. Are all acids corrosive? 2. What is an amino acid? 3. Is vitamin C really an acid? Are all vitamins acids? 4. What is the difference between salt and sodium?

More information

SCH 4C1 Unit 2 Problem Set Questions taken from Frank Mustoe et all, "Chemistry 11", McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 2001

SCH 4C1 Unit 2 Problem Set Questions taken from Frank Mustoe et all, Chemistry 11, McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 2001 SCH 4C1 Unit 2 Problem Set Questions taken from Frank Mustoe et all, "Chemistry 11", McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 2001 1. A small pin contains 0.0178 mol of iron. How many atoms of iron are in the pin? 2. A sample

More information

PART I: MULTIPLE CHOICE (30 multiple choice questions. Each multiple choice question is worth 2 points)

PART I: MULTIPLE CHOICE (30 multiple choice questions. Each multiple choice question is worth 2 points) CHEMISTRY 123-07 Midterm #1 Answer key October 14, 2010 Statistics: Average: 74 p (74%); Highest: 97 p (95%); Lowest: 33 p (33%) Number of students performing at or above average: 67 (57%) Number of students

More information

6.8 Measuring the Acidity of Solutions Page 160

6.8 Measuring the Acidity of Solutions Page 160 6.8 Measuring the Acidity of Solutions Page 160 PRESCRIBED LEARNING OUTCOMES measure substances and solutions according to ph, solubility, and concentration KNOWLEDGE ph is the measure of the tendency

More information

Summer Holidays Questions

Summer Holidays Questions Summer Holidays Questions Chapter 1 1) Barium hydroxide reacts with hydrochloric acid. The initial concentration of the 1 st solution its 0.1M and the volume is 100ml. The initial concentration of the

More information

Sketch the model representation of the first step in the dissociation of water. H 2. O (l) H + (aq) + OH- (aq) + H 2. OH - (aq) + H 3 O+ (aq)

Sketch the model representation of the first step in the dissociation of water. H 2. O (l) H + (aq) + OH- (aq) + H 2. OH - (aq) + H 3 O+ (aq) Lesson Objectives Students will: Create a physical representation of the autoionization of water using the water kit. Describe and produce a physical representation of the dissociation of a strong acid

More information

1. What do you think is the definition of an acid? Of a base?

1. What do you think is the definition of an acid? Of a base? Concepts of ph Why? The level of acidity or basicity affects many important biological and environmental processes: enzymes function effectively only in narrowly defined ranges of ph; blood ph in part

More information

ACIDS AND BASES SAFETY PRECAUTIONS

ACIDS AND BASES SAFETY PRECAUTIONS ACIDS AND BASES Mild acids and bases are used in cooking (their reaction makes biscuits and bread rise). Acids such as those in our stomachs eat away at food or digest it. Strong acids and bases are used

More information

Experiment 18: ph Measurements of Common Substances. Experiment 17: Reactions of Acids with Common Substances

Experiment 18: ph Measurements of Common Substances. Experiment 17: Reactions of Acids with Common Substances Experiment 18: ph Measurements of Common Substances and Experiment 17: Reactions of Acids with Common Substances What is this lab about? You mean what ARE THESE labs about? Ok, so what are THESE labs about?

More information

PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT

PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT AP Chemistry Acids and Bases Special Focus The College Board: Connecting Students to College Success The College Board is a not-for-profit membership association whose mission

More information

Acids and Bases. Problem Set: Chapter 17 questions 5-7, 9, 11, 13, 18, 43, 67a-d, 71 Chapter 18 questions 5-9, 26, 27a-e, 32

Acids and Bases. Problem Set: Chapter 17 questions 5-7, 9, 11, 13, 18, 43, 67a-d, 71 Chapter 18 questions 5-9, 26, 27a-e, 32 Acids and Bases Problem Set: Chapter 17 questions 5-7, 9, 11, 13, 18, 43, 67a-d, 71 Chapter 18 questions 5-9, 26, 27a-e, 32 Arrhenius Theory of Acids An acid base reaction involves the reaction of hydrogen

More information

W1 WORKSHOP ON STOICHIOMETRY

W1 WORKSHOP ON STOICHIOMETRY INTRODUCTION W1 WORKSHOP ON STOICHIOMETRY These notes and exercises are designed to introduce you to the basic concepts required to understand a chemical formula or equation. Relative atomic masses of

More information

Formulas, Equations and Moles

Formulas, Equations and Moles Chapter 3 Formulas, Equations and Moles Interpreting Chemical Equations You can interpret a balanced chemical equation in many ways. On a microscopic level, two molecules of H 2 react with one molecule

More information

Chapter 3: Stoichiometry

Chapter 3: Stoichiometry Chapter 3: Stoichiometry Key Skills: Balance chemical equations Predict the products of simple combination, decomposition, and combustion reactions. Calculate formula weights Convert grams to moles and

More information

Acid-base Equilibria and Calculations

Acid-base Equilibria and Calculations Acid-base Equilibria and Calculations A Chem1 Reference Text Stephen K. Lower Simon Fraser University Contents 1 Proton donor-acceptor equilibria 4 1.1 The ion product of water... 4 1.2 Acid and base strengths...

More information

English already has many collective nouns for fixed, given numbers of objects. Some of the more common collective nouns are shown in Table 7.1.

English already has many collective nouns for fixed, given numbers of objects. Some of the more common collective nouns are shown in Table 7.1. 96 Chapter 7: Calculations with Chemical Formulas and Chemical Reactions Chemical reactions are written showing a few individual atoms or molecules reacting to form a few atoms or molecules of products.

More information

Chemistry Post-Enrolment Worksheet

Chemistry Post-Enrolment Worksheet Name: Chemistry Post-Enrolment Worksheet The purpose of this worksheet is to get you to recap some of the fundamental concepts that you studied at GCSE and introduce some of the concepts that will be part

More information

Chapter 2 Polar Covalent Bonds: Acids and Bases

Chapter 2 Polar Covalent Bonds: Acids and Bases John E. McMurry www.cengage.com/chemistry/mcmurry Chapter 2 Polar Covalent Bonds: Acids and Bases Modified by Dr. Daniela R. Radu Why This Chapter? Description of basic ways chemists account for chemical

More information

Acid-base Equilibria and Calculations

Acid-base Equilibria and Calculations Acid-base Equilibria and Calculations A Chem1 Reference Text Stephen K. Lower Simon Fraser University Contents 1 Proton donor-acceptor equilibria 4 1.1 The ion product of water... 4 1.2 Acid and base strengths...

More information

Chapter 3 Mass Relationships in Chemical Reactions

Chapter 3 Mass Relationships in Chemical Reactions Chapter 3 Mass Relationships in Chemical Reactions Student: 1. An atom of bromine has a mass about four times greater than that of an atom of neon. Which choice makes the correct comparison of the relative

More information

Letter to the Student... 5 Test-Taking Checklist... 6 Next Generation Sunshine State Standards Correlation Chart... 7

Letter to the Student... 5 Test-Taking Checklist... 6 Next Generation Sunshine State Standards Correlation Chart... 7 Table of Contents Letter to the Student..................................... 5 Test-Taking Checklist.................................... 6 Next Generation Sunshine State Standards Correlation Chart...

More information

Moles. Moles. Moles. Moles. Balancing Eqns. Balancing. Balancing Eqns. Symbols Yields or Produces. Like a recipe:

Moles. Moles. Moles. Moles. Balancing Eqns. Balancing. Balancing Eqns. Symbols Yields or Produces. Like a recipe: Like a recipe: Balancing Eqns Reactants Products 2H 2 (g) + O 2 (g) 2H 2 O(l) coefficients subscripts Balancing Eqns Balancing Symbols (s) (l) (aq) (g) or Yields or Produces solid liquid (pure liquid)

More information

Chemists use the ph value to measure how acidic or basic a solution is. The ph scale runs from 0 to 14:

Chemists use the ph value to measure how acidic or basic a solution is. The ph scale runs from 0 to 14: The ph Value Chemists use the ph value to measure how acidic or basic a solution is. The ph scale runs from 0 to 14: If the ph value is lower than 7 (0 to 6.99) the solution contains more H + ions than

More information

INTI COLLEGE MALAYSIA A? LEVEL PROGRAMME CHM 111: CHEMISTRY MOCK EXAMINATION: DECEMBER 2000 SESSION. 37 74 20 40 60 80 m/e

INTI COLLEGE MALAYSIA A? LEVEL PROGRAMME CHM 111: CHEMISTRY MOCK EXAMINATION: DECEMBER 2000 SESSION. 37 74 20 40 60 80 m/e CHM111(M)/Page 1 of 5 INTI COLLEGE MALAYSIA A? LEVEL PROGRAMME CHM 111: CHEMISTRY MOCK EXAMINATION: DECEMBER 2000 SESSION SECTION A Answer ALL EIGHT questions. (52 marks) 1. The following is the mass spectrum

More information

Candidate Style Answer

Candidate Style Answer Candidate Style Answer Chemistry A Unit F321 Atoms, Bonds and Groups High banded response This Support Material booklet is designed to accompany the OCR GCE Chemistry A Specimen Paper F321 for teaching

More information

Moles. Balanced chemical equations Molar ratios Mass Composition Empirical and Molecular Mass Predicting Quantities Equations

Moles. Balanced chemical equations Molar ratios Mass Composition Empirical and Molecular Mass Predicting Quantities Equations Moles Balanced chemical equations Molar ratios Mass Composition Empirical and Molecular Mass Predicting Quantities Equations Micro World atoms & molecules Macro World grams Atomic mass is the mass of an

More information

ATOMS. Multiple Choice Questions

ATOMS. Multiple Choice Questions Chapter 3 ATOMS AND MOLECULES Multiple Choice Questions 1. Which of the following correctly represents 360 g of water? (i) 2 moles of H 2 0 (ii) 20 moles of water (iii) 6.022 10 23 molecules of water (iv)

More information

ION EXCHANGE FOR DUMMIES. An introduction

ION EXCHANGE FOR DUMMIES. An introduction ION EXCHANGE FOR DUMMIES An introduction Water Water is a liquid. Water is made of water molecules (formula H 2 O). All natural waters contain some foreign substances, usually in small amounts. The water

More information

STOICHIOMETRY UNIT 1 LEARNING OUTCOMES. At the end of this unit students will be expected to:

STOICHIOMETRY UNIT 1 LEARNING OUTCOMES. At the end of this unit students will be expected to: STOICHIOMETRY LEARNING OUTCOMES At the end of this unit students will be expected to: UNIT 1 THE MOLE AND MOLAR MASS define molar mass and perform mole-mass inter-conversions for pure substances explain

More information

Nomenclature and Household Items

Nomenclature and Household Items Nomenclature and Household Items NAME: DATE: PERIOD: Background: Many household items contain chemicals that are commonly used in everyday life. Some chemicals are edible while other compounds would be

More information

UNIT (4) CALCULATIONS AND CHEMICAL REACTIONS

UNIT (4) CALCULATIONS AND CHEMICAL REACTIONS UNIT (4) CALCULATIONS AND CHEMICAL REACTIONS 4.1 Formula Masses Recall that the decimal number written under the symbol of the element in the periodic table is the atomic mass of the element. 1 7 8 12

More information

Chapter 8, Acid-base equilibria

Chapter 8, Acid-base equilibria Chapter 8, Acid-base equilibria Road map of acid-base equilibria On first encounter, the study of acid-base equilibria is a little like a strange land with seemingly confusing trails that make passage

More information

Number of moles of solute = Concentration (mol. L ) x Volume of solution (litres) or n = C x V

Number of moles of solute = Concentration (mol. L ) x Volume of solution (litres) or n = C x V 44 CALCULATIONS INVOLVING SOLUTIONS INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS Many chemical reactions take place in aqueous (water) solution. Quantities of such solutions are measured as volumes, while the amounts

More information

Chemistry Final Study Guide

Chemistry Final Study Guide Name: Class: Date: Chemistry Final Study Guide Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. The electrons involved in the formation of a covalent bond

More information

Stoichiometry. Unit Outline

Stoichiometry. Unit Outline 3 Stoichiometry Unit Outline 3.1 The Mole and Molar Mass 3.2 Stoichiometry and Compound Formulas 3.3 Stoichiometry and Chemical Reactions 3.4 Stoichiometry and Limiting Reactants 3.5 Chemical Analysis

More information

Stoichiometry. Lecture Examples Answer Key

Stoichiometry. Lecture Examples Answer Key Stoichiometry Lecture Examples Answer Key Ex. 1 Balance the following chemical equations: 3 NaBr + 1 H 3 PO 4 3 HBr + 1 Na 3 PO 4 2 C 3 H 5 N 3 O 9 6 CO 2 + 3 N 2 + 5 H 2 O + 9 O 2 2 Ca(OH) 2 + 2 SO 2

More information

Experiment 9: Acids and Bases Adapted from: Chemistry, Experimental Foundations, 4th Ed. Laboratory Manual, by Merrill, Parry & Bassow.

Experiment 9: Acids and Bases Adapted from: Chemistry, Experimental Foundations, 4th Ed. Laboratory Manual, by Merrill, Parry & Bassow. Chem 121 Lab Clark College Experiment 9: Acids and Bases Adapted from: Chemistry, Experimental Foundations, 4th Ed. Laboratory Manual, by Merrill, Parry & Bassow. Content Goals: Increase understanding

More information

Moles, Molecules, and Grams Worksheet Answer Key

Moles, Molecules, and Grams Worksheet Answer Key Moles, Molecules, and Grams Worksheet Answer Key 1) How many are there in 24 grams of FeF 3? 1.28 x 10 23 2) How many are there in 450 grams of Na 2 SO 4? 1.91 x 10 24 3) How many grams are there in 2.3

More information

5s Solubility & Conductivity

5s Solubility & Conductivity 5s Solubility & Conductivity OBJECTIVES To explore the relationship between the structures of common household substances and the kinds of solvents in which they dissolve. To demonstrate the ionic nature

More information

Calculation of Molar Masses. Molar Mass. Solutions. Solutions

Calculation of Molar Masses. Molar Mass. Solutions. Solutions Molar Mass Molar mass = Mass in grams of one mole of any element, numerically equal to its atomic weight Molar mass of molecules can be determined from the chemical formula and molar masses of elements

More information

You may have heard the word acid used in your everyday life. List some things that this word was describing when you heard it.

You may have heard the word acid used in your everyday life. List some things that this word was describing when you heard it. Textbook pages 158 to 175 What are acids and bases, and how do they react? Before You Read Topic 2.4 Summary You may have heard the word acid used in your everyday life. List some things that this word

More information

Chapter 3 Stoichiometry

Chapter 3 Stoichiometry Chapter 3 Stoichiometry 3-1 Chapter 3 Stoichiometry In This Chapter As you have learned in previous chapters, much of chemistry involves using macroscopic measurements to deduce what happens between atoms

More information

EDEXCEL INTERNATIONAL GCSE CHEMISTRY EDEXCEL CERTIFICATE IN CHEMISTRY ANSWERS SECTION E

EDEXCEL INTERNATIONAL GCSE CHEMISTRY EDEXCEL CERTIFICATE IN CHEMISTRY ANSWERS SECTION E EDEXCEL INTERNATIONAL GCSE CHEMISTRY EDEXCEL CERTIFICATE IN CHEMISTRY ANSWERS SECTION E (To save endless repetition, wherever they are included, comments are intended for homeschooling parents who may

More information

Answers and Solutions to Text Problems

Answers and Solutions to Text Problems Chapter 7 Answers and Solutions 7 Answers and Solutions to Text Problems 7.1 A mole is the amount of a substance that contains 6.02 x 10 23 items. For example, one mole of water contains 6.02 10 23 molecules

More information

Chapter 4. Chemical Composition. Chapter 4 Topics H 2 S. 4.1 Mole Quantities. The Mole Scale. Molar Mass The Mass of 1 Mole

Chapter 4. Chemical Composition. Chapter 4 Topics H 2 S. 4.1 Mole Quantities. The Mole Scale. Molar Mass The Mass of 1 Mole Chapter 4 Chemical Composition Chapter 4 Topics 1. Mole Quantities 2. Moles, Masses, and Particles 3. Determining Empirical Formulas 4. Chemical Composition of Solutions Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies,

More information

Calculating Atoms, Ions, or Molecules Using Moles

Calculating Atoms, Ions, or Molecules Using Moles TEKS REVIEW 8B Calculating Atoms, Ions, or Molecules Using Moles TEKS 8B READINESS Use the mole concept to calculate the number of atoms, ions, or molecules in a sample TEKS_TXT of material. Vocabulary

More information

CHM 130LL: ph, Buffers, and Indicators

CHM 130LL: ph, Buffers, and Indicators CHM 130LL: ph, Buffers, and Indicators Many substances can be classified as acidic or basic. Acidic substances contain hydrogen ions, H +, while basic substances contain hydroxide ions, OH. The relative

More information

Mole Notes.notebook. October 29, 2014

Mole Notes.notebook. October 29, 2014 1 2 How do chemists count atoms/formula units/molecules? How do we go from the atomic scale to the scale of everyday measurements (macroscopic scale)? The gateway is the mole! But before we get to the

More information

Sample Exercise 3.1 Interpreting and Balancing Chemical Equations

Sample Exercise 3.1 Interpreting and Balancing Chemical Equations Sample Exercise 3.1 Interpreting and Balancing Chemical Equations The following diagram represents a chemical reaction in which the red spheres are oxygen atoms and the blue spheres are nitrogen atoms.

More information

TITRATION CURVES, INDICATORS, AND ACID DISSOCIATION CONSTANTS

TITRATION CURVES, INDICATORS, AND ACID DISSOCIATION CONSTANTS TITRATION CURVES, INDICATORS, AND ACID DISSOCIATION CONSTANTS Adapted from "Chemistry with Computers" Vernier Software, Portland OR, 1997 INTRODUCTION Titration is the volumetric measurement of a solution

More information

MOLES AND MOLE CALCULATIONS

MOLES AND MOLE CALCULATIONS 35 MOLES ND MOLE CLCULTIONS INTRODUCTION The purpose of this section is to present some methods for calculating both how much of each reactant is used in a chemical reaction, and how much of each product

More information

Worksheet # 8 Graham/09 Due

Worksheet # 8 Graham/09 Due CHE 100 Worksheet # 8 Graham/09 Name Key Due 1. According to the law of definite proportions, if a sample of a compound contains 7.00 grams of sulfur and 3.50 grams of oxygen, then another sample of the

More information

4.4 Calculations Involving the Mole Concept

4.4 Calculations Involving the Mole Concept 44 Section 43 Questions 1 Define Avogadro s constant, and explain its significance in quantitative analysis 2 Distinguish between the terms atomic mass and molar mass 3 Calculate the mass of a molecule

More information

Atomic mass is the mass of an atom in atomic mass units (amu)

Atomic mass is the mass of an atom in atomic mass units (amu) Micro World atoms & molecules Laboratory scale measurements Atomic mass is the mass of an atom in atomic mass units (amu) By definition: 1 atom 12 C weighs 12 amu On this scale 1 H = 1.008 amu 16 O = 16.00

More information

Chapter 1 The Atomic Nature of Matter

Chapter 1 The Atomic Nature of Matter Chapter 1 The Atomic Nature of Matter 6. Substances that cannot be decomposed into two or more simpler substances by chemical means are called a. pure substances. b. compounds. c. molecules. d. elements.

More information

Concept 1. The meaning and usefulness of the mole. The mole (or mol) represents a certain number of objects.

Concept 1. The meaning and usefulness of the mole. The mole (or mol) represents a certain number of objects. Chapter 3. Stoichiometry: Mole-Mass Relationships in Chemical Reactions Concept 1. The meaning and usefulness of the mole The mole (or mol) represents a certain number of objects. SI def.: the amount of

More information

Study Guide For Chapter 7

Study Guide For Chapter 7 Name: Class: Date: ID: A Study Guide For Chapter 7 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. The number of atoms in a mole of any pure substance

More information

Solubility of Salts - Ksp. Ksp Solubility

Solubility of Salts - Ksp. Ksp Solubility Solubility of Salts - Ksp We now focus on another aqueous equilibrium system, slightly soluble salts. These salts have a Solubility Product Constant, K sp. (We saw this in 1B with the sodium tetraborate

More information

THE MOLE / COUNTING IN CHEMISTRY

THE MOLE / COUNTING IN CHEMISTRY 1 THE MOLE / COUNTING IN CHEMISTRY ***A mole is 6.0 x 10 items.*** 1 mole = 6.0 x 10 items 1 mole = 60, 00, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000 items Analogy #1 1 dozen = 1 items 18 eggs = 1.5 dz. - to convert

More information

n molarity = M = N.B.: n = litres (solution)

n molarity = M = N.B.: n = litres (solution) 1. CONCENTRATION UNITS A solution is a homogeneous mixture of two or more chemical substances. If we have a solution made from a solid and a liquid, we say that the solid is dissolved in the liquid and

More information

Soil Chemistry Ch. 2. Chemical Principles As Applied to Soils

Soil Chemistry Ch. 2. Chemical Principles As Applied to Soils Chemical Principles As Applied to Soils I. Chemical units a. Moles and Avogadro s number The numbers of atoms, ions or molecules are important in chemical reactions because the number, rather than mass

More information

Oakland Schools Chemistry Resource Unit. Acid Base Concepts. Karen Doree South Lyon East High School South Lyon Community Schools

Oakland Schools Chemistry Resource Unit. Acid Base Concepts. Karen Doree South Lyon East High School South Lyon Community Schools Oakland Schools Chemistry Resource Unit Acid Base Concepts Karen Doree South Lyon East High School South Lyon Community Schools 1 Content Statements: C5.7 Acid-Base Concepts Acids and bases are important

More information

Determination of the Amount of Acid Neutralized by an Antacid Tablet Using Back Titration

Determination of the Amount of Acid Neutralized by an Antacid Tablet Using Back Titration Determination of the Amount of Acid Neutralized by an Antacid Tablet Using Back Titration GOAL AND OVERVIEW Antacids are bases that react stoichiometrically with acid. The number of moles of acid that

More information

CHEM 120 Online: Chapter 6 Sample problems Date: 2. Which of the following compounds has the largest formula mass? A) H2O B) NH3 C) CO D) BeH2

CHEM 120 Online: Chapter 6 Sample problems Date: 2. Which of the following compounds has the largest formula mass? A) H2O B) NH3 C) CO D) BeH2 CHEM 120 Online: Chapter 6 Sample problems Date: 1. To determine the formula mass of a compound you should A) add up the atomic masses of all the atoms present. B) add up the atomic masses of all the atoms

More information

Experiment 7: Titration of an Antacid

Experiment 7: Titration of an Antacid 1 Experiment 7: Titration of an Antacid Objective: In this experiment, you will standardize a solution of base using the analytical technique known as titration. Using this standardized solution, you will

More information

General Chemistry Questions

General Chemistry Questions General Chemistry Questions Electronic Structure and Periodic Table 1. What value or values of m l are allowable for an orbital with l = 2? a. 0 b. 2 c. -1 d. none of the above e. all of the above 2. According

More information

CHAPTER 10: INTERMOLECULAR FORCES: THE UNIQUENESS OF WATER Problems: 10.2, 10.6,10.15-10.33, 10.35-10.40, 10.56-10.60, 10.101-10.

CHAPTER 10: INTERMOLECULAR FORCES: THE UNIQUENESS OF WATER Problems: 10.2, 10.6,10.15-10.33, 10.35-10.40, 10.56-10.60, 10.101-10. CHAPTER 10: INTERMOLECULAR FORCES: THE UNIQUENESS OF WATER Problems: 10.2, 10.6,10.15-10.33, 10.35-10.40, 10.56-10.60, 10.101-10.102 10.1 INTERACTIONS BETWEEN IONS Ion-ion Interactions and Lattice Energy

More information

Organic Functional Groups Chapter 7. Alcohols, Ethers and More

Organic Functional Groups Chapter 7. Alcohols, Ethers and More Organic Functional Groups Chapter 7 Alcohols, Ethers and More 1 What do you do when you are in Pain? What do you do when you are in a lot of pain? 2 Functional Groups A functional group is an atom, groups

More information

CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION: WATER SOFTENING

CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION: WATER SOFTENING CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION: WATER SOFTENING Submitted to: Dr. Hashsham Research Complex Engineering Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Michigan State University East Lansing, MI 4884 Authors

More information

ph Measurements of Common Substances

ph Measurements of Common Substances Chem 100 Section Experiment 10 Name Partner s Name Introduction ph Measurements of Common Substances The concentration of an acid or base is frequently expressed as ph. Historically, ph stands for the

More information

PROPERTIES OF TYPICAL COMMERCIAL LIME PRODUCTS. Quicklimes High Calcium Dolomitic

PROPERTIES OF TYPICAL COMMERCIAL LIME PRODUCTS. Quicklimes High Calcium Dolomitic National Lime Association L I M E The Versatile Chemical Fact Sheet PROPERTIES OF TYPICAL COMMERCIAL LIME PRODUCTS Quicklimes High Calcium Dolomitic Primary Constituents CaO CaO MgO Specific Gravity 3.2-3.4

More information

Chapter 1: Moles and equations. Learning outcomes. you should be able to:

Chapter 1: Moles and equations. Learning outcomes. you should be able to: Chapter 1: Moles and equations 1 Learning outcomes you should be able to: define and use the terms: relative atomic mass, isotopic mass and formula mass based on the 12 C scale perform calculations, including

More information

Tuesday, November 27, 2012 Expectations:

Tuesday, November 27, 2012 Expectations: Tuesday, November 27, 2012 Expectations: Sit in assigned seat Get out Folder, Notebook, Periodic Table Have out: Spiral (notes), Learning Target Log (new) No Backpacks on tables Listen/Pay Attention Learning

More information

Part One: Mass and Moles of Substance. Molecular Mass = sum of the Atomic Masses in a molecule

Part One: Mass and Moles of Substance. Molecular Mass = sum of the Atomic Masses in a molecule CHAPTER THREE: CALCULATIONS WITH CHEMICAL FORMULAS AND EQUATIONS Part One: Mass and Moles of Substance A. Molecular Mass and Formula Mass. (Section 3.1) 1. Just as we can talk about mass of one atom of

More information

INTDUCTIN T LEWIS ACID-BASE CEMISTY DEINITINS Lewis acids and bases are defined in terms of electron pair transfers. A Lewis base is an electron pair donor, and a Lewis acid is an electron pair acceptor.

More information

Q1. A student studied the reaction between dilute hydrochloric acid and an excess of calcium carbonate.

Q1. A student studied the reaction between dilute hydrochloric acid and an excess of calcium carbonate. Q. A student studied the reaction between dilute hydrochloric acid and an excess of calcium carbonate. calcium carbonate + hydrochloric acid calcium chloride + water + carbon dioxide The student measured

More information

Calculations and Chemical Equations. Example: Hydrogen atomic weight = 1.008 amu Carbon atomic weight = 12.001 amu

Calculations and Chemical Equations. Example: Hydrogen atomic weight = 1.008 amu Carbon atomic weight = 12.001 amu Calculations and Chemical Equations Atomic mass: Mass of an atom of an element, expressed in atomic mass units Atomic mass unit (amu): 1.661 x 10-24 g Atomic weight: Average mass of all isotopes of a given

More information

MOLECULAR MASS AND FORMULA MASS

MOLECULAR MASS AND FORMULA MASS 1 MOLECULAR MASS AND FORMULA MASS Molecular mass = sum of the atomic weights of all atoms in the molecule. Formula mass = sum of the atomic weights of all atoms in the formula unit. 2 MOLECULAR MASS AND

More information

The Mole Concept. Chapter 3 Stoichiometry: Mass, Formulas, and Reactions. Chapter 3: Stoichiometry. The Mole Concept. Counting By Weighing.

The Mole Concept. Chapter 3 Stoichiometry: Mass, Formulas, and Reactions. Chapter 3: Stoichiometry. The Mole Concept. Counting By Weighing. Chapter 3 Stoichiometry: Mass, Formulas, and Reactions Chapter Objectives: Learn how to use the atomic mass of an element and the molecular weight of a compound to relate grams, moles, and the number of

More information

Chemistry 65 Chapter 6 THE MOLE CONCEPT

Chemistry 65 Chapter 6 THE MOLE CONCEPT THE MOLE CONCEPT Chemists find it more convenient to use mass relationships in the laboratory, while chemical reactions depend on the number of atoms present. In order to relate the mass and number of

More information

The Mole. Chapter 2. Solutions for Practice Problems

The Mole. Chapter 2. Solutions for Practice Problems Chapter 2 The Mole Note to teacher: You will notice that there are two different formats for the Sample Problems in the student textbook. Where appropriate, the Sample Problem contains the full set of

More information

Chem 31 Fall 2002. Chapter 3. Stoichiometry: Calculations with Chemical Formulas and Equations. Writing and Balancing Chemical Equations

Chem 31 Fall 2002. Chapter 3. Stoichiometry: Calculations with Chemical Formulas and Equations. Writing and Balancing Chemical Equations Chem 31 Fall 2002 Chapter 3 Stoichiometry: Calculations with Chemical Formulas and Equations Writing and Balancing Chemical Equations 1. Write Equation in Words -you cannot write an equation unless you

More information