# Liquidity Calculations. Liquidity. Farm Finance Scorecard. Solvency. Farm Financial Ratios 11/30/2015. Agenda. Become familiar with the ratios for

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1 Agenda Farm Financial Ratios Chris Bruynis, PhD Assistant Professor & Extension Educator This work is supported by USDA-NIFA under Award Number Become familiar with the ratios for Liquidity Solvency Profitability Repayment Capacity Financial Efficiency Based on the farm financial standards Legal 21 measures and work done by the University of Minnesota 2 Liquidity Liquidity refers the ability of a farm business to meet financial obligations as they come due - to generate enough cash to pay family living expenses and taxes, and make debt payments on time. Liquidity Calculations Current Ratio = total current farm assets total current farm liabilities Working Capital = total current farm assets - total current farm liabilities Only uses data from the balance sheet; specifically the current assets and current liabilities sections. Working Capital to Gross Income = working capital gross farm income 3 4 Solvency Liquidity 1. Current ratio. 2. Working capital \$ % 30% Solvency is the ability of your business to pay all its debts if it were sold tomorrow. Solvency is important in evaluating the financial risk and borrowing capacity of the business. 3. Working capital to gross revenue % Data comes from the balance sheet and uses only the market column (not the cost column) 6 1

2 Profitability Solvency (market) 4. Farm debt-to-asset ratio % 5. Farm equity-to-asset ratio % 60% 30% 40% 70% Profitability is the difference between the value of goods produced and the cost of the resources used in their production. 6. Farm debt-to-equity ratio % 150% 43% Information for profitability measures comes from the income statement 8 Net Farm Income Income Statement gross cash farm income - total cash farm expenses +/- inventory changes -depreciation net farm income 9 10 Rate of Return on Farm Assets Rate of Return on Farm Equity + Farm interest Value of operator labor & management Return on farm assets Return on farm assets Average farm assets 1 Rate of return on farm assets 1. from beginning and ending balance sheets Value of operator labor & management Return on farm equity Return on farm equity Average farm net worth 1 Rate of return on farm equity 1. from beginning and ending balance sheets - also called owner equity

3 Operating Profit Margin Gross cash farm income +/- Inventory changes 1 Feeder livestock purchased Purchased feed Value of farm production Return on farm assets / Value of farm production Operating profit margin Earnings before Interest, Taxes, Depreciation, and Amortization + Interest expense + Taxes + Depreciation and Amortization expense EBITDA 1. crops, market livestock, breeding livestock & other income items Repayment Capacity Profitability 7. \$ 8. Rate of return on farm assets % 9. Rate of return on farm equity % 4% 8% 3% 10% Repayment Capacity shows the borrower's (i.e., your) ability to repay term debts (both farm and non-farm) on time. It includes non-farm income and so is not a measure of business performance alone. 10. Operating profit margin % 11. EDITDA \$ 15% 25% Uses information from the Statement of Cash Flows 16 Capital Debt Repayment Capacity + Depreciation + Net non-farm income Family living & income taxes + Interest expense on term loans Capital Debt Repayment Margin Scheduled principal & interest on term loans 1 Capital debt repayment margin 1. Includes payments on capital leases

4 Replacement Margin Capital debt repayment margin Unfunded (cash) capital replacement allowance Replacement Margin Term-Debt Coverage Ratio Scheduled principal & interest on term loans 1 Term-debt coverage ratio 1. Includes payments on capital leases Replacement Margin Coverage Ratio (Scheduled principal & interest on term loans* + Unfunded capital replacement allowance) Replacement margin coverage ratio Repayment capacity 12. \$ 13. Capital debt repayment margin \$ 14. Repayment margin \$ 15. Term-debt coverage ratio % 16. Replacement margin coverage ratio % 1.25% 1.75% 1.10% 1.50% 21 Financial Efficiency Asset Turnover Rate Financial efficiency shows how effectively your business uses assets to generate income. Past performance of the business could well indicate potential future accomplishments. It also answers the questions: Are you using every available asset to its fullest potential? What are the effects of production, purchasing, pricing, financing and marketing decisions on gross income? Value of farm production Average farm assets 1 Asset turnover rate 1. Market value from beginning and ending balance sheets

5 Operating Expense Ratio (Total farm operating expense [excluding interest] Depreciation) Operation expense ratio Depreciation Expense Ratio Depreciation Depreciation expense ratio Interest Expense Ratio Farm interest Interest expense ratio Net Farm Income Ratio ratio Financial efficiency 30% 45% 17. Asset-turnover rate (market) % 80% 60% 18. Operating-expense ratio % 10% 5% 19. Depreciation-expense ratio % 10% 5% 20. Interest-expense ratio % 10% 20% 21. ratio % Financial Ratios One year generally does not tell the whole story! Financial ratios should be compared to Similar businesses/farms Industry standards Past financial performance trends Business targets 30 5

6 Questions Chris Bruynis

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