2 When I think about the nervous system I think...
3 Function Nervous System Three basic functions are performed by nervous systems: 1. Receive sensory input from internal and external environments 2. Integrate the input 3. Respond to stimuli
4 Components of the Nervous System Figure 11.1
5 Neurons Basic Unit of Nervous Tissue Nervous tissue is composed of two main cell types: neurons and glial cells. Neurons transmit nerve messages. Glial cells are in direct contact with neurons and often surround them. Nerve Cells and Astrocyte (SEM x2,250)
6 The Neuron cont The neuron is the functional unit of the nervous system. Humans have about 100 billion neurons in their brain alone! While variable in size and shape, all neurons have three parts. Dendrites receive information from another cell and transmit the message to the cell body. cell body contains the nucleus, mitochondria and other organelles typical of eukaryotic cells. axon conducts messages away from the cell body.
7 Structure of a typical neuron.
8 Structure of a neuron and the direction of nerve message transmission.
9 3 types of neurons: 1. Sensory neurons typically have a long dendrite and short axon, and carry messages from sensory receptors to the central nervous system. 2. Motor neurons have a long axon and short dendrites and transmit messages from the central nervous system to the muscles (or to glands). 3. Interneurons are found only in the central nervous system where they connect neuron to neuron.
10 PRACTICE: 1. Match the following parts of the neuron and their function: Dendrites Soma (cell body) Axon A conductive region; generates an action potential B input area; main nutritional and metabolic area C input area; receives signals from other neurons 2 Signals from other neurons are received at junctions called, located primarily on the and, the receptive and integrative region of the neuron. 3. What are the three types of neurons?,,
11 Skin Types of Neurons in the Nervous System Receptor Dendrite Axon Muscle Axon bulb Axon terminals Axon Impulse direction Motor neuron Axon hillock Dendrites Sensory neuron Cell body Cell body Interneuron Dendrites Axon Cell body Brain and spinal cord Figure 11.2
12 Neurons Some axons are wrapped in a myelin sheath formed from the plasma membranes of specialized glial cells known as Schwann cells. Schwann cells serve as supportive, nutritive, and service facilities for neurons. The gap between Schwann cells is known as the node of Ranvier, and serves as points along the neuron for generating a signal. Signals jumping from node to node travel hundreds of times faster than signals traveling along the surface of the axon. This allows your brain to communicate with your toes in a few thousandths of a second.
14 Cross section of myelin sheaths that surround axons (TEM x191,175).
15 Neuron Communication The plasma membrane of neurons, like all other cells, has an unequal distribution of ions and electrical charges between the two sides of the membrane. outside of the membrane = positive charge + inside of the membrane = negative charge - charge difference = resting potential and is measured in millivolts (mv).
16 Resting Potential Resting potential results from differences between sodium (Na+) and potassium (K+) and negatively charged ions in the cytoplasm. Outside the membrane = higher Na+ concentration Inside = higher K+ concentration This is maintained by the sodium potassium pump. The sodium-potassium pump maintains this unequal concentration by actively transporting ions against their concentration gradients. (USES ATP!!)
17 Maintenance of the Resting Membrane Potential Figure 11.3
18 Passage of ions across the cell membrane passes the electrical charge along the cell. The voltage potential is -65mV (millivolts) of a cell at rest (resting potential).
19 Action Potential Mechanism Action potential is a temporary reversal of the electrical potential along the membrane for a few milliseconds. Sodium gates and potassium gates open in the membrane to allow their respective ions to cross. (Na+ and K+ reverse positions on either side of the membrane). 1 st - Sodium crosses Increases membrane potential 2 nd K+ channels open to allow potassium ions to pass to the outside of the membrane. Sodium potassium pump restores membrane potential..
20 Refractory period The action potential begins at one spot on the membrane. Then it spreads to adjacent areas. After passage of the action potential, there is a brief period, the refractory period, during which the membrane cannot be stimulated. Brainstorm: What do you think the purpose of the refractory period is?
21 Steps in an Action Potential At rest the outside of the membrane is more positive than the inside. Sodium moves inside the cell causing an action potential, the influx of positive sodium ions makes the inside of the membrane more positive than the outside. Potassium ions flow out of the cell, restoring the resting potential net charges. Sodium ions are pumped out of the cell and potassium ions are pumped into the cell, restoring the original distribution of ions. (sodium-potassium pump)
22 True or false? The sodium-potassium pump evenly exchanges one ion of the other. True False
23 Synapses vocab to know! The junction between a nerve cell and another cell is called a synapse. Messages travel within the neuron as an electrical action potential. The space between two cells is known as the synaptic cleft. To cross the synaptic cleft requires the actions of neurotransmitters. Neurotransmitters are stored in small synaptic vessicles clustered at the tip of the axon.
24 PRACTICE: What support cell forms the myelin sheath? Myelin is found around which part of the neuron? The tightly wound cell membrane around the axon forms the myelin sheath and acts as. The gaps between the Schwann cells, called the, are essential for the conduction of the action potential.
25 Summary of Synaptic Transmission Figure 11.8
26 Summary of Synaptic Transmission Figure 11.8
27 Arrival of the action potential causes some of the vesicles (full of neurotransmitters!) to move to the end of the axon and discharge their contents into the synaptic cleft. Released neurotransmitters diffuse across the cleft, and bind to receptors on the other cell's membrane, causing ion channels on that cell to open. Some neurotransmitters cause an action potential, others are inhibitory.
28 Neurotransmitters Neurotransmitters tend to be small molecules, some are even hormones. More than 30 organic molecules are thought to act as neurotransmitters. The neurotransmitters cross the cleft, binding to receptor molecules on the next cell, prompting transmission of the message along that cell's membrane. Once in the cleft, neurotransmitters are active for only a short time. WHY DO YOU THINK activation for a short time IS IMPORTANT?
29 Recycling Neurotransmitters are either destroyed by specific enzymes in the synaptic cleft, diffuse out of the cleft, or are reabsorbed by the cell. Enzymes in the cleft inactivate the neurotransmitters. Inactivated neurotransmitters are taken back into the axon and recycled.
30 An action potential. A. reverses the + and charges at the membrane B. allows sodium to leave the cell C. expels calcium from the endoplasmic reticulum D. is the same as the resting potential
31 Sensory Input Receptors are parts of the nervous system that sense changes in the internal or external environments. Sensory input can be in many forms, including pressure, taste, sound, light, blood ph, or hormone levels. Sensory input is converted to a signal and sent to the brain or spinal cord.
32 Integration and Output In the sensory centers of the brain or in the spinal cord, the barrage of input is integrated and a response is generated. The response, a motor output, is a signal transmitted to organs than can convert the signal into some form of action: Ex: movement, changes in heart rate, release of hormones, etc.
33 Divisions of the Nervous System The nervous system monitors and controls almost every organ system through a series of positive and negative feedback loops. The Central Nervous System (CNS) includes the brain and spinal cord. The Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) connects the CNS to other parts of the body, and is composed of nerves (bundles of neurons).
35 Peripheral Nervous System The Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)contains only nerves and connects the brain and spinal cord (CNS) to the rest of the body. The axons and dendrites are surrounded by a white myelin sheath. Cell bodies are in the central nervous system (CNS) or ganglia. Ganglia are collections of nerve cell bodies. Cranial nerves in the PNS take impulses to and from the brain (CNS). Spinal nerves take impulses to and away from the spinal cord.
36 PNS There are two major subdivisions of the PNS motor pathways: the somatic and the autonomic. Two main components of the PNS: sensory (afferent) pathways that provide input from the body into the CNS. motor (efferent) pathways that carry signals to muscles and glands (effectors). Most sensory input carried in the PNS remains below the level of conscious awareness. Input that does reach the conscious level contributes to perception of our external environment.
37 Somatic Nervous System The Somatic Nervous System (SNS) includes all nerves controlling the muscular system and external sensory receptors. External sense organs (including skin) are receptors. Muscle fibers and gland cells are effectors.
38 Reflex Arc The reflex arc is an automatic, involuntary reaction to a stimulus. When the doctor taps your knee with the rubber hammer, she/he is testing your reflex (or knee-jerk). The reaction to the stimulus is involuntary, with the CNS being informed but not consciously controlling the response. Ex: balance, the blinking reflex, and the stretch reflex. Motor neurons of the somatic system are distinct from those of the autonomic system. Inhibitory signals, cannot be sent through the motor neurons of the somatic system.
39 WITHDRAWL REFLEX
40 True or false? Sensory nerves carry impulses toward the central nervous system. True False
41 Autonomic Nervous System The Autonomic Nervous System is that part of PNS consisting of motor neurons that control internal organs. It has two subsystems. The autonomic system controls muscles in the heart, the smooth muscle in internal organs such as the intestine, bladder, and uterus. The Sympathetic Nervous System is involved in the fight or flight response.
42 Parasympathetic Nervous System The Parasympathetic Nervous System is involved in relaxation. Each of these subsystems operates in the reverse of the other (antagonism). Both systems innervate the same organs and act in opposition to maintain homeostasis. For example: when you are scared the sympathetic system causes your heart to beat faster; the parasympathetic system reverses this effect. Motor neurons in this system do not reach their targets directly (as do those in the somatic system) but rather connect to a secondary motor neuron which in turn innervates the target organ.
43 Parasympathetic Divisions of the Autonomic Nervous System Figure (1 of 2)
44 Sympathetic Divisions of the Autonomic Nervous System Figure (2 of 2)
45 True or false? When you are taking an exam, the sympathetic nervous system is dominant. True False
46 Central Nervous System The Central Nervous System (CNS) is composed of the brain and spinal cord. The CNS is surrounded by bone-skull and vertebrae. Fluid and tissue also insulate the brain and spinal cord.
47 Ventricles of the Brain and Circulation of Cerebrospinal Fluid Figure 11.13
48 Brain Structures The brain is composed of three parts: the cerebrum (seat of consciousness), the cerebellum, and the medulla oblongata (these latter two are "part of the unconscious brain"). The medulla oblongata is closest to the spinal cord, and is involved with the regulation of heartbeat, breathing, vasoconstriction (blood pressure), and reflex centers for vomiting, coughing, sneezing, swallowing, and hiccuping.
49 The Brain Pons Connects cerebellum, spinal cord with higher brain centers Aids medulla in regulating respiration HINDBRAIN Medulla oblongata Controls automatic functions of internal organs Cerebellum Controls basic and skilled movements Figure 11.15
50 Brain The hypothalamus regulates homeostasis. It has regulatory areas for thirst, hunger, body temperature, water balance, and blood pressure, and links the Nervous System to the Endocrine System. The midbrain and pons are also part of the unconscious brain. The thalamus serves as a central relay point for incoming nervous messages.
51 FOREBRAIN Cerebrum Coordinates language Controls decision making Produces conscious thought Corpus callosum Bridges the two cerebral hemispheres Thalamus Receives, processes and transfers information The Brain Figure 11.15
52 The cerebellum is the second largest part of the brain, after the cerebrum. It functions for muscle coordination and maintains normal muscle tone and posture. The cerebellum coordinates balance. The conscious brain includes the cerebral hemispheres, which are separated by the corpus callosum. In reptiles, birds, and mammals, the cerebrum coordinates sensory data and motor functions. The cerebrum governs intelligence and reasoning, learning and memory.
53 The Brain Stem and Midbrain The brain stem is the smallest and from an evolutionary viewpoint, the oldest and most primitive part of the brain. The brain stem is continuous with the spinal cord, and is composed of the parts of the hindbrain and midbrain. The medulla oblongata and pons control heart rate, constriction of blood vessels, digestion and respiration. The Cerebellum The cerebellum is the third part of the hindbrain, but it is not considered part of the brain stem. Functions of the cerebellum include fine motor coordination and body movement, posture, and balance. This region of the brain is enlarged in birds and controls muscle action needed for flight.
54 The Brain MIDBRAIN Relays visual and auditory inputs Coordinates movement Figure 11.15
55 The Forebrain The forebrain consists of the diencephalon and cerebrum. The thalamus and hypothalamus are the parts of the diencephalon. The thalamus acts as a switching center for nerve messages. The hypothalamus is a major homeostatic center having both nervous and endocrine functions. The cerebrum, the largest part of the human brain, is divided into left and right hemispheres connected to each other by the corpus callosum. The hemispheres are covered by a thin layer of gray matter known as the cerebral cortex, the most recently evolved region of the vertebrate brain. Fish have no cerebral cortex, amphibians and reptiles have only rudiments of this area. The cortex in each hemisphere of the cerebrum is between 1 and 4 mm thick. Folds divide the cortex into four lobes: occipital, temporal, parietal, and frontal. No region of the brain functions alone, although major functions of various parts of the lobes have been determined.
58 occipital lobe The occipital lobe (back of the head) receives and processes visual information. The temporal lobe receives auditory signals, processing language and the meaning of words. The parietal lobe is associated with the sensory cortex and processes information about touch, taste, pressure, pain, and heat and cold. The frontal lobe conducts three functions: motor activity and integration of muscle activity speech thought processes
60 Most people who have been studied have their language and speech areas on the left hemisphere of their brain. Language comprehension is found in Wernicke's area. Speaking ability is in Broca's area. Damage to Broca's area causes speech impairment but not impairment of language comprehension. Lesions in Wernicke's area impairs ability to comprehend written and spoken words but not speech.
61 The Spinal Cord The spinal cord runs along the dorsal side of the body and links the brain to the rest of the body. Vertebrates have their spinal cords encased in a series of (usually) bony vertebrae that comprise the vertebral column. The gray matter of the spinal cord consists mostly of cell bodies and dendrites. The surrounding white matter is made up of bundles of interneuronal axons (tracts). Some tracts are ascending (carrying messages to the brain), others are descending (carrying messages from the brain). The spinal cord is also involved in reflexes that do not immediately involve the brain.
62 Which part of the brain coordinates basic body movements? Medulla oblongata Cerebellum Pons Thalamus
63 Which part of the central nervous system performs our higher functions? Cerebrum Cerebellum Thalamus Limbic system
64 Diseases of the Nervous System Parkinson's disease has a deficiency of the neurotransmitter dopamine. Progressive death of brain cells increases this deficit, causing tremors, rigidity and unstable posture. L-dopa is a chemical related to dopamine that eases some of the symptoms (by acting as a substitute neurotransmitter) but cannot reverse the progression of the disease.
65 Diseases Cont. Brain tumor: cancer uncontrolled mitosis in the brain will damage brain tissue. Epilepsy: burst of abnormal electrical signals that can cause seizures. Alzheimer's: degenerative disease of neurons in brain causes impaired memory, actions, confusion.
66 Multiple sclerosis: degeneration of the sheath that surrounds neurons. myelin Myelin allows the electrical part of the nerve impulse to travel quickly and not interfere with other impulses. People lose the ability to communicate with their muscles and. organs
67 The Brain and Drugs Some neurotransmitters are excitatory, such as acetylcholine, norepinephrine, serotonin, and dopamine. Some are associated with relaxation, such as dopamine and serotonin. Dopamine release seems related to sensations of pleasure. Endorphins are natural opioids that produce elation and reduction of pain, as do artificial chemicals such as opium and heroin.
68 The Brain on Drugs: Marijuana, material from the Indian hemp plant (Cannabis sativa), has a potent chemical THC (tetrahydracannibinol) that in low, concentrations causes a euphoric high (if inhaled, the most common form of action is smoke inhalation). High dosages may cause severe effects such as hallucinations, anxiety, depression, and psychotic symptoms. Cocaine is derived from the plant Erthoxylon coca. Inhaled, smoked or injected. Cocaine users report a "rush" of euphoria following use. Following the rush is a short (5-30 minute) period of arousal followed by a depression. Repeated cycle of use terminate in a "crash" when the cocaine is gone. Prolonged used causes production of less dopamine, causing the user to need more of the drug. Heroin is a derivative of morphine, which in turn is obtained from opium, the milky secretions obtained from the opium poppy, Papaver somniferum. Heroin is usually injected intravenously, although snorting and smoking serve as alternative delivery methods. Heroin binds to ophioid receptors in the brain, where the natural chemical endorphins are involved in the cessation pain. Heroin is physically addictive, and prolonged use causes less endorphin production. Once this happens, the euphoria is no longer felt, only dependence and delay of withdrawal symptoms.
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