Chem : Sept E1:Discussion Preparation. Solution Color

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1 Chem : Sept.17-2 Preparation Pre-lab Report (p.6) for E2 completed Discussion Presentation for E1 completed Pre-lab reading and studies for E2 completed E1:Discussion Preparation Refer to the discussion grading rubricks, pp Refer to the discussion information, page 2 and posted on CTools. Send presentation to GSI and obtain feedback Agenda One hour discussion of E1(Questions, p.8) Two hours of E2; E2 = two session 5 hour lab E2: Electrons and Solution Color Session 1: Two Hour Lab Agenda* Complete Part 1(Solution preparation) Complete Part 2 Prepare Part (Solution dilutions) or start Part as indicated by GSI * See Student Information Sheet on Ctools. Session 2: Three Hour Lab Agenda Complete Parts,, and 5 E2: Electrons and Solution Color Goals: See discussion questions (p.7) Is salt solution color predictable based on: the position of the metal ion s element in the periodic table? the metal ion s electron configuration (Fig., p. 22)? the metal ion s ionic radius (Ionic Sizes, p. 255)? Its absorption and transmission of visible light? Part 1. Preparation and Color of Solutions 1 Teams prepare solutions with different metal ions H+ Hydrogen Record the color of solutions. IIIA IVA VA Li+ Lithium 11 Na+ Sodium ryllium 12 Mg2+ Magnesium IIIB IVB VB VIB VIIB VIIIB! VIIIB IB IIB K+ Potassium Ca2+ Sc Calcium Scandium Ti Titanium 7 RubidiumStrontium 8 Sr2+ 9 itrium 55 Cs Cesium 56 Ba2+ Barium 57 La* Lanthanum 0 Zirconium 72 Hf 2 V 2 Cr+ Vanadium Chromium 1 Niobium 7 Ta Hafnium Tantalum 2 Mo Molybdenum 7 W Tungsten 25 Mn Manganese Tc Technetium 75 Re Rhenium 26 Fe+ Iron Co2+ Cobalt Ni2+ Cu2+ Nickel Copper Zn2+ Zinc Ru Ruthenium 5 Rh RhodiumPalladium 6 Pd 7 Ag+ 8 Silver Os Ir Osmium Iridium Pt Au Platinum Gold Cd2+ Cadmium 80 Hg2+ Mercury 1 Al+ Aluminum 1 2 lium rmanium 9 In 50 Sn2+ 51 Iridium Tin 81 Tl Thallium 82 Pb 2+ Lead Antimony 8 Bi Bismuth Solution Color Solutions with ions of the same metal element with different ion charges may have different colors. 1 H+ Hydrogen IIIA IVA VA Li+ Lithium ryllium DEMO: V 2+ vs. V + etc Na+ Mg2+ Sodium Magnesium IIIB IVB VB VIB VIIB VIIIB! VIIIB IB IIB 19 K+ Potassium 7 Rubidium Ca2+ Sc Ti V Cr+ Calcium ScandiumTitanium Vanadium Chromium 8 Sr Mo Strontium itrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum 25 Mn Manganese Tc Technetium 26 Fe+ Iron Co2+ Cobalt Ni2+ Cu2+ Nickel Copper Zn2+ Zinc 1 Al+ Aluminum 1 2 lium rmanium Ru Rh Pd Ag+ Cd2+ In Sn2+ Ruthenium RhodiumPalladium Silver Cadmium Iridium Tin Periodic Table with common metal ion charges. Antimony

2 Chem.125/126 Mascot Calibration line Volumetric flasks Moles and the Periodic Table? National Mole Day: October 2. Why?? Where are moles represented on the periodic table? He.00 1 H Li Na K Cs Fr (22) Mg Ca Sr Ba Ra Sc La Ac (2) 22 Ti Hf Rf (261) 2 V Ta Ha (262) 58 Ce Th Cr Mn Fe Co Mo Tc Ru 5 Rh (99) W Re Os Ir (26) 59 Pr Pa (21) 60 Nd U Pm (15) 9 Np () 62 Sm Pu (22) 28 Ni Pd Pt Eu Am (2) 29 Cu Ag Au Gd Zn Cd Hg Tb Cm Bk (25) (29) 5 B Al In Tl Dy Cf (251) 6 C Si Sn Pb Ho Es (25) 7 N P As Bi Er Fm (255) 8 O S 2.06 Se Te Po (209) 69 Tm Md (256) 9 F Cl Br I At (210) 70 b No (25) 10 Ne Ar Kr Xe Rn (222) 71 Lu Lr (257) Mole = mol = 6.02 x 10 2 item = atomic wt (g) = formula wt (g) 1 H Li Na K Mg Ca Sr Cs Fr (22) Ba Ra Mole of H 2 O = grams? 21 Sc La Ac (2) 22 Ti Hf Rf (261) 2 V Ta Ha (262) 2 Cr Mo W (26) Mn Fe Co Tc Ru 5 Rh (99) Re 76 Os 77 Ir Ni Pd Pt Cu Ag Au Zn Cd Hg B Al In Tl C Si Sn Pb N P As Bi O S 2.06 Se Te Po (209) 9 F Cl Br I At (210) 2 He Ne Ar Kr Xe Rn (222) 58 Ce Th Pr Pa (21) 60 Nd U Pm (15) 9 Np () 62 Sm Pu (22) 6 Eu Am (2) 6 Gd Tb Cm Bk (25) (29) 66 Dy Cf (251) 67 Ho Es (25) 68 Er Fm (255) 69 Tm Md (256) 70 b No (25) 71 Lu Lr (257)

3 Molar Reflections* esterday I took a drink of water And something strange happened in my head I made an actual connection With something that my chemistry teacher said I could visualize lots and lots of molecules Movin in the water to and fro and then I thought If I just drank 18 grams of water I just drank a mole of H 2 O! Molar reflections, my mind is running free Making connections between the world and chemistry A mole is more than a number, more than just a word It s an amount that s equal to6.02 times ten to the twenty third! *Mike Offutt 2002 Moles and Solution Concentration # M = # Molar Solution # = moles per 1000 ml of solution or mmoles per ml of solution Example: 2.0 M NaCl contains 2 moles NaCl per 1000 ml or 2 mmoles per ml of solution Read the reagent label for the salt sample CuSO 5 H 2 O = Hydrated copper sulfate CuSO = anhydrous copper sufate Determine the mass of a mole of the salt CuSO 5 H 2 O = Hydrated copper sulfate Example CuSO 5 H 2 O = Cu + S + (O) + 5 (2 x H + O) = (16) + 5 (2 + 16) = DEMO Determine the mass of salt needed to prepare 100 ml of 0.10 M solution Q. How many grams of CuSO 5H 2 O are needed? g x 0.10 mol x 100 ml = 2.50 g 1 mol 1000 ml Salt Solution preparation Calibration line DEMO Volumetric flasks Transfer the weighed sample (2.50 g of CuSO 5H 2 O) to a 100 ml Vol flask and add water to the calibration line

4 Solution Preparation our teammate adds 1 liter (1000 ml) of water to 58.5 g of NaCl to prepare 1.0 M NaCl. The resulting solution was too dilute ( < 1.0 M ). Why? Information: FW NaCl Na + Cl = FW NaCl = 58.5 g NaCl Answer: 1 mol NaCl was contained in a volume greater than 1000 ml. Less than 1000 ml of water is required since the salt itself occupies volume. Solution dilution Solution Dilution One buret contains the solution to be diluted One buret contains water Initial moles or mmoles = Final moles or mmoles Add H 2 O Solution Diluted solution Burets clamped to ring stand Dilution of Solutions Solution Dilution Initial mol or mmol = Final mol or mmol M 1 V 1 = M 2 V 2 initial mmoles = final mmoles If V= milliliters: M x V = If V= liters: M x V = mmol x ml = mmol ml mol x L = mol L Add H 2 O 0.10 M x 10 ml + 10 ml H 2 O.05 M x 20 ml 1 mmol = 1 mmol

5 Q. What volume of 0.10 M Ni(NO)2 do you need to prepare 20.0 ml of 0.07 M Ni(NO )2? M1 V 1 = Solution Delivery M 2 V M X ml = 0.07 M 20.0 ml X = 1.0 ml Ni(NO)2 Q. What volume of H 2 O do you add to 1.0 ml of 0.10 M Ni(NO)2? 6. 0 ml H2O Solution Delivery Fill the buret and tip Record the initial volume Q. What volume of 0.20 M Ni(NO)2 and water do you use to prepare 10 ml of 0.16 M Ni(NO)2? M 1 V1 = M 2 V M X ml = 0.16 M 10 ml 8 ml 0.20 M Ni(NO)2 + 2 ml H2O Open the stopcock to deliver the solution into the flask. Record the final volume; Calculate and record the delivered solution volume Parts 2 and : Electrons and Solution Color Spectrophotometer Use a spectrophotometer to examine the relationship between solution color and absorption and transmission of visible light. Light source Diffraction grating Sample solution Detector Record visible wavelength colors (Part 2)

6 Spectrophotometer Absorption Spectrum A plot of absorbance versus wavelength Absorbance λmax Record sample absorbance values across the visible spectrum wavelengths (Part ). Light Absorbance vs. Transmission ABSORBANCE = -LOG TRANSMITTANCE 0% 10% T 100% Absorption Spectrum Q. Identify the wavelength of transmission max in the absorption spectrum below. Transmission λmax 2 1 A 0 Absorbance values have no units Abs = 1 10% light transmitted Abs = 2 1% light transmitted Absorption Spectrum Q. What factor is responsible for changes in absorbance values? Answer. The samples absorptivity factor er-lambert Law A λ = ε c l Absorbance at λ = absorptivity factor concentration path length Concentration and path length are held constant while taking the sample s spectrum (Part ). To be continued next pre-lab lecture

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