CS2202 Enterprise Software

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1 CS2202-T.1.1 CS2202 Enterprise Software Lecturer: Humphrey Sorensen Course Objectives: to examine techniques for developing data-intensive software applications for administration of business enterprises to review and assess tools & techniques (software & conceptual) for such development in particular, to examine the role of database management systems (DBMS) as a software tool for use in such applications Topics: Database Management Systems: uses, concepts & realities Relational Data Model: theory & practice Structured Query Language (SQL): common data sublanguage for the relational data model* o Data definition, manipulation & control in SQL-based DBMS o Access control & integrity in SQL-based DBMS o Commercial realisation of SQL-based DBMS [Oracle, MySQL, Sybase, MS-SQLServer, Ingres/Postgres, ] Interactive v. Embedded SQL: embedding SQL into procedural programming languages Web-Enabled Applications: using PHP as a programming language for e- commerce applications DBMS Implementation: architecture of DBMS; query processing & optimisation; transaction processing; failure recovery; physical database design Database Design Techniques: Entity-Relationship (ER) Modelling; Unified Modelling Language (UML) Database Verification: normalisation of functional dependencies

2 CS2202-T.1.2 Assessment: Final Exam: 80% Continuous Assessment: 20% o Midterm Exam 20 o 12 x Assignments 12 o 2 x Spot Quiz 8 Textbook: Fundamentals of Database Systems, 4th Edition Elmasri & Navathe Addison-Wesley, 2004

3 CS2202-T.1.3 [Topic 1: Introduction to Database Systems EN-1] Example Uses of Database Systems - account maintenance & access in banking - lending library systems - airline reservation systems - internet purchasing systems - media archives for radio/tv stations Definition of Terms - Database: o A logically coherent collection of related data that (i) describes the entities and their inter-relationships, and (ii) is designed, built & populated for a specific reason - Database Management System (DBMS): o A collection of programs that enables users to perform certain actions on a particular database: define the structure of database information (descriptive attributes, data types, constraints, etc), storing this as meta-data populate the database with appropriate information manipulate the database (for retrieval/update/removal/insertion of information) protect the database contents against accidental or deliberate corruption of contents (involves secure access by users and automatic recovery in the case of user/hardware faults) share the database among multiple users, possibly concurrently [Example DBMS would include Oracle, Sybase, MySQL, DB/2, SQLServer, Informix, MS-Access, FileMaker, ]

4 CS2202-T Database System: o Database System = Database + Database Management System

5 CS2202-T.1.5 A Sample Database - Shown below is an extract from a (relational) database that might part of a University s Academic Information System:

6 CS2202-T.1.6 Characteristics of the Database Approach - self-describing nature of a database implies that all database structures (e.g.tables) should be fully described within the database itself; this is possible through the auto-generation & storage of meta-data in a catalog (database directory / data dictionary) - insulation between programs & data implies that changes to the structure of database elements should not require (major) revision of programs that access those structures, thereby promoting program-data independence; contrast this with the effect of changing a file s structure on all of the programs that access it - support of multiple views of the data is required because a particular database may have many authorized users, not all of whom should have access to all data therein nor do all users necessarily wish to view the same data in the same way; the examples below outline two possible views into the University Academic Information System one that might be relevant to staff producing transcripts, the other to staff checking prerequisite details [note that we will later suggest that these are not actually stored tables of information but they can be generated from the stored information when required] - sharing of data and multiuser transaction processing should be supported so that multiple users can concurrently access the database contents, some of whom may be attempting to modify those contents; the DBMS should

7 CS2202-T.1.7 mediate between user requests and guarantee correctness of actions, using concepts of transaction processing Database Users - Database Administrators (DBA): o individual(s) that determine & implement policy regarding users, their permissions on a database and the design & construction of that database - Database Designers: o individual(s) possibly also software engineers who apply design techniques to produce database structures pertinent to a specific application - End Users: o People who, from time to time, access the contents of a database: Casual end users may submit ad-hoc queries as the need arises, using a high-level query language naïve, or parametric, end-users access the database through pre-written programs that effect an appropriate interface to the database database programmers write code, using a relevant programming language and the high-level query language, that can later be used by parametric users Advantages of DBMS Approach - controlled redundancy within a database in the sense that facts need not be replicated in storage means that the consistency of data cannot be compromised - a security subsystem can ensure that there is no unauthorized access to the database or its contents

8 CS2202-T persistent storage for program objects can be provided by providing application program interfaces (API) to common programming languages - efficiency in query processing can be achieved by permitting secondary storage optimizing techniques, such as indexes and multiple buffering - backup & recovery of the database, so that its contents cannot be lost of compromised, is achieved through the provision of an appropriate software component - multiple user interfaces, using query-oriented, graphical or web-based techniques, can be provided for different user groups - complex relationships among data elements can easily be represented - integrity constraints, that enforce logical checks on the stored data, can ensure the accuracy & validity of the database contents - inferencing & action rules can be specified & enforced, so that the DBMS takes predefined actions when data changes take place leading to the notion of an active database History of DBMS and their Applications - Data Models o 1960 s-: Hierarchical Data Model [IMS] o 1970 s-: Network Data Modle [DBMS, Adabas] o 1980 s-: Relational Data Model [System R, Ingres; Oracle, Sybase, MySQL, ] o 1990 s-: Object-Oriented data Model [Orion, Gemstone/Opal, Ardent, ] - Applications: o 1960 s-: Data Processing o 1980 s-: Interactive Data Access Applications o 1990 s-: Web Access to Databases for E-Commerce; Data Mining; Multimedia Databases; Geographic Databases

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