Things around Us. Living and Non-Living Things. Bingo s Activity Time

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1 1 Things around Us We see many things around us. Some move on their own, while others need something to move them. For example, a cockroach and a tiger move on their own, but a table and a chair move only when you push or pull them. So, we can divide things around us into two groups living and non-living things. Plants, animals and human beings are living things. Chair, table, rock, sand, hills, etc. are non-living things. Bingo s Activity Time Think and make a list of five living things and five non-living things you see on your way from school to home. Living and Non-Living Things There are many differences between living and non-living things. Living things can do many things that non-living things cannot. Living things need food Living things need food to grow. Food provides energy to them. Some animals like goats, rabbits and cows eat plants. Tigers, lions, jackals and some other animals eat animal flesh. Human beings and animals like bears and squirrels eat both plants and animals. While animals depend directly or indirectly on plants for food, plants prepare their own food. Non-living things like rock, chair, etc. neither prepare food nor do they need it to live.

2 Living things grow All living things grow using the energy they get from food. A baby grows into a young boy/girl and then goes on to become a man/woman. A chick grows into a hen and a cub grows into a lion. Plants also show growth. A seed grows into a sapling which grows into a plant and then into a tree. A bud grows into a flower which grows into a fruit. Non-living things like plastic bottle, pencil, stone do not grow. baby young boy man Growth in Human Beings seed sapling plant tree Growth in Plants Living things breathe All living things breathe. A fish breathes through special structures called gills. Human beings breathe through lungs. Frogs breathe through both skin and lungs. Insects breathe through tiny holes in their body. Plants breathe through stomata. Non-living things do not breathe. Stomata Stomata are small openings present mostly on the lower surface of a leaf. They help plants to breathe. stomata Gills Gills are special structures found in many aquatic organisms that help them to breathe. gills Bingo s Challenge! Name three animals and three birds that breathe through lungs. Can you name any one non-living thing that breathes?

3 Living things move All living things show movement. Animals and human beings move from one place to another while plants show movement in some of their parts only. For example, dog, cat, elephant and human beings move here and there in search of food, shelter and water. Plants like touch-me-not show movement upon touching and sunflower turns towards the sun. movement in touch-me-not Oh my God! My bicycle is moving on its own. Am I dreaming? Non-living things like car, bicycle and chair can also move but not on their own. They need to be pushed or pulled by a human being, an animal or an engine to move. Therefore, movement is a feature of living things only. Bingo s Activity Time Take a well-watered potted plant. Keep it inside a dark room for a few days. Observe it carefully. You will find a change in the colour of its leaves. They will become pale and lifeless. Now keep the same plant outside in the sun for a few days. What do you observe? Do the leaves become green again? Does the plant start looking healthy once again? Living things feel You have seen in the above activity that a plant wilts when kept inside without getting sunlight. This shows that plants feel changes in the surroundings. Many plants shed their Wilt Droop, to become limp

4 leaves in autumn and bear flowers in spring season. These are the plants, response to the changing seasons. Similarly, animals and human beings also respond to changes in the environment. For example, you switch on the fan in summer because you feel hot and wear woollen clothes in winter as you feel cold. Similarly, a dog hangs out its tongue when it feels hot and an elephant fans its ears to keep itself cool in summer. Some birds migrate from one place to another as a response to change in weather conditions. Animals and human beings have sense organs to help them feel these changes. Migrate To move from one place to another for a particular time period. On the other hand, non-living things do not respond to changes in the surroundings. This is because they cannot sense or feel any changes. Living things reproduce All living things reproduce. Human beings and animals like cats, dogs, cows, buffaloes, etc. give birth to their young ones. Birds, fishes, snakes and frogs lay eggs and the young ones hatch out of the eggs. Plants produce seeds from which new plants arise. Have you ever seen a table giving rise to a new baby table? No, because non-living things cannot reproduce. mother and baby hen and chick Oops! A table hatching out of an egg?? 10

5 Living things have a life cycle Living things are born, they grow up, reproduce and die. This is called a life cycle. All living things have a life cycle. Mosquito eggs hatch into larvae. The larvae grows into pupae and finally into mosquitoes. This is the life cycle of a mosquito. Similarly plants also have a life cycle. Some plants live for only one season while others live for many years. This means that some plants complete their life cycle in one season while others take years to complete it. Non-living things do not have a life cycle. Living things die All the things that are living die some day. It means living things have a fixed life span. Living things that are no more alive are called dead things. For example, wood is a dead thing because it was once a part of a living thing. Dead things can no more show any of the features of living things. But they showed all these features when they were alive. Funeral ceremony of a computer?? mosquito pupa Non-living things cannot die because they were never alive. Similarities between Living and Non-Living Things Living and non-living things are made up of some material. For example, the body of human beings and animals is made of skin, bones, flesh and organs. A pen or a plate is made of plastic or metal. Living and non-living things occupy space and have weight. For example, a dog occupies space and has weight. A table also occupies space and has weight. egg larva 11

6 Living and non-living things are affected by weather conditions. For example, heat, cold and rain affect our skin and they also affect metals or wood. Bingo s Challenge! What happens to the wooden doors and windows during rainy season? Bingo s Activity Time Identify the features of the following things. Features Ant Glass Squirrel Car Butterfly 1. Growth 2. Movement 3. Reproduction 4. Respond to changes 5. Nutrition 6. Breathing 7. Living or Non-living Living Natural and Man-Made Things There are two kinds of non-living things natural and man-made. The sun, the moon, clouds, rivers and mountains are natural things. Things that are made by man like chairs, tables, computers, televisions, etc. are called manmade things. natural things man-made things 12

7 Quick Recall Identify the following things as living (L), non-living (N) or dead (D). 1. Silk 2. Sand 3. Germinated Seed 4. Wood 5. Spider 6. Rubber Recall with Bingo 1. Things around us are divided into two groups living and non-living things. 2. Plants, animals and human beings are living things. 3. Living things differ from non-living things in many ways. 4. Living things need food. They grow, breathe, move, feel, reproduce, die and have a life cycle. 5. There are some similarities between living and non-living things. 6. Non-living things are of two kinds natural and man-made. A. Complete the following web chart. Exercise Time Things non-living things plants natural 13

8 B. Answer the following questions. 1. Why do living things need food? 2. How do plants show growth? 3. Do non-living things move? 4. What does a dog do when it feels hot? 5. What is a life cycle? 6. What is a dead thing? 7. Give two similarities between living and non-living things. 8. Give three examples of the following: (a) Natural things C. Fill in the blanks. (b) Man-made things 1. Living and non-living things are affected by conditions. 2. Living things use from the food they eat to grow. 3. Non-living things like and can move but not on their own. 4. Mosquito eggs hatch into. 5. Many plants shed their in autumn and bear flowers in season. D. Tick the correct answer. 1. Which of these characteristics is shown by both living and non-living things? (a) Growth (b) Reproduction (c) Weight 2. Which of these is a natural non-living thing? (a) Computer (b) Water (c) Paper 3. Human beings breathe through (a) gills. (b) stomata. (c) lungs. 4. Living and non-living things are made up of (a) material. (b) muscles. (c) metal. 14

9 Leisure Time Write four characteristics of living things using the first letter of each picture shown in the set Project and Activities 1. Go for a nature walk and make a list of 20 things you see. Group them under the categories living and non-living. Discuss their features in class. 2. Draw the life cycle of a mosquito on an old invitation card or a greeting card. Cut each picture separately and hang on a hanger in the right order using a thread. Your mosquito life cycle mobile is ready. You can make mobiles of life cycles of other animals also in the same way. 15

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