I. AUGUSTUS A. OCTAVIAN 1. CAESAR'S ADOPTED SON 2. FOUGHT FOR POWER. a. 17 YEARS OF CIVIL WAR IN ROME 3. MARC ANTONY

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1 ROMAN EMPIRE NOTES

2 I. AUGUSTUS A. OCTAVIAN 1. CAESAR'S ADOPTED SON 2. FOUGHT FOR POWER a. 17 YEARS OF CIVIL WAR IN ROME 3. MARC ANTONY a. MAIN RIVAL, VENGEFUL, DETERMINED, POWERFUL 4. OCTAVIAN WINS a. BATTLE OF ACTIUM

3 I. AUGUSTUS 5. CROWNED PRINCEPS - FIRST CITIZEN IN 27 BC a. ENDED CIVIL WAR b. BROUGHT ABOUT A PERIOD OF PEACE PAX ROMANA c. "AUGUSTUS" - RESPECTED ONE d. CONSIDERED 1ST ROMAN EMPEROR

4 II. PAX ROMANA A. AUGUSTUS' REFORMS 1. "I FOUND ROME BUILT OF SUN- DRIED BRICKS. I LEAVE HER COVERED IN MARBLE." a. BUILT OR FIXED UP 82 TEMPLES IN ROME GAVE PEOPLE JOBS b. STRONG LEADER LIKED, FEARED c. INSTITUTED 1ST POLICE FORCE AND FIRE BRIGADE CRIME DROPPED

5 II. PAX ROMANA d. GAVE ALL ITALIANS ROMAN CITIZENSHIP & BENEFITS ALLOWED THEM TO BECOME SENATORS ENCOURAGED INTERMARRIAGE e. MILITARY - CREATED STANDING ARMY DEPLOYED TO BORDERS BUILDING WHEN NOT DEFENDING

6 II. PAX ROMANA f. LEVIED TAXES FOR THE ARMY AND 1/10 OF CROPS WENT TO ROME g. DECENTRALIZED GOV'T GAVE POWER TO LOCAL AREAS MADE PROVINCIAL RICH HAPPY

7 II. PAX ROMANA B. PROVINCES 1. TERRITORIES - ABOUT 40 OUTSIDE OF ITALY a. EACH HAD A GOVERNOR APPOINTED BY EMPEROR OR SENATE KEEP ORDER & COLLECT TAXES 2. EXPANSION a. CONTINUED INTO IMPERIAL PERIOD b. EACH EMPEROR ADDED TERRITORY FOR ABOUT 200 YEARS c. 60 MILLION IN THE EMPIRE BY 117 AD

8 II. PAX ROMANA C. DYNASTIES - FAMILY RULE 1. AUGUSTUS STARTED THE TREND a. EACH EMPEROR WOULD CHOOSE HIS OWN SUCCESSOR TYPICALLY EITHER A SON OR ADOPTED SON b. TIBERIUS AUGUSTUS' ADOPTED SON GROOMED TO BE NEXT EMPEROR 2. 4 DYNASTIES a. EACH ENDED WITH A VIOLENT UPRISING

9 II. PAX ROMANA D. UNIFICATION 1. HOW TO KEEP THE MANY PEOPLE HAPPY a. BUILT CITIES SIMILAR TO ROME b. GRANT CITIZENSHIP 212 AD, CARACALLA GAVE TO ALL FREE MEN SAME RIGHTS, PROTECTION, & PRIVILEGES AS ROMANS COULD PASS IT ON TO CHILDREN

10 II. PAX ROMANA c. ALLOWED LOCALS TO GOVERN THEMSELVES OFFICIALS COULD BECOME SENATORS SOME EVEN BECAME EMPEROR

11 III. RELIGION A. RELIGION UNDER AUGUSTUS 1. ROMAN CIVIC GODS a. WORSHIPPED THROUGHOUT THE EMPIRE BY MANY PEOPLE GREEK GODS WITH DIFFERENT NAMES JUPITER (ZEUS), JUNO (HERA), MARS (ARES), MINERVA (ATHENA) UNIFIED THE EMPIRE FOR A TIME WORSHIPPED OUT OF CIVIC DUTY

12 III. RELIGION 2. MYSTERY RELIGIONS a. CULTS GREW OSIRIS & ISIS b. PEOPLE BEGIN TO USE RELIGION FOR PERSONAL GAIN POOR PEOPLE WANT HELP WANT AN AFTERLIFE

13 III. RELIGION 3. LOCAL RELIGIONS a. JUDAISM FOLLOWED OLD TESTAMENT TEACHINGS 10 COMMANDMENTS

14 III. RELIGION B. EARLY CHRISTIANS 1. FOLLOWED JESUS a. SEEN AS A PROPHET b. PERFORMED MIRACLES c. PREACHED CHARITY TO POOR LOVE THY NEIGHBOR POOR PEOPLE LOVED HIS IDEAS d. ROMANS ACCUSE HIM OF SEDITION, CRUCIFY HIM e. JERUSALEM SEEN AS A HOLY CITY

15 III. RELIGION 2. APPEALING MESSAGE a. MIRACLES MADE BELIEVERS b. POOR LIKED IDEA OF NON-MATERIALISM c. ACCESSIBLE TO ALL, NO RESTRICTIONS d. IDEA OF PEACE PROMINENT

16 III. RELIGION 3. FOLLOWERS a. PETER b. PAUL DISCIPLE OF JESUS PREACHED MOSTLY TO JEWS ROMAN JEW WHO PERSECUTED CHRISTIANS REPENTED AND BEGAN TO FOLLOW JESUS' TEACHINGS CONVERTED NON-BELIEVERS THROUGH WRITING TOLD CHRISTIANS IT WAS OKAY TO NOT FOLLOW ALL JEWISH THOUGHT, WHICH ANGERED MANY JEWS CRUCIFIED AS A TROUBLE MAKER IN 64 AD

17 III. RELIGION C. PERSECUTION 1. ROMAN PEOPLE DISLIKED CHRISTIANS FOR MANY REASONS a. DID NOT ACT LIKE ROMANS b. DID NOT WORSHIP ROMAN GODS c. IDEA OF SHARING d. NEW IDEA, NOT ESTABLISHED e. WOULD NOT PARTICIPATE IN ARMY

18 III. RELIGION 2. NERO - EMPEROR IN 64 AD a. FIRE IN ROME b. NEEDED TO BLAME SOMEONE, BLAMED CHRISTIANS c. KILLED THOSE IN ROME 3. DECIUS - EMPEROR IN 250 AD a. CALLED FOR SACRIFICE TO HELP ROME b. CHRISTIANS REFUSED ORDERED THEM TO BE EXECUTED c. MARTYRS - PEOPLE WHO CHOSE TO DIE FOR BELIEFS

19 III. RELIGION 4. DIOCLETIAN - EMPEROR IN 300 AD a. ALLOWED ROMANS TO ATTACK CHRISTIANS b. BURNED CHURCHES, BOOKS, ETC. c. BROKE CROSSES d. FIRED THEM FROM JOBS

20 III. RELIGION D. RISE OF CHRISTIANITY 1. CONSTANTINE - EMPEROR IN 312 AD a. FOUGHT FOR POWER AGAINST OTHER GENERALS b. SAW A SIGN, CROSS & SUN a. IN THIS SIGN, YOU SHALL CONQUER. HAD SOLDIERS PAINT CHI-RO ON SHIELDS WON THE BATTLE

21 THE BATTLE OF MILVIAN BRIDGE

22 III. RELIGION c. BEGAN TO SUPPORT CHRISTIANITY d. BROUGHT CHRISTIANITY INTO GOVERNMENT PERSECUTED NON- CHRISTIANS FEARED DISPLEASING CHRISTIAN GOD

23 III. RELIGION E. POWER SHIFT 1. EXCOMMUNICATION - BANNING FROM THE CHURCH a. CHURCH LEADERS USED IT TO PUNISH & SCARE b. SHOWED HOW MUCH POWER THE CHURCH HAD GAINED EVEN USED IT TO THREATEN AN EMPEROR, THEODOSIUS

24 III. RELIGION 2. PAGANS - NON-BELIEVERS (NON CHRISTIANS OR JEWS) a. PERSECUTED BY FANATICAL CHRISTIANS TEMPLES BURNED, PEOPLE ATTACKED, ETC. b. RELIGIONS OUTLAWED IN 391 AD BY THEODOSIUS 3. CHRISTIANITY RISING a. CHURCH GAINING POWER AND MEMBERS AS EMPIRE DECLINING

25 IV. DECLINE AND FALL A. END OF PAX ROMANA 1. MARCUS AURELIUS - EMPEROR WHO DIED IN 180 AD a. ENDED THE PEACE 2. COMMODUS - MARCUS' SON, SUCCEEDED HIM a. CRUEL, UNPOPULAR b. ASSASSINATED IN 193 c. GENERALS BEGAN TO FIGHT FOR POWER

26 IV. DECLINE AND FALL 3. ROME RULED BY TOUGH MILITARY LEADERSHIP FOR 24 YEARS a. SEVERUS ALEXANDER KILLED BY HIS OWN MEN AD AD, 25 DIFFERENT EMPERORS a. INFLATION SKY-HIGH b. ATTACKS FROM OUTSIDE TRIBES c. PEOPLE MOVE FROM ROME TOO EXPENSIVE, TAXES, ETC. d. WARFARE RUINED COUNTRYSIDE NOT ENOUGH FOOD POVERTY, UNEMPLOYMENT

27 IV. DECLINE AND FALL A. DIOCLETIAN AD 1. PERSECUTED CHRISTIANS TO MAKE GODS HAPPY 2. EDICT - A COMMAND a. ISSUED EDICT ON PRICES b. TOLD FARMERS HOW MUCH THEY COULD CHARGE DEATH WAS PENALTY FOR OVERCHARGING PLAN FAILED

28 IV. DECLINE AND FALL 3. DIVIDED EMPIRE a. 4 SECTIONS EACH HAD OWN GOV'T & ARMY MORE EFFICIENT, MORE COSTLY HAD TO PASS JOB LAWS b. 2 EMPIRES DIVIDED INTO EAST AND WEST EACH HAD OWN EMPEROR SUPPOSED TO STOP CIVIL WARS, DIDN'T 4. DOMINUS - MASTER a. WHAT EMPERORS WERE CALLED

29 IV. DECLINE AND FALL C. CONSTANTINE'S REIGN 1. CHRISTIANITY 2. REORGANIZATION a. FINISHED WHAT DIOCLETIAN STARTED 3. NEW CAPITAL FOR THE EMPIRE a. BYZANTIUM - ANCIENT GREEK CITY

30 IV. DECLINE AND FALL b. CHANGED NAME TO CONSTANTINOPLE CENTRALLY LOCATED CONNECTED EUROPE AND ASIA EASILY REACHED BY LAND AND SEA IDEAL FOR DEFENSE

31 IV. DECLINE AND FALL 4. SPLIT a. WHEN HE DIED, HIS SONS AND NEPHEWS FOUGHT FOR CONTROL b. NEPHEW, JULIAN, BECAME EMPEROR TRIED TO RESTORE PAGAN RELIGIONS, FAILED c. BY 400 AD, EMPIRE PERMANENTLY SPLIT INTO 2

32 V. WHY DID ROME FALL? A. DECAY 1. ROME WAS TOO BIG TO CONTROL 2. CORRUPTION RAMPANT 3. ROMAN VALUES NO LONGER MATTERED 4. CITIES FELL INTO DISREPAIR

33 V. WHY DID ROME FALL? B. ECONOMY 1. THE DOLE a. BREAD AND CIRCUSES FREE FOOD AND ENTERTAINMENT FOR POOR 2. POOR MANAGEMENT 3. HIGH TAXES 4. INFLATION 5. LAVISH SPENDING

34 V. WHY DID ROME FALL? C. POLITICAL CORRUPTION 1. NEVER FIGURED OUT HOW TO CHOOSE NEW LEADER a. ALWAYS FIGHTING FOR POWER 2. BOUGHT VOTES 3. EMPEROR EGOTISM a. MEN WANTED TO RULE FOR THEMSELVES, NOT FOR ROME

35 V. WHY DID ROME FALL? D. BARBARIANS 1. INVASIONS GREW COMMON 2. ATTILA THE HUN a. BROUGHT ROME TO ITS KNEES 434 AD MILITARILY FINANCIALLY 3. ODOVACAR (ODOACER) a. GERMANIC CHIEF SACKED ROME IN 476 AD DEPOSED ROMULUS AUGUSTULUS

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