QUALITY OF SERVICES (QOS) EVALUATION IN ADHOC NETWORKS USING SOURCE-INITIATED ON-DEMAND ROUTING ALGORITHMS

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1 International Journal of Computer Science Engineering and Information Technology Research (IJCSEITR) ISSN Vol. 3, Issue 1, Mar 2013, TJPRC Pvt. Ltd. QUALITY OF SERVICES (QOS) EVALUATION IN ADHOC NETWORKS USING SOURCE-INITIATED ON-DEMAND ROUTING ALGORITHMS PARAMJIT SINGH 1, AJAY K SHARMA 2 & T S KAMAL 3 1 Punjab Technical University Jalandhar, Punjab, India 2 National Institute of Technology, Jalandhar, Punjab, India 3 Doaba Institute of Engineering & Technology, Kharar, Punjab, India ABSTRACT This paper evaluates the performance in terms of QoS parameters such as medium access delay, LAN delay, Retransmission attempts, Throughput parameters of an adhoc- and routed adhoc-network for video- and voice-data by means of different source-initiated on-demand routing algorithms such as Adhoc On-demand Distance-Vector (AODV), Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) and Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR) routing algorithms. KEYWORDS: Adhoc Network, Routing Algorithms, Adhoc On-demand Distance-Vector (AODV) Algorithm, Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) Algorithm, OLSR (Optimized Link State Routing) Algorithms INTRODUCTION Wireless networking is an emerging technology that allows users to access information and services electronically, regardless of their geographic position and has become increasingly popular in the computing industry. A wireless adhoc network is the collection of autonomous nodes that communicate in multi-hop manner to maintain connectivity without incorporating a server or base station and also associated with dynamic topology changes, bandwidthconstrained, energy constrained operation, limited physical security, mobility-induced packet losses, limited wireless transmission range, broadcast nature of the wireless medium, hidden terminal problem, packet losses due to transmission errors [1-3]. In recent years, a variety of new routing protocols have been developed to overcome these problems in adhoc networks and known as source- initiated on demand driven routing protocols. In source initiated on-demand routing, routes are only created when desired by the source node using route discovery to find all possible routes. After a route is established, it is maintained by a maintenance procedure until the route is no longer desired or the destination can no longer be reached using this route. Many different source-initiated on-demand routing protocols have been proposed [4-7]. DSR (Dynamic Source Routing), a reactive protocol that doesn t use periodic advertisements thereby reducing network bandwidth overhead, computes the routes when necessary and then maintains them [4] using Route discovery and Route maintenance stages. A host initiating a route discovery broadcasts a route request packet which may be received by those hosts within wireless transmission range of it. The route request packet identifies the host, referred to as the target of the route discovery, for which the route is requested. DSR provides a unique advantage by virtue of source routing. As the route is part of the packet itself, routing loops, either short-lived or long-lived, cannot be formed as they can be immediately detected and eliminated. An alternate algorithm named as AODV (Ad Hoc On-demand Distance-Vector Protocol) [5] offers low network utilization and uses destination sequence number to ensure loop freedom. It is a reactive protocol that requests a route when needed and does not maintain routes for those nodes that do not actively participate in a communication. An important feature of AODV is that it uses a destination sequence number, which corresponds to a destination node that was

2 118 Paramjit Singh, Ajay K Sharma & T S Kamal requested by a routing sender node. The destination itself provides the number along with the route it has to take to reach from the request sender node up to the destination. If there are multiple routes from a request sender to a destination, the sender takes the route with a higher sequence number. This ensures that the ad hoc network protocol remains loop-free. In the IETF MANET Working Group introduces the Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR) protocol for mobile Ad-Hoc networks [7] which is an optimization of the pure link state algorithm. The key concept used in this protocol is Multi-Point Relays (MPRs) which are selected nodes that forward broadcast messages during the flooding process [6]. This technique substantially reduces the message overhead as compared to a pure flooding mechanism where every node re-transmits messages throughout the network. By doing so, contents of the control messages flooded in the network are also minimized. So contrary to the classic link state algorithm, instead of all links, only small subsets of links are declared. The smaller the MPR set, the less overhead the protocol introduces. In this work, the performance evaluation in terms of QoS parameters of an adhoc- and routed adhoc-network are observed with source initiated on-demand routing algorithms such as AODV, DSR and OLSR routing algorithms to transfer video- and voice-data with high speed (11Mbps) together with better QoS services which are not studied in previous research work. Matrices used to evaluate the performance of an adhoc network with better QoS services are medium access delay, LAN delay, Retransmission attempts and Throughput parameters. SIMULATION SETUP Using OPNET simulator, we have designed a wireless adhoc network with simulation area 1000*1000 meter incorporating application traffic i.e. video and VoIP (voice over IP). The simulation scenario consists of four video- and four voice-applications based immobile workstations in an IBSS adhoc network as shown in Figure 1. The performance of the immobile wireless system is evaluated by implementing various routing protocol schemes that are ADOV, OLSR, DSR adhoc routing techniques. The buffer size of data is set to 2024Kbps of each immobile workstation at data rate of 11Mbps with b PHY layer implementation. The traffic flows randomly between different video &- voice application workstations placed at different distances as shown in Figure 1. Figure 1: Model of WLAN Network using OPNET Simulator RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS Figure 2 calculates the LAN delay of each transmitted packet during the simulation and it is observed from the graph that OSLR has highest LAN delay and increases very sharply in case of video-enabled stations. On comparing with other routing schemes, the LAN increases very slowly and is less in case of AODV. Alternatively, in case of voice enabled

3 Quality of Services (QoS) Evaluation in Adhoc Networks using Source-Initiated On-Demand Routing Algorithms 119 wireless stations, AODV scheme offers maximum LAN delay as compare to other schemes as shown in Figure 3. In addition, the data drop per second is also maximum in case of AODV routing scheme with voice traffic as shown in Figure 4. Figure 2: LAN Delay of Video Traffic Stations at 11Mbps via Different Source-Initiated On-Demand Routing Algorithms using DCF MAC-Layer Standard Figure 3: LAN Delay of Voice Traffic Stations at 11Mbps via Different Source-Initiated On-Demand Routing Algorithms using DCF MAC-Layer Standard Figure 4: Data Dropped Calculations of Voice Traffic Stations at 11Mbps via Different Source-Initiated On- Demand Routing Algorithms using DCF MAC-Layer Standard

4 120 Paramjit Singh, Ajay K Sharma & T S Kamal As shown in Figure 5, it is revealed that of AODV scheme performs better in case of video traffic as providing maximum throughput while OSLR performs poor and DSR performs in between the two. Further, we compare the throughput and LAN delay parameters of DSR and AODV schemes with voice- and video-traffic and it is clear from Figure 6-8 that AODV performs well in case of video traffic while DSR scheme suits well to voice traffic. Figure 5: Throughput of Video Traffic Stations at 11Mbps via Different Source-Initiated On-Demand Routing Algorithms using DCF MAC-Layer Standard Figure 6: LAN Delay of Video- and Voice- Traffic Stations at 11Mbps via Different Source-Initiated On-Demand Routing Algorithms Figure 7: Throughput of Video- and Voice- Traffic Stations at 11Mbps via Different Source-Initiated On-Demand Routing Algorithms

5 Quality of Services (QoS) Evaluation in Adhoc Networks using Source-Initiated On-Demand Routing Algorithms 121 Figure 8: Load of Video- and Voice- Traffic Stations at 11Mbps via Different Source-Initiated On-Demand Routing Algorithms CONCLUSIONS This paper evaluates the performance of a routed adhoc-network for video- and voice- data by means of different source-initiated on-demand routing algorithms such as Adhoc On-demand Distance-Vector (AODV), Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) and Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR) routing algorithms in terms of QoS parameters such as medium access delay, LAN delay, Retransmission attempts, and Throughput parameters. Our results discussed in above section reveals that AODV routing algorithm provides better QoS services at 11Mbps to the user in case of dealing with video traffic while DSR routing algorithm proves to be best for voice traffic stations. REFERENCES 1. The NS Manual, the VINT Project, a Collaboration between researchers at UC Berkeley, LBL, USC/ISI, and Xerox PARC, December 13, Lars Michael Kristensen, An Introduction to Ad Hoc Networking Department of Computer Science University of Aarhus. 3. A Review of Current Routing Protocols for Ad Hoc Mobile Wireless Networks Georgia Institute of Technology. 4. Arun Kumar B. R, Lokanatha C. Reddy, Prakash S. Hiremath, Performance Comparison of Wireless Mobile Ad-Hoc Network Routing Protocols, IJCSNS International Journal of Computer Science and Network Security, VOL.8 No.6, June David B. Johnson, David A. Maltz, and Yih-Chun Hu, The Dynamic Source Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (DSR), <draft-ietf-manet-dsr-10.txt> Internet-draft, 19 th July A. Qayyum, L. Viennot, and A. Laouiti,.Multipoint Relaying, An Efficient Technique for Flooding in Mobile Wireless Networks, INRIA Research Report RR- 3898, February P. Jacquet, P. Muhlethaler, A. Qayyum, A. Laouiti, L. Viennot, and T. Clauseen, Optimized Link State Routing Protocol, Internet Draft, Mobile Ad-Hoc Networking Working Group, March 2002.

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