Ad hoc networks: Overview, applications and routing issues

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3 Here routing in which a packet is to be sent from a source node to a destination node in a given wireless network will be considered. The destination node is known and addressed by means of its location. Routing is performed by a scheme based on this information. The distance between two neighbour nodes can be estimated on the basis of incoming signal strengths. Relative coordinates of neighbour nodes can be obtained by exchanging such information between neighbours. Position based routing could be used in wireless local area network, packet radio networks, home and office networks and sensor networks. Especially wireless sensor networks, which will likely be widely deployed in the near future because they greatly extend our ability to monitor and control the physical environment from remote locations. There are several classes of existing position based routing schemes. Some of the will be described. Progress and Direction Based Methods Given a transmitting node S, the progress of a node A is defined as the projection onto the line connecting S and the final destination of the distance between S and the receiving node. A progress is positive if the next routing step is in forward direction, otherwise the progress is negative. Basic Distance, Progress and Direction Based Methods use these concepts to select the next routing step. There are different ways to route packets. One way is the MFR (Most Forward within Radius) routing algorithm, in which packet is routed to the next step with the greatest progress. Another way is to use the compass routing method, called the DIR method. In this method, the source or intermediate node A uses the location information of the destination D to calculate its direction. The packet is forwarded to the next node C, such that the direction AC is closest to direction AD. This progress repeats until destination is reached. A variant of greedy algorithm, called GEDIR, could also be used, where the message is dropped if the best choice for a current node is to return the message to the node the message came from. That indicates that a failure has occurred. Greedy routing is usually a part of other routing schemes. For instance, it is used in several location update schemes. Partial Flooding In directional flooding-based methods, a node A sends a message to many nodes where the direction from A to any of these nodes is closest to the direction of the destination D. In order to control the flooding, it is required that nodes can memorize past traffic and to

4 avoid forwarding the same message more than once. Some methods that belong to this class are DREAM and LAR. Flooding can be partial because it is directed towards nodes in a limited sector of the network and can only be used for path discovery or for packet forwarding. In DREAM, the message is forwarded to all neighbour nodes whose direction belongs to the selected range. DREAM uses a limited flooding of location update messages. In LAR (location aided routing), the source or an intermediate node A will forward the message to all nodes that are closer to the destination than A. Depth First Search Based Routing In GRA (geographic routing algorithm), nodes are required to partially store routes towards certain destinations in the routing tables. GRA applies greedy strategies in forwarding messages. If a node S discovers that it is closer to the destination node D than any of its neighbour, it starts a route discovery protocol. The route discovery protocol tries to find a path from S to D and updates the routing tables towards D at any intermediate nodes with this information. There are two route discovery strategies, breadth first search (equivalent to flooding) and depth first search (DFS). In DFS, each node puts its name and address on the route discovery packet, and then it forwards it to a neighbour node who has not seen the packet before. If a node can not forward the packet, it removes its name and address from the packet and returns the packet to the node that forwarded to this node. Each node accepts a given packet only once in the forward mode (also accepts the same packet if returned to it). Hierarchical Routing One of the main strategies used to combine nodes location and hierarchical network structures are the Zone Based Routing. In Zone Based Routing, nodes within a zone update their location between themselves regularly and apply the shortest path routes between them. Each node records the location of each zone, by treating each zone as a destination. If a message is not sent to a destination within the same zone, the sender will send route requests to each of the zone. The zone that contains the destination replies with exact coordinates of the destination back to the sender node. The sender node then learns the path to the destination and sends the full message towards the destination. Assisted Routing In Assisted Routing, a node can count on the assistance of some other nodes called friends, i.e. some nodes help other nodes in performing their routing tasks. The network is represented as a large graph, where edges correspond to the friend relationship. A node S is a friend of node T if T thinks that it has a good path to node S and T decides to keep S in its friend list. The resulting graph is highly clustered with a number of shortcuts. When a node is selected for being a collaborative node, the shortcuts are

5 effective for the routing tasks, and in particular for selecting paths. When a source node S wants to find a path to destination node D, it requests assistance from some friend node. If the friend is in condition to collaborate, it tries to provide node S with some path to D (with or without collaboration of its own friends, depending on it already has the path or not) Adaptive Routing On-demand routing is important for mobile devices to communicate in a wireless network. Since devices in an ad hoc network joins and leaves the network at will and in a totally asynchronous manner. Thus, it is important that a wireless network can provide anytime anywhere computation due to its robustness and inherent fault-tolerance. There are two major classes of ad hoc routing protocols, reactive on-demand and proactive table-based. Proactive table-based protocols are inefficient in the sense that it requires periodic update of the routing information stored in the routing tables, even when there is no data traffic. One advantage with proactive table-based protocols, compared to reactive on-demand protocols, is that the set up delay for a data transfer is expected to be shorter because a route is already stored in the table for use. But however, the route stored in the table may no longer exist or have become unusable when the actual data transfer is to be taken place. It could be due to the mobility of the mobile device in the network, i.e. its geographical locations may have been changed when a data transfer is required, meaning that a previously set up route useless. Another reason could be that the quality of the channels among the mobile devices is inevitably time-varying making the links in a route no longer useable, even though the geographical locations do not changed much. State-of-the-Art Protocols ABR (Associativity Based Routing) is a source-initiated on-demand routing protocol. A mobile device does not need to keep a route to every other device. ABR is different from other protocols in the sense that the route is not chosen with shortest-path, but on a longlived basis. This makes the route more robust (not easy to break due to mobility) and the maintenance of route will become easier (number of route reconstruct messages is reduced, which means that the routing overhead is reduced and more bandwidth is saved). The essence of ABR is that as a mobile device moves, its associativity with the neighbour devices also changes. In ABR, each mobile device periodically transmits hello messages to other devices to signify its existence. When these hello messages are received by its neighbour devices, it causes the associativity to increase between the sending and receiving devices. The greater the the associativity is, the more stable of this device will be. Note that a high associativity of the device means a low mobility of the device.

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