Market Drivers, Consumer Demand and Environmental Pressures: the Changing and Complex Needs of a Major Motor Vehicle Manufacturer

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1 Market Drivers, Consumer Demand and Environmental Pressures: the Changing and Complex Needs of a Major Motor Vehicle Manufacturer Mike Richardson Chief Technical Specialist Hybrids and Electrification Jaguar & Land Rover Hybrid Group, Gaydon, UK +44 (0)

2 Sources of Energy Seconds Photovoltaic Electricity Sun Minutes Hours Days - Weeks Direct Solar Heating Wind Water Power Renewable Months - Years Biomass Millions of Years Fossil Fuel Coal N Gas Oil Global CO 2 Challenge Global atmospheric CO 2 concentration Global temperature Temperature anomaly correlates to CO 2 increase Source: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 2

3 CO 2 Emissions by Activity Domestic 16% Business 20% Other 12% Energy 40% Transport Heavy duty 22% 29% Air travel 12% Light duty 45% 10% CO 2 Emissions Source: Note: Based on vehicle at 143gCO2/km and 14000km a year Addressing Global Warming? UK % US % Japan % Immediate Action is necessary Some action should be taken More research is necessary before we take any actions Concern about global warning is unwarranted Not Sure Source : MIT Energy and the environment 3

4 Amount Willing To Pay Source : MIT Energy and the environment Low Carbon Measures Global Convergence CO 2 Equivalent/km Converted to NEDC Test Cycle 19g/km 101g/km 4

5 Global Compliance Tailpipe Emissions US Green State Legislation 12 US states being led by California Challenging regulations mandating a proportion of new car sales to be Transitional ZEV (i.e. PHEVs) or ZEV Electrified vehicles generate credits based upon their range using electricity The mandate includes a growing requirement from 2018 to 2025 China New Energy Vehicle (NEV) and fleet compliance Imported fleets need to achieve 5l/100km average in 2020 NEV classification applies to PHEV and EV technologies EV range above 50km generates a 5x multiplier in credits Indigenous industries encouraged to develop NEV technologies with additional funding and research support Issued by JLR Hybrids & Electrification Reducing Carbon Emissions 1. Activity - Reduced transport usage 2. Reduce carbon content of fuel or fuels from renewable sources 3. Improve vehicle and powertrain efficiency Life Cycle Analysis Hybrid Electric Vehicles Flywheel [Kinetic] Plug in Hybrids Electric Vehicles Combustion Transmission Driveline Powertrain Efficiency Weight Efficiency Vehicle Architecture Body in White Components Aerodynamics Tyres Chassis systems Energy management - Chassis systems - Electrical 5

6 UK new vehicle registration CO 2 Source SMMT 2010 Jaguar Products 6

7 Land Rover Products Investing in Green Technologies Industry roadmap Stop-start for manual 2 Stop-start for automatics Demonstrators 3 Demonstrators Charging infrastructure Full Hybrid 4 Plug-in hybrid 5 Energy storage breakthrough Energy storage breakthrough Range-extended EV Fuel cell & H 2 supply/ storage breakthrough 6 Fuel cell technologies Alternative hybrid technologies Vehicle weight and drag reduction Internal combustion, engine and transmission innovations (petrol/ diesel/ biofuels/ H 2 ) 7

8 Production Cars Range Rover Evoque 2.2 litre 150 PS Diesel Stop - Start Sub 130 g/km Production Cars Jaguar XF 12MY 2.2 litre 190 PS Diesel 8 Speed AT Stop - Start 149 g/km CO 2 52 mpg (combined) 8

9 Near Production Full Parallel HEV 3.0 litre 340 PS 8 Speed AT Full Hybrid Fully capable off-road Class leading refinement Improved performance Maintained package Research Range_e PHEV demonstrator 22 mile EV range 88g/km CO 2 120mph (up to 70mph as EV) 9

10 Range_e plug-in hybrid demonstrator System features Lithium Ion 12kWh Liquid Cooled Battery Pack Rear Axle Electro- Hydraulic Braking System (RA-EHB) PM Synchronous 69kW (Over-rated) Crank Integrated Motor Generator (CIMG) On-board 240V 50Hz Slow (16A) Battery Charger 8 Speed Hybridised Transmission with Integrated CIMG and double-clutch Combined, Liquid Cooled Inverter/DC-DC Converter Combined Vehicle Supervisory Controller (VSC) and EMS Electric Power Assisted Steering System (EPAS) Research REEVolution PHEV: Jaguar XJe 7 Partners Including Nissan, Lotus, Axeon Sub 75 g/km CO 2 40 km EV range kph <6.0 s 10

11 Large Luxury Battery Electric Vehicles? Comparison of fuel and batteries 11

12 Electric Vehicle Large EV SUV Example Battery electric SUV. Match existing vehicle performance in this class ie 0 60 MPH time of ~ 7 seconds and electric range of around 100 miles on one charge. 2300kg kerb weight. Battery size of ~42 KW-hr. This will weigh ~280Kg for the batteries alone, based on 2015 target, ~450Kg for the pack. Simple weight walk Drive Controllers 91kg each x 2 = 182kg 16kg each x 2 = 32kg Differential assembly 30kg = 30kg Batteries 42kW/h 400kg (est) = 450kg Total = 694kg Apply to a Large SUV > Conventional Propulsion system removed =1950kg > Add Electric propulsion = = 2494kg Kerb Weight > ~350Kg additional weight save required! Alternative Strategy Plug in Hybrid SUV Motor size reduced to less than 100kW Battery size reduced to ~10kWh Suitable for heavy vehicle. Breadth of capability maintained 12

13 PHEV and Electric Vehicle Closing Remarks Meeting future environmental aspirations and targets in the premium luxury sector will be challenging, given the consumer mindset is for continuous improvement. Key drivers for enabling credible low carbon vehicles for the premium sector are: Battery and energy storage technology, with specific reference to cost, energy and power density. Clean energy generation and charging infrastructure. Conventional vehicle optimisation, that is: weight, aerodynamics parasitic loss reduction, powertrain efficiency improvements Etc. Electrification first, Electric Vehicles in the future 13

14 Backup Energy per unit volume Theoretical and practical theoretical practical - storage, conversion efficiency Energy Density Wh/litre Diesel Hydrogen (700 bar) Hydrogen (liquid) Lithium Air Lithium Ion Petrol 14

15 Alternative Strategies Plug in Hybrid SUV Motor size reduced to less than 100kW Battery size reduced to ~10kWh Suitable for heavy vehicle. Breadth of capability maintained Range Extended Electric Vehicle Light weight platform Battery size reduced to ~14kWh Small range extender engine added Cumulative journey distance 100% 94% 98% 99% 100% Percentage of trips / person by car (driver or passenger) 80% 60% 40% 20% 6% 23% 56% 77% 0% under 1 mile under 2 miles under 5 miles under 10 miles under 25 miles under 50 miles under 100 miles Total 15

16 Thoughts on efficiency Battery electric vehicles are more efficient than conventional combustion engine driven vehicles. Electric drives are typically 80 90% efficient BUT Waste heat from internal combustion engines is used to heat the car. Parasitic and peripheral loads have a less significant effect on internal combustion engine powered vehicles. The effect is larger range variability than the customer expects. Typical EV Range Variation Range % % 80.00% 60.00% Range 40.00% 20.00% 0.00% High Speed Normal Moderate Light low speed 16

17 Hybrid Types and Functions Functions Stop Start Mild Hybrid Medium Hybrid Full Hybrid Plug in Hybrid Range Extended Electric Vehicle Electric Vehicle Kinetic Hybrid Shuts off the engine when the vehicle is stopped X X X X X X X Shuts off and re-starts the engine when not required X X X X X X Stores braking energy for re-use later X X X X X X X Mild use of stored energy to assist a conventional engine X X X X X X Significant use of stored energy to assist a conventional engine (Enough to enable downsizing of primary power unit) X X X X X Can drive for a limited time using stored energy (~3kM) X X X X X Can drive for a significant time using stored energy (~40kM) X X X Can drive for a long time using stored energy (~160kM) X Batteries can be recharged using mains electricity X X X 17

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