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1 AUSTRALIA CANADA USA UNITED KINGDOM SINGAPORE MALAYSIA Safetycare Australia Pty. Ltd. Telephone (03) Safetycare Inc. Telephone (905) Safetycare Inc. Telephone (800) Safetycare (UK) Limited. Telephone (0208) SafetyMax Corp Pte. Ltd. Telephone SafetyMax Sdn Bhd Telephone (603) The information contained in this Facilitator s guide is distributed and sold as a guide and for informational purposes only. Safetycare makes no representation or warranty as to the compliance of this program with any and all applicable laws of the purchaser's jurisdiction. 2. Safetycare's liability for any damages to the purchaser or to any other party shall not exceed the amount paid by the purchaser for the guide. In no event shall Safetycare be responsible for any indirect or consequential damages or loss of profits, even if Safetycare has been advised of the possibility of such damage. Some provinces/states do not allow the limitations or exclusion of liability for incidental or consequential damages, so the above limitations or exclusions may not apply to the purchaser. 3. This Facilitator s Guide is supplied as part of a subscription service. This guide is only to be used during a valid subscription period. Where a subscription is not valid, this guide may not be used. Facilitator s Guide CUTS AND BLEEDING Copyright - All Rights Reserved

2 FACILITATOR S GUIDE Cuts and Bleeding CONTENTS Introduction to the Facilitator s Guide 3 Introduction to the Video Program; Cuts and Bleeding 4 Transcript of Video Program 5 Part 1 - The Composition of Blood 9 Part 2 - Blood Vessels 10 Part 3 - The Effects of Bleeding on the Body 11 Part 4 - External Bleeding and Minor Wounds 12 Part 5 - Major Wounds 13 Part 6 - Internal Bleeding 14 Assessment 15 Answers 17 2

3 INTRODUCTION TO THE FACILITATOR S GUIDE Cuts and Bleeding The aim of this Facilitator s Guide, when used in conjunction with the Video program, is to provide the facilitator with discussion points important to the overall development of the program and to allow participants the opportunity of discussing the impact the program may have on current work practices and whether in fact changes may be required. The time allocated to the program will be determined by which areas are seen as important to each Organisation, the time taken to develop the points made in the program and whether other data specific to your own environment is included in addition to, or instead of, the program examples. EACH FACILITATOR SHOULD CAREFULLY READ THE GUIDE DISCUSSION NOTES SUGGESTED AND PREPARE THEIR OWN INPUT ACCORDINGLY. The program transcript is included to allow your Organisation to fully research the program content and develop specific examples critical to the performance of your own workforce. Where the Video program is made available to small or remote sections of your Organisation, some other examples or discussion points may be preferred to suit the needs of these people and if so, should be developed prior to distribution of the program. Maximum benefit will then be obtained by your people. All information included in the Facilitator s Guide may be copied and distributed with the exception of the transcript of the Video program. Any information which is copied or distributed must only be used internally by the Organisation which purchased the guide. SCREEN SHOT FROM THE VIDEO PROGRAM 3

4 INTRODUCTION TO THE VIDEO PROGRAM Duration: 9 minutes There are a numerous injuries that can occur in the workplace and amongst the most common are Cuts and Bleeding. These can range from small scratches through to serious cuts, embedded objects, amputations and injuries that can lead to internal bleeding. Many bleeding incidents are not severe and can be treated with simple firstaid and the body s own ability to clot. Some are more serious and require urgent action. Serious bleeding that is not stopped quickly is life threatening. This program covers: The Composition of Blood A Definition of Blood Vessels The Effects of Bleeding on the Body External Bleeding The Treatment of Minor Wounds The Treatment of Major Wounds Internal Bleeding The objective of this program is to highlight the major hazard areas associated with Cuts and Bleeding and by so doing, increase awareness of the standards for worker responsibility in observing and being active in daily safety procedures. 4

5 TRANSCRIPT OF THE VIDEO PROGRAM Cuts and Bleeding Copyright Safetycare. All rights reserved There are a numerous injuries that can occur in the workplace and amongst the most common are cuts and bleeding. These can range from small scratches through to serious cuts, embedded objects, amputations and injuries that can lead to internal bleeding. Many bleeding incidents are not severe and can be treated with simple firstaid and the body s own ability to clot. Some are more serious and require urgent action. Serious bleeding that is not stopped quickly is life threatening. Blood Blood is composed of a liquid component called plasma and three other major components. red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. Red blood cells perform the function of delivering oxygen and removing carbon dioxide from the body s cells. White blood cells are a major part of the body s immune system, fighting infection and producing antibodies to ward off infection. And, platelets aid in the blood s clotting mechanisms. Blood also performs a major function in maintaining a constant body temperature. Blood Vessels There are three types of blood vessels, arteries, veins and capillaries. Arterial bleeding is not common as arteries are usually deep within the body s tissues. Arterial bleeding will spurt and be profuse. It is difficult to control and difficult for blood clots to form. It will be bright red as it contains red blood cells that are highly oxygenated. Bleeding from injury to the veins is much more common. It s easier to control, it is under less pressure and it s easier for clots to form. Blood from the veins is not highly oxygenated and will be darker in colour. Capillary bleeding is very common as the capillaries are close to the skin s surface. Capillary bleeding tends to ooze as it is under low pressure and is easy to control. 5

6 The Effects of Bleeding on the Body The body s natural defence in dealing with blood loss is to increase circulation and reduce blood pressure. This results in an increase in both the heart rate and the breathing rate. In severe bleeding situations the body will experience shock. Shock is the term used to describe the condition that develops when there is inadequate blood circulation to meet all the body s needs. With significant blood loss the body will re-direct the supply of oxygenated blood in favour of the vital organs. The skin will become cold and pale and the digestive system will be affected often making the casualty feel nauseous or causing vomiting. The blood supply is concentrated to the brain, heart, lungs and kidneys. If the cause of the shock, be it bleeding or some other cause, is not quickly controlled or adequately managed it can be life threatening. External Bleeding There are a number of different types of wounds that can cause external bleeding including: Abrasions Lacerations Cuts or incisions Puncture wounds High velocity wounds Embedded objects, and Amputations. Minor Wounds Fortunately many wounds are minor and only require basic first aid treatment. Avoid direct contact with blood and other bodily fluids if possible. Blood can be a potential source of infection for the first aid provider. When providing first aid to a casualty with only a minor wound you should always wear suitable gloves. With a minor wound that does not have any embedded objects in it, apply direct pressure firmly to the wound using a sterile pad, clean cloth or the hands. Bring the edges of the wound together if possible. If practical have the casualty apply the pressure. Apply a dressing directly over the wound and secure with an appropriate bandage. 6

7 With a minor wound that has embedded objects. Leave the embedded objects in the wound, apply indirect pressure to slow the bleeding and then have the casualty treated by a trained first aid or medical person. After finishing with any first aid treatment it is important to thoroughly wash your hands. Major Wounds If a major wound occurs in your workplace the first priority must be to call for trained medical assistance. In almost every situation this would mean calling immediately for an ambulance. If you are then going to provide assistance at the scene of the accident the first step is to ensure that the area is safe. This is important not only for you, but for the casualty and others in the vicinity. Ideally when dealing with a major injury you would wear all appropriate personal protective equipment, but, you may elect to act immediately and forgo this protection. However, it is important to at least consider whether or not you are willing to take the risk of being exposed to blood and other body fluids that may be infected if you elect not to use gloves and other personal protective equipment. While waiting for medical assistance to arrive the most important thing to do is to try and stop or slow the bleeding. Apply the same principles as you would for treating minor injuries in attempting to stop the blood flow. Reassure the casualty and make them as comfortable as possible. After medical assistance has arrived make sure you thoroughly wash your hands and any other areas that may have been exposed regardless of whether or not you were wearing personal protective equipment. Internal Bleeding Injuries that could have resulted in internal bleeding are very difficult to assess. The simple message here is that it is better to be safe than sorry and call immediately for an ambulance. While waiting for the ambulance to arrive there are some general management steps that should be taken. 7

8 These include: Keeping the casualty at rest, Raising and supporting the legs, if the injuries permit, and Ensuring the casualty does not eat or drink anything. All bleeding injuries should be dealt with immediately breaks to the skin offer opportunities for infection and significant blood loss is life threatening. 8

9 PART ONE THE COMPOSITION OF BLOOD Blood is composed of a liquid component called plasma and three other major components: Red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. Red blood cells perform the function of delivering oxygen and removing carbon dioxide from the body s cells. White blood cells are a major part of the body s immune system, fighting infection and producing antibodies to ward off infection. Platelets aid in the blood s clotting mechanisms. Blood also performs a major function in maintaining a constant body temperature. DISCUSSION Discuss the following question with participants. 1. What are some cuts and bleeding risks that exist in your workplace? 9

10 PART TWO BLOOD VESSELS There are three types of blood vessels: arteries, veins and capillaries. Arterial bleeding is not common as arteries are usually deep within the body s tissues. Arterial bleeding will spurt and be profuse. It is difficult to control and difficult for blood clots to form. It will be bright red as it contains red blood cells that are highly oxygenated. Bleeding from injury to the veins is much more common. It s easier to control, it is under less pressure and it s easier for clots to form. Blood from the veins is not highly oxygenated and will be darker in colour. Capillary bleeding is very common as the capillaries are close to the skin s surface. Capillary bleeding tends to ooze as it is under low pressure and is easy to control. DISCUSSION Discuss the following question with participants. 1. Discuss examples of where in the body you would find the various types of blood vessels. 10

11 PART THREE THE EFFECTS OF BLEEDING ON THE BODY The body s natural defence in dealing with blood loss is to increase circulation and reduce blood pressure. This results in an increase in both the heart rate and the breathing rate. In severe bleeding situations the body will experience shock. Shock is the term used to describe the condition that develops when there is inadequate blood circulation to meet all the body s needs. With significant blood loss the body will re-direct the supply of oxygenated blood in favour of the vital organs. The skin will become cold and pale and the digestive system will be affected often making the casualty feel nauseous or causing vomiting. The blood supply is concentrated to the brain, heart, lungs and kidneys. If the cause of the shock, be it bleeding or some other cause, is not quickly controlled or adequately managed it can be life threatening. DISCUSSION Discuss the following question with participants. 1. Why is shock such a serious condition? 11

12 PART FOUR EXTERNAL BLEEDING AND MINOR WOUNDS There are a number of different types of wounds that can cause external bleeding including: Abrasions Lacerations Cuts or incisions Puncture wounds High velocity wounds Embedded objects, and Amputations. Minor Wounds Fortunately many wounds are minor and only require basic first aid treatment. Avoid direct contact with blood and other bodily fluids if possible. Blood can be a potential source of infection for the first aid provider. When providing first aid to a casualty with only a minor wound you should always wear suitable gloves. With a minor wound that does not have any embedded objects in it, apply direct pressure firmly to the wound using a sterile pad, clean cloth or the hands. Bring the edges of the wound together if possible. If practical have the casualty apply the pressure. Apply a dressing directly over the wound and secure with an appropriate bandage. With a minor wound that has embedded objects: Leave the embedded objects in the wound, apply indirect pressure to slow the bleeding and then have the casualty treated by a trained first aid or medical person. After finishing with any first aid treatment it is important to thoroughly wash your hands. DISCUSSION Discuss the following with participants. 1. Why is it important to wear suitable gloves when providing first aid. 12

13 PART FIVE MAJOR WOUNDS If a major wound occurs in your workplace the first priority must be to call for trained medical assistance. In almost every situation this would mean calling immediately for an ambulance. If you are then going to provide assistance at the scene of the accident the first step is to ensure that the area is safe. This is important not only for you, but for the casualty and others in the vicinity. Ideally when dealing with a major injury you would wear all appropriate personal protective equipment, but, you may elect to act immediately and forgo this protection. However, it is important to at least consider whether or not you are willing to take the risk of being exposed to blood and other body fluids that may be infected if you elect not to use gloves and other personal protective equipment. While waiting for medical assistance to arrive the most important thing to do is to try and stop or slow the bleeding. Apply the same principles as you would for treating minor injuries in attempting to stop the blood flow. Reassure the casualty and make them as comfortable as possible. After medical assistance has arrived make sure you thoroughly wash your hands and any other areas that may have been exposed regardless of whether or not you were wearing personal protective equipment. DISCUSSION Discuss the following with participants. 1. Are there any hazards in your workplace that could cause a major wound? 13

14 PART SIX INTERNAL BLEEDING Injuries that could have resulted in internal bleeding are very difficult to assess. The simple message here is that it is better to be safe than sorry and call immediately for an ambulance. While waiting for the ambulance to arrive there are some general management steps that should be taken. These include: Keeping the casualty at rest, Raising and supporting the legs, if the injuries permit, and Ensuring the casualty does not eat or drink anything. DISCUSSION Discuss the following question with participants. 1. Why is it important to raise the legs (if injuries permit)? 14

15 ASSESSMENT CUTS AND BLEEDING Name: Date:. I.D. (if applicable): Score 1. Which of the following is not a component of blood? a) Red blood cells b) A+ c) Platelets d) White blood cells 2. Which of the following is not a type of blood vessel? a) Veins b) Ligaments c) Arteries d) Capillaries 3. Which of these injuries is easiest to control? a) Arterial Bleeding b) Bleeding from the veins c) Capillary Bleeding d) Internal Bleeding 4. In severe bleeding situations the body will experience a) Healing b) Feelings c) Happiness d) Shock 15

16 5. Can blood be a potential source of infection for the first aid provider? a) Yes b) No c) Only if victim and first aid provider have the same blood type d) None of the above 6. What article of personal protective equipment should you wear prior to treating a bleeding injury? a) Respirator b) Overalls c) Gloves d) Safety boots 7. With a major wound, what is the most important thing to do while waiting for an ambulance to arrive? a) Flush the wound with water b) Try and stop the bleeding c) Nothing d) Get the casualty to walk around 8. If internal bleeding is suspected, what should be done immediately? a) Call for an ambulance b) Give the casualty some food c) Wait for some external bleeding to occur before doing anything d) Nothing 9. Red blood cells deliver what to the body? a) Carbon Dioxide b) Oxygen c) Nutrients d) White blood cells 10. After finishing with any first aid treatment it is important to thoroughly wash a) Car b) First aid kit c) Hands d) Clothing 16

17 ANSWERS TO ASSESSMENT 1. B) A+ 2. B) Ligaments 3. C) Capillary bleeding 4. D) Shock 5. A) Yes 6. C) Gloves 7. B) Try and stop the bleeding 8. A) Call for an ambulance 9. B) Oxygen 10. C) Hands 17

Facilitator s Guide PREVENTING SLIPS TRIPS AND FALLS. Copyright - All Rights Reserved. Telephone (905) 631 6070 Facsimile (905) 631 8183

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