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1 Jump Start Your Gluten-Free Diet! Living with Celiac/Coeliac Disease & Gluten Intolerance The University of Chicago Celiac Disease Center 1 BROUGHT TO YOU BY THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO CELIAC DISEASE CENTER

2 Ebook Edition Jump Start Your Gluten-Free Diet! Living with Celiac/Coeliac Disease & Gluten Intolerance The University of Chicago Celiac Disease Center

3 The University of Chicago Celiac Disease Center and their logos are trademarks of The University of Chicago Celiac Disease Center 2013 The University of Chicago Celiac Disease Center. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means except by a reviewer who may quote brief passages in a review to be printed in a magazine, newspaper, or on the Internet without the express written consent from The University of Chicago Celiac Disease Center. Front Cover and Interior photos provided by istockphoto Contributors: Stefano Guandalini, M.D. Celiac Disease Center Founder and Medical Director Chief, Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition University of Chicago Comer Children's Hospital Carol M. Shilson - Executive Director Ronit Rose - Program Director Lara Field, MS, RD, CSP, LDN NurAlima Grandison - Research Coordinator Kim Koeller - Founder, Gluten Free Passport Sueson Vess - Founder, Special Eats Inc. For more information, please contact: The University of Chicago Celiac Disease Center 5841 S. Maryland Avenue, MC 4069 Chicago, Illinois Phone: Find Us on Facebook at Follow Us on Designed by: Whitney Larson - Katie Mayer - Published by: Gluten Free Passport Chicago, IL eisbn

4 Intention of Ebook The University of Chicago Celiac Disease Center is dedicated to raising awareness, increasing diagnosis rates and meeting the needs of people affected by celiac disease nationwide through education, research and advocacy. The contents of this ebook are not intended to diagnose or recommend treatment for celiac disease. Please consult your healthcare provider with questions about your condition. The gluten-free diet is the primary treatment for celiac disease and should be maintained to achieve maximum health. This information should be used as a resource but is not the only source that should be used to succeed with the gluten-free diet. Please take caution with all foods that are ingested and, when in doubt, do not consume. The University of Chicago Celiac Disease Center does not endorse or favor any specific commercial product or company. Trade, proprietary or company names appearing in this document are used only because they are considered necessary in the context of the information provided. If a product is not mentioned, the omission does not mean or imply that the product is unsatisfactory. For more information about The University of Chicago Celiac Disease Center, please contact our office at or

5 Table of Contents Introduction Overview of Gluten-Free Diet The University of Chicago Celiac Disease Center Pioneering Research Initiatives Chapter 1 Celiac Disease, Intolerances & Allergies Overview of Celiac Disease Intolerances & Allergies Chapter 2 Symptoms, Testing & Diagnosis Symptoms Genetic & Antibody Blood Testing Diagnosis Chapter 3 Healing The Gut Treatment Road to Recovery Follow-Up Testing & Medications Chapter 4 Making Healthy Gluten-Free Choices...40 Grocery Shopping Gluten-Free Meal/Snack Ideas Serving Suggestions & Tips for Healthy Eating Chapter 5 Preparing Foods Inside The Home Food Preparation & Kitchen Clean Up Recipes Chapter 6 Eating Gluten-Free Outside The Home Social Gatherings & School Gluten-Free Eating Out Gluten-Free Travel Chapter 7 Additional Gluten-Free Resources Reference Materials Contributions & Contact Information

6 2 Introduction

7 Overview of Gluten-Free Diet Celiac disease, spelled Coeliac outside of North America, is an autoimmune disorder, which means the body attacks itself, rather than attacking a foreign substance as in an allergy. Celiac disease mainly affects the small intestine, specifically the upper third of the small intestine. The medical treatment for celiac disease consists of strict adherence to a glutenfree diet. In this guide you will learn what gluten is, where gluten is found and how to avoid gluten. The word gluten is a general name to describe the storage proteins, or prolamins, found in wheat (gliadin), rye (hordein), barley (secalin) and derivatives of these grains. Gliadins are the proteins mainly involved in the pathophysiology of celiac disease. When people with celiac disease eat foods containing gluten, their immune system responds by damaging the small intestine. Specifically, the villi (small finger-like protrusions), which are found on the lining of the small intestine, become damaged. Without villi, a person is unable to absorb nutrients in food and becomes malnourished, regardless of the quantity of food eaten. Celiac disease can present with as many as 300 symptoms or with no symptoms at all. Strict adherence to the gluten-free diet will stop symptoms including bloating, diarrhea, weight loss, fatigue and delayed growth in children and begin the healing process. Improvements can begin within days of starting the diet and research has found that, in children, the small intestine is usually completely healed within months. The healing time can be longer for adults. Lactose intolerance, which can be caused by intestinal injury, often improves with intestinal healing. However, not all people with celiac disease have lactose intolerance. The University of Chicago Celiac Disease Center 3

8 The University of Chicago Celiac Disease Center The University of Chicago Celiac Disease Center is dedicated to raising awareness and diagnosis rates nationwide and meeting the critical needs of people affected by celiac disease through education, research and advocacy. The University of Chicago Celiac Disease Center is the first center of its kind in the nation, offering a comprehensive approach to the disease: including reliable and accurate patient and professional education, expert diagnosis and treatment for both children and adults, ground-breaking bench and clinical research and active leadership in advocacy efforts. Mission The University of Chicago Celiac Disease Center is dedicated to raising awareness and diagnosis rates nationwide and meeting the critical needs of people affected by celiac disease through education, research and advocacy. History The University of Chicago Celiac Disease Center was the first organization of its kind in the United States. Founded in 2000 by Dr. Stefano Guandalini, a world-renowned pediatric gastroenterologist and celiac disease expert. Largely meant to combat the misconception that celiac disease is a rare disease and to properly educate both the general public as well as the medical profession, the Celiac Disease Center got its start as The University of Chicago Celiac Disease Program with the help of the Steans-Gail Family. Dr. Guandalini, originally from Naples, Italy, was shocked to learn how few Americans were diagnosed with Celiac Disease when he came to the U.S. in the early 1990s. Dr. Guandalini quickly discovered the reason for the lack of diagnoses in the U.S. It wasn t that it was less common (in fact, current research shows the prevalence of celiac disease is approximately 1 in 100 Americans); rather it was that U.S. medical doctors had for years been taught that celiac disease was extremely rare and were therefore not screening patients for the disease. Determined to raise awareness, education, diagnosis rates and get research 4

9 underway, Dr. Guandalini joined forces with the Steans-Gail Family, established a passionate advisory board and a bold mission: to raise diagnosis rates for celiac disease and to meet the critical needs of people affected by this condition through education, research and advocacy. As a result of its success, in 2007 the organization was renamed The University of Chicago Celiac Disease Center. In addition to conducting leading research and providing education and patient services for celiac disease, The University of Chicago Celiac Disease Center consists of a network of doctors who specialize in infertility, thyroid disease, dermatology, diabetes, cancer and other diseases and disorders that are often associated with celiac disease. These specialists collaborate to offer comprehensive diagnosis and treatment of the disease. The University of Chicago Celiac Disease Center is well known for some of the best programs and services for celiac disease in the country including: Gluten-Free Care Package Program delivers a gift basket of gluten-free foods, educational materials about the disease and the diet to newly diagnosed Celiacs across the nation. Celiac Disease Preceptorship Program is the only intense hands-on medical professional celiac disease education in the U.S.. Annual Free Blood Screening is a program that screens more than 500 people each year who are at risk for celiac disease often because their doctors refuse to carry the tests, insurance does not cover the cost or they are uninsured. Question Bank is a searchable collection of hundreds of questions and answers about celiac disease. Benefit and Events occur throughout the year to build awareness and raise funds for the Center. Signature events include the Spring Flours Benefit, which attracts attendees from across the country for an evening of gourmet gluten-free fare and entertainment. The University of Chicago Celiac Disease Center is led by the medical director and executive director and is supported by a talented advisory board consisting of doctors, dietitians, nurses, business and lay people, each of whom has a special interest in celiac disease and is dedicated to the mission of the organization. The University of Chicago Celiac Disease Center has directly assisted nearly a million people throughout the United States and the world with continued advancements in order to maintain its status as the leading authority on celiac disease. The University of Chicago Celiac Disease Center is a part of The University of Chicago, a 501-c3 non-profit organization. The Center is completely funded by donor contributions. The University of Chicago Celiac Disease Center 5

10 Pioneering Research Initiatives The University of Chicago Celiac Disease Center is at the forefront of research and professional education regarding celiac disease. Our team is led by Dr. Bana Jabri who has contributed to groundbreaking celiac research and who has also been awarded the coveted 2009 Wm. K. Warren Prize in Celiac Disease a first for anyone in the United States. At The University of Chicago Celiac Disease Center, our predominant research vision is to develop an alternative to the gluten-free diet for medical treatment of celiac disease. We are also concerned with improving the diagnosis of celiac disease and non-celiac gluten sensitivity, as well as treating patients that respond poorly to a gluten-free diet. In addition, we are working to identify treatments to prevent the development of celiac disease in at-risk children. We benefit from a unique infrastructure combining pediatric and adult gastroenterologists dedicated to improving the life of patients with celiac disease, our Celiac Disease Center that supports forefront patient care and research and an outstanding research group, which is the first to have received the international Wm. K. Warren prize for outstanding celiac disease research. Our group has published on celiac disease in high impact journals such as Nature, Immunity and the Journal of Experimental Medicine. Our approach is unique because we combine human research with the development of mouse models, which gives us an exceptional depth, power of analysis and ability to make groundbreaking discoveries. Obtaining an endowment for celiac disease research would provide a unique opportunity to continue and expand pioneering work on celiac disease with the goal to treat and prevent celiac disease. Developing curative and preventive therapies for celiac disease Mouse models of celiac disease. In order to test new therapeutic strategies, it is critical to have mouse models of celiac disease that actually reproduce the human disease in a relevant manner. In addition, mouse models allow us to create a direct cause-effect relationship and hence allow us to identify the critical targets for therapies. 6

11 From human basic research to clinical trials. Our research has identified a killer pathway responsible for the destruction of the intestinal layer. We can target these pathways with appropriate pharmacological compounds. Such examples exist for Crohn s disease and rheumatoid arthritis, where development of anti-tnf therapies has changed the lives of patients touched by these diseases. We have identified such an effector molecule implicated in celiac disease and are working in collaboration with a pharmaceutical group to set up clinical trials. We are creating a comprehensive research program with chemists to develop a treatment that can prevent and cure celiac disease. The idea is that celiac disease results from a bad destructive response to gluten and that if we could reorient this response to a good, tolerogenic and beneficial response, we could prevent and cure celiac disease. To do this, it is necessary to have a comprehensive analysis of the intestinal immune system and a strong understanding of how it is deregulated in celiac disease. A mouse model is also necessary to test and adjust therapeutic avenues. Our background, past work and mouse models put us in the position to achieve this. Efficacy of a probiotic treatment in celiac patients with partial response to the gluten-free diet. A small portion of patients with celiac disease continue to present symptoms of gastrointestinal distress even after beginning the diet, as a result of an ongoing mild degree of inflammation. In addition, the microflora of celiac patients has been shown to be different from that of healthy individuals. Probiotics are known to beneficially affect intestinal inflammation and may normalize abnormal microflora. Thus, this study aims to assess the efficacy of a scientifically validated probiotic treatment in normalizing the microbial composition and ameliorating symptoms in celiac patients on the gluten-free diet. Improving the Diagnosis of Celiac Disease and Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity Non-celiac gluten sensitivity: myth or reality? People suffer from non-celiac gluten sensitivity and yet do not have the classic markers of celiac disease. Because they lack both anti-transglutaminase antibodies and in some cases also the right genetic make-up (HLA-DQ2 or HLA-DQ8), their suffering is dismissed as being psychological. We have evidence that non-celiac gluten sensitivity is a real disease. In gluten sensitive patients, gluten is viewed as a danger signal and virus by the body. Consequently, the body mounts an inappropriate stress response that results in alterations of the intestinal linings, abdominal pain and diarrhea. Our goal is to develop diagnostic markers and understand how gluten can induce such a stress response and to improve the diagnosis and treatment of patients suffering from non- The University of Chicago Celiac Disease Center 7

12 celiac gluten sensitivity. Celiac disease and autoimmune diseases. Celiac disease is associated with an increase in autoimmune disorders such as type 1 diabetes. It is also known that the longer patients have untreated celiac disease, the higher their risk of developing an autoimmune disorder. Our group is working to identify the cause of this increased risk of developing autoimmunity in celiac disease. We have identified a factor in the blood that we believe can help identify at-risk patients and creates the possibility of developing therapeutic tools to prevent the development of autoimmune diseases in celiac disease patients. Associating genetic studies with patient phenotyping. We know now that celiac disease is a complex genetic disorder and that there are different forms of celiac disease. Some patients suffer from destruction of their intestinal lining (they have villous atrophy), some have a skin disease or neurological symptoms, while others have general fatigue. Understanding how the genetic make-up and environmental factors such as viral infections and gluten lead to different forms of celiac disease is critical to advance the diagnosis and treatment of celiac disease. Efficacy of rapid finger-prick test in diagnosing celiac disease. This trial will test the accuracy of a finger-prick test for celiac disease. The product is currently sold in Europe and gives a tissue transglutaminase antibody reading in under ten minutes. Timing of gluten intake in infant nutrition and risk of celiac disease autoimmunity. Studies have shown that breast feeding at-risk infants at the time of gluten introduction may delay or prevent the development of celiac disease. The risk of developing celiac disease is reduced by prolonged breast-feeding, introduction of gluten during breast-feeding, introduction of gluten in the right time window, and introduction of gluten in small amounts. The University of Chicago Celiac Disease Center is partnering with the University of Maryland Center for Celiac Research on an international, multi-center study (25 centers in all) to further investigate the effects of early versus late gluten introduction in at-risk infants on the development of celiac disease. In conclusion, we have a unique infrastructure, an extraordinary expertise, distinguished clinical and research programs and exceptional tools that allow us the possibility to make a notable difference in the life of celiac disease patients and their families. Given the right resources, we believe that we can find a cure for celiac disease in the coming years. Check Out Our Latest Research Report: 8

13 We invite you to ICDS 2013 Chicago September 22 25, 2013 Scientific Forum Join your colleagues world-renowned scientists, physicians, fellows, and researchers to explore and discuss the latest research in celiac disease and gluten-related disorders. Clinical Forum Interact with dietitians, nurses, and advanced practitioners, and learn about the latest advances in research from leading scientists. Explore the global Gluten-Free Marketplace, featuring a wide range of specialty products. Register Now at fullpage_ad.indd 1 10/11/12 1:15:29 PM The University of Chicago Celiac Disease Center 9

14 Chapter 1 Celiac Disease, Intolerances & Allergies 10

15 Overview of Celiac Disease What is celiac disease? Celiac disease is the world s most common genetic autoimmune disorder which affects the digestive process of the small intestine. When a person who has celiac disease consumes gluten, a protein found in wheat, rye and barley, the individual s immune system responds by attacking the small intestine and inhibiting the absorption of important nutrients into the body. Undiagnosed and untreated, celiac disease can lead to the development of other autoimmune disorders, as well as osteoporosis, infertility, neurological conditions and in rare cases, cancer. Celiac disease affects the digestive process of the small intestine which is connected to the stomach the first part of the small intestine, the duodenum and the jejunum are where celiac is commonly found. Specifically, tiny finger like protrusions, called villi, on the lining of the small intestine are lost. Nutrients from food are absorbed into the bloodstream through these villi. What is dermatitis herpetiformis (DH)? Dermatitis herpetiformis (DH) is an itchy, blistering skin condition that is a form of celiac disease. The rash usually occurs on the elbows, knees and buttocks and is characterized by its bilateral nature; both knees (and/or both arms) are affected, seldom just one. Many people with DH have no digestive symptoms and only about 40% of them have the positive blood tests (serology) for celiac disease: however, they almost always have the same, gluten-dependent intestinal damage as people with celiac disease. Unless otherwise specified, the information pertaining to celiac disease also pertains to people with dermatitis herpetiformis. In addition to following a strict gluten-free diet, DH is also commonly treated with a medication called dapsone. The University of Chicago Celiac Disease Center 11

16 Is celiac disease a rare condition? No. Celiac disease affects at least 1% of Americans, or nearly 3 million people in the United States. By comparison, Alzheimer s disease affects approximately 2 million people. In addition, research has shown that celiac disease is becoming more and more prevalent with time. It is possible to be diagnosed with celiac disease at any age. Is it possible to have celiac disease and NO symptoms? YES. Recent research has demonstrated that a significant percentage of children and adults with positive celiac blood tests had no, or minimal, symptoms when they were tested. Further, there are a few patients that carry the gene for celiac disease, have no or minimal symptoms and negative blood tests, yet a positive biopsy showing that the disease is active. Why is it difficult to find a doctor who knows about celiac disease? Most physicians learned during medical school that celiac disease was so rare they would never see a patient with symptoms in their entire medical career. Lectures on celiac disease in medical schools, even today, are few and far between. When your doctor was in medical school, he or she may have heard a minute celiac disease lecture during four years of classes. Medical textbooks still contain outdated information. Additionally, celiac disease often presents with seemingly unrelated symptoms, such as fatigue, joint pain, anemia and infertility, making diagnosis that much more difficult. The University of Chicago Celiac Disease Center is working hard to properly educate doctors about celiac disease so those at risk for the disease are screened immediately. What is the prevalence of celiac disease in the United States? In average healthy people: 1 in 133 In people with related symptoms: 1 in 56 People with first-degree relatives who are celiac: 1 in 20 In people with second-degree relatives who are celiac: 1 in 39 Estimated prevalence for African, Latinos and Asian-Americans: 1 in 236 In the landmark prevalence study on celiac disease, investigators determined that 60% of children and 41% of adults diagnosed during the study were asymptomatic (without any symptoms). Researchers found that 21% of patients with a positive anti-endomysial antibody test couldn t receive a biopsy due to the refusal of a physician to Only 35% of newly diagnosed patients had chronic diarrhea, dispelling the 12

17 myth that diarrhea must be present to diagnose celiac disease. Source: A multi-center study on the prevalence of celiac disease in the U.S. among both at risk and not at risk groups. Fasano et. al., Archives of Internal Medicine February Celiac disease affects 3 million Americans. The average length of time it takes for a symptomatic person to be diagnosed with celiac disease in the U.S. is four years; this type of delay dramatically increases an individual s risk of developing autoimmune disorders, neurological problems, osteoporosis and even cancer. Source: Characteristics of adult celiac disease in the USA: results of a national survey. Green, P.H. et.al. American Journal of Gastroenterology, 2001, The incidence of autoimmune diseases in the general U.S. population is 3.5%. In a 1999 study, Ventura found that those diagnosed with celiac disease between 2-4 years of age had a 10.5% chance of developing an autoimmune disorder. Additional findings are outlined in the table below: Age at Diagnosis Chance of Developing Autoimmune Condition 4 12 years 16.7% years 27% Over 20 years 34% Early diagnosis of celiac disease is important, as it might prevent complications and awareness is the key. A recent study in North America shows that an active case-finding strategy in the primary care setting is an effective means to improve the diagnostic rate of celiac disease: by screening with the blood test all subjects belonging to known at-risk groups such as those listed above, the diagnosis rates increased more than 40-fold. Source: Duration of exposure to gluten and risk for autoimmune disorders in patients with celiac disease. SIGEP Study Group for Autoimmune Disorders in Celiac Disease. Ventura A, et.al. Gastroenterology 1999 Aug;117(2): Rampertab SD et al. Trends in the Presentation of Celiac Disease Am J Medicine Catassi C et al. Detection of Celiac disease in primary care: a multicenter case-finding study in North America. Am J Gastroenterol 2007 What other chronic illnesses are common in the United States? Epilepsy affects 2.7 million Cystic Fibrosis affects 30,000 people 17,000 people are living with hemophilia Parkinson s disease affects 1,000,000 individuals Ulcerative colitis affects 500,000 people Crohn s disease affects 500,000 Americans 2.1 million Americans are living with rheumatoid arthritis The University of Chicago Celiac Disease Center 13

18 Lupus affects 1.5 million people Multiple sclerosis affects 400,000 people in the United States What are the statistics on the amount of people affected by celiac disease? Type 1 diabetes affects 3 million people; up to 10% (300,000) of those diagnosed also have celiac disease. 610,000 women in the U.S. experience unexplained infertility; 6% (36,600) of these women might never learn that celiac disease is the cause. 350,000 people in the United States are living with Down syndrome; up to 12% (42,000) of them also have celiac disease. The number of people with celiac disease in the U.S. would fill 4,400 Boeing 747 airplanes. It would take 936 cruise ships to hold every American with celiac disease. Americans with celiac disease could fill Comiskey Park (now U.S. Cellular Field, with 40,000 seats) to watch the Chicago White Sox 55 times. U.S. fans with celiac disease could fill Soldier Field, the home of the Chicago Bears, 37 times. The number of people with celiac disease in the U.S. is roughly equal to the number of people living in the state of Nevada. Alaska, Delaware, Washington, D.C., Hawaii, Idaho, Maine, Montana, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Mexico, North Dakota, Rhode Island, South Dakota, Utah and Vermont all have populations that are less than the 2.2 million people living with celiac disease in the United States. 14

19 Intolerances & Allergies The way that celiac disease, non-celiac gluten sensitivity and wheat allergy are defined means a lot to the person with the gastrointestinal condition as well as to that person s family. Fortunately, medical research has allowed us to define these entities. However, a medical professional who does not know how to diagnose celiac disease may provide an incorrect diagnosis of non-celiac gluten sensitivity or wheat allergy. First, it is important to recognize that celiac, non-celiac gluten sensitivity and a wheat (or gluten) allergy are all food intolerances. There are several classifications of food intolerances: food allergy, autoimmune-mediated, congenital digestive disorders and metabolic diseases. Metabolic diseases, like fructose intolerance, affect 1 in 10,000 people. For purposes of this publication, only celiac disease, non-celiac gluten sensitivity and wheat (or gluten) allergy are defined. What is celiac disease? Celiac is an autoimmune-mediated disorder that occurs when the immune system acts to destroy the body s own tissues. The tissue damage created by an autoimmune disorder can lead to medical complications and an increased risk for other disorders. The development of an autoimmune disorder is affected by genetics (there are two established genetic factors for celiac disease: DQ2 and DQ8) and factors in the environment. Celiac disease is the only autoimmune disorder where the trigger is known; remove the trigger and the autoimmune response does not occur. This means that a person with celiac disease who is following the gluten-free diet has as healthy an immune system as any average person walking down the street. If an individual feels that he or she may not have received a correct diagnosis and is on a gluten-free diet, the HLA gene test for celiac disease could be helpful. This is a test that should be performed by a qualified laboratory, such as Kimball Genetics, Prometheus or Mayo Clinic. An individual has a 65% chance of not having the genes for celiac disease. The University of Chicago Celiac Disease Center 15

20 If the genes are not present, a symptomatic individual could have an allergy or intolerance. If the genes are there, the individual possibly has celiac disease. What is non-celiac gluten sensitivity? Non-celiac gluten sensitivity is an adverse food-induced reaction, possibly immune-mediated, but for which we have no diagnostic test available. This is a reaction in the digestive tract that causes gastrointestinal symptoms just like irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). It may also lead to other body systems problems, such as fatigue, headache, etc. Unlike celiac disease however, it is not restricted to people that have the HLA-DQ2 and/or HLA-DQ8 genes and it might be transient. Also, there is no known association with autoimmune conditions and it is not known to be associated, if untreated, with long-term risk of malignancies. Although there is currently no diagnostic test (even an intestinal biopsy would be normal), The University of Chicago Celiac Disease Center is actively involved in research to define a biological marker that could be used to support such diagnosis. What are food allergies? Food allergies affect 3-5% of the population. In 20% of those cases, people with food allergies have an IgE mediated immune reaction to the trigger food. There is a blood test that can detect IgE mediated food allergies called the RAST test. Unfortunately, most people have food allergies that cannot be detected by this test, as they are mediated by immune mechanisms other than IgE. These types of allergies are diagnosed with a food elimination diet. Trigger foods produce an immune response towards the particular food protein the immune system has determined that the offending food is dangerous to the body when in fact it isn t. The symptoms caused by the immune response are time-limited and do not cause lasting harm to the body s tissues. (The exception is the immediate response to peanuts or other foods that produce an anaphylaxis response where the individual can stop breathing and the allergy is life-threatening). Food allergies can be temporary; many children outgrow them by age 5. A schematic representation of the three possible adverse reactions to gluten ingestion 16

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