English National Curriculum 2014 KS1. Year 1 Year 2. Phonic skills and high frequency words

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1 Phonic skills and high frequency words Reading fluency Apply phonic knowledge and skills as the route to decode words Respond speedily with the correct sound to graphemes (letters or groups of letters) for all 40+ phonemes, including, where applicable, alternative sounds for graphemes Read accurately by blending sounds in unfamiliar words containing GPCs that have been taught Read common exception words, noting unusual correspondences between spelling and sound and where these occur in the word Read words containing taught GPCs and s, es, ing, ed, er and est endings Read other words of more than one syllable that contain taught GPCs Read words with contractions and understand that the apostrophe represents the omitted letter(s) Read aloud accurately books that are consistent with their developing phonic knowledge and that do not require them to use other strategies to work out words Re-read these books to build up their fluency and confidence in word reading. Continue to apply phonic knowledge and skills as the route to decode words until automatic decoding has become embedded and reading is fluent Read accurately by blending the sounds in words that contain the graphemes taught so far, especially recognising alternative sounds for graphemes Read accurately words of two or more syllables that contain the same graphemes as above Read words containing common suffixes Read further common exception words, noting unusual correspondences between spelling and sound and where these occur in the word Read most words quickly and accurately, without overt sounding and blending, when they have been frequently encountered Read aloud books closely matched to their improving phonic knowledge, sounding out unfamiliar words accurately, automatically and without undue hesitation Re-read these books to build up their fluency and confidence in word reading. 1

2 Reading - comprehension Reading range, comprehension and vocabulary Listen to and discuss a wide range of poems, stories and nonfiction at a level beyond that at which they can read independently Listen to, discuss and express views about a wide range of contemporary and classic poetry, stories and non-fiction at a level beyond that at which they can read independently Become familiar with key stories, fairy stories and traditional tales, retelling them and considering their particular characteristics Link what they read or hear to their own experiences Learn to appreciate rhymes and poems, and to recite some by heart Recognise and join in with predictable phrases Discuss word meanings, linking new meanings to those already known Become familiar with and retell a wide range of stories, fairy stories and traditional tales Recognise simple recurring literary language in stories and poetry Discuss the sequence of events in books and how items of information are related Introduce non-fiction books that are structured in different way Build up a repertoire of poems learnt by heart, appreciating these and reciting some, with appropriate intonation to make the meaning clear Discuss their favourite words and phrases Discuss and clarify the meanings of words, linking new meanings to known vocabulary 2

3 Understanding and fluency Draw on what they already know or on background information Draw on what they already know or on background information and vocabulary provided by the teacher and vocabulary provided by the teacher Check that the text makes sense to them as they read and correcting inaccurate reading Discuss the significance of the title and events Make inferences on the basis of what is being said and done Predict what might happen on the basis of what has been read so far Check that the text makes sense to them as they read and correcting inaccurate reading Answer and ask questions Make inferences on the basis of what is being said and done Predict what might happen on the basis of what has been read so far Discussion and explanation Participate in discussion about what is read to them, taking turns and listening to what others say Explain clearly their understanding of what is read to them. Participate in discussion about books, poems and other works that are read to them and those that they can read for themselves, taking turns and listening to what others say Explain and discuss their understanding of books, poems and other material, both those that they listen to and those that they read for themselves. 3

4 Writing - Composition Planning Discuss what they will write with the teacher or other pupils Write for different purposes Write down ideas and/or key words, including new vocabulary Drafting and writing Evaluating and editing Proof reading Say out loud what they are going to write about Compose a sentence orally before writing it Sequence sentences to form short narratives Discuss what they have written with the teacher or other pupils Re-read what they have written to check that it makes sense Read aloud their writing clearly enough to be heard by their peers and the teacher. Plan or saying out loud what they are going to write about before beginning Write narratives about personal experiences and those of others (real and fictional) Write poetry Write about real events Encapsulate what they want to say, sentence by sentence Develop stamina for writing Make simple additions, revisions and corrections to their own writing Re-read to check that their writing makes sense and that verbs to indicate time are used correctly and consistently, including verbs in the continuous form Proof-reading to check for errors in spelling, grammar and punctuation Read aloud what they have written with appropriate intonation to make the meaning clear. 4

5 Writing - Transcription Word Vocabulary Regular plural noun suffixes s or es [for example, dog, dogs; wish, wishes], including the effects of these suffixes on the meaning of the noun Suffixes that can be added to verbs where no change is needed in the spelling of root words (e.g. helping, helped, helper) Formation of nouns using suffixes such as ness, er and by compounding [for example, whiteboard, superman] Formation of adjectives using suffixes such as ful, less Use of the suffixes er, est in adjectives and the use of ly in Standard English to turn adjectives into adverbs Word Grammar Sentence structures, Clauses and Phrases Tenses and Grammar How the prefix un changes the meaning of verbs and adjectives How words can combine to make sentences Joining words and joining clauses using and Subordination (using when, if, that, because) and co-ordination (using or, and, but) Expanded noun phrases for description and specification [e.g., the blue butterfly, the man in the moon] How the grammatical patterns in a sentence indicate its function as a statement, question, exclamation or command Correct choice and consistent use of present tense and past tense throughout writing Text and organisation Sequencing sentences to form short narratives Use of the progressive form of verbs in the present and past tense to mark actions in progress [for example, she is drumming, he was shouting] 5

6 Punctuation Terminology for pupils Applying spelling Spelling Separation of words with spaces Use of capital letters, full stops, question marks and exclamation Introduction to capital letters, full stops, question marks and marks to demarcate sentences exclamation marks to demarcate sentences Commas to separate items in a list Capital letters for names and for the personal pronoun I Apostrophes to mark where letters are missing in spelling and to letter, capital letter word, singular, plural sentence punctuation, full stop, question mark, exclamation mark Name the letters of the alphabet in order Write from memory simple sentences dictated by the teacher that include words using the GPCs and common exception words taught so far. The sounds /f/, /l/, /s/, /z/ and /k/ spelt ff, ll, ss, zz and ck The /ŋ/ sound spelt n before k Division of words into syllables -tch The /v/ sound at the end of words Adding s and es to words (plural of nouns and the third person singular of verbs) Adding the endings ing, ed and er to verbs where no change is needed to the root word Adding er and est to adjectives where no change is needed to the root word Vowel digraphs and trigraphs Words ending y (/i:/ or /ɪ/) New consonant spellings ph and wh Using k for the /k/ sound Adding the prefix un Compound words Common exception words mark singular possession in nouns [for example, the girl s name] noun, noun phrase statement, question, exclamation, command, compound, adjective, verb, suffix adverb tense (past, present) apostrophe, comma Write from memory simple sentences dictated by the teacher that include words using the GPCs, common exception words and punctuation taught so far. The /dʒ/ sound spelt as ge and dge at the end of words, and sometimes spelt as g elsewhere in words before e, i and y The /s/ sound spelt c before e, i and y The /n/ sound spelt kn and (less often) gn at the beginning of words The /r/ sound spelt wr at the beginning of words The /l/ or /əl/ sound spelt le at the end of words The /l/ or /əl/ sound spelt el at the end of words The /l/ or /əl/ sound spelt al at the end of words Words ending il The /aɪ/ sound spelt y at the end of words Adding es to nouns and verbs ending in y Adding ed, ing, er and est to a root word ending in y with a consonant before it Adding the endings ing, ed, er, est and y to words ending in e with a consonant before it Adding ing, ed, 6

7 er, est and y to words of one syllable ending in a single consonant letter after a single vowel letter The /ɔ:/ sound spelt a before l and ll The /ʌ/ sound spelt o The /i:/ sound spelt ey The /ɒ/ sound spelt a after w and qu The /ɜ:/ sound spelt or after w The /ɔ:/ sound spelt ar after w The /ʒ/ sound spelt s The suffixes ment, ness, ful, less and ly Contractions The possessive apostrophe (singular nouns) Words ending in tion Homophones and near-homophones Common exception words Handwriting Sit correctly at a table, holding a pencil comfortably and correctly Write capital letters, lower-case letters and digits of the relative Begin to form lower-case letters, capital letters and digits in the correct size, orientation and relationship to one another correct direction, starting and finishing in the right place Start using some of the diagonal and horizontal strokes needed to Understand which letters belong to which handwriting families join letters and understand which letters, when adjacent to one (i.e. letters that are formed in similar ways) and to practise these another, are best left unjoined use spacing between words that reflects the size of the letters. 7

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