# Generalize simple beam theory to three dimensions and general cross sections. Consider combined effects of bending, shear and torsion

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1 Module 7 Simple Beam Theory Learning Objectives Review simple beam theory Generalize simple beam theory to three dimensions and general cross sections Consider combined effects of bending, shear and torsion Study the case of shell beams 7.1 Review of simple beam theory Readings: BC 5 Intro, 5.1 A beam is a structure which has one of its dimensions much larger than the other two. The importance of beam theory in structural mechanics stems from its widespread success in practical applications Kinematic assumptions Readings: BC 5.2 Beam theory is founded on the following two key assumptions known as the Euler- Bernoulli assumptions: Cross sections of the beam do not deform in a significant manner under the application of transverse or axial loads and can be assumed as rigid Concept Question With reference to Figure 7.1, 1. what is the main implication of this assumption on the kinematic description (overall displacement field) of the cross section? 91

2 92 MODULE 7. SIMPLE BEAM THEORY u 3 u 2 Figure 7.1: First kinematic assumption in Euler-Bernoulli beam theory: rigid in-plane deformation of cross sections. 2. To simplify further the discussion, assume for now that there is no rotation of the cross section around the axis. Write the most general form of the cross-section in-plane displacement components: During deformation, the cross section of the beam is assumed to remain planar and normal to the deformed axis of the beam. Concept Question With reference to Figure 7.3, 1. what is the main implication of this assumption on the kinematic description (overall displacement field) of the cross section? 2. Based on these kinematic assumptions, write the most general form of the crosssection out-of-plane displacement component: 3. If you noticed, we have not applied the constraint that the sections must remain normal to the deformed axis of the beam. Use this part of the assumption to establish a relation between the displacements fields ū 2 (x 1 ), ū 3 (x 1 ) and the angle fields θ 2 (x 1 ), θ 3 (x 1 ), respectively, see Figure??. Concept Question Combine the results from all the kinematic assumptions to obtain a final assumed form of the general 3D displacement field in terms of the three unknowns ū 1 (x 1 ), ū 2 (x 1 ), ū 3 (x 1 ):

3 7.1. REVIEW OF SIMPLE BEAM THEORY 93 θ 2 (x 1 ) (a) (b) θ 3 (x 1 ) (c) Figure 7.2: Second kinematic assumption in Euler-Bernoulli beam theory: cross sections remain planar after deformation.

4 94 MODULE 7. SIMPLE BEAM THEORY θ 2 θ 3 u 3 (x 1 ) u 2 (x 1 ) + (a) (b) Figure 7.3: Implications of the assumption that cross sections remain normal to the axis of the beam upon deformation. These assumptions have been extensively confirmed for slender beams made of isotropic materials with solid cross-sections. Concept Question Use the kinematic assumptions of Euler-Bernoulli beam theory to derive the general form of the strain field: Concept Question It is important to reflect on the nature of the strains due to bending. Interpret the components of the axial strain ɛ 11 in Euler-Bernoulli beam theory One of the main conclusions of the Euler-Bernoulli assumptions is that in this particular beam theory the primary unknown variables are the three displacement functions ū 1 (x 1 ), ū 2 (x 1 ), ū 3 (x 1 ) which are only functions of x 1. The full displacement, strain and therefore stress fields do depend on the other independent variables but in a prescribed way that follows directly from the kinematic assumptions and from the equations of elasticity. The purpose of formulating a beam theory is to obtain a description of the problem expressed entirely on variables that depend on a single independent spatial variable x 1 which is the coordinate along the axis of the beam Definition of stress resultants Readings: BC 5.3 Stress resultants are equivalent force systems that represent the integral effect of the internal stresses acting on the cross section. Thus, they eliminate the need to carry over the dependency of the stresses on the spatial coordinates of the cross section x 2, x 3.

5 7.2. AXIAL LOADING OF BEAMS 95 The axial or normal force is defined by the expression: N 1 (x 1 ) = σ 11 (x 1, x 2, x 3 )da (7.1) A The transverse shearing forces are defined by the expressions: V 2 (x 1 ) = σ 12 (x 1, x 2, x 3 )da (7.2) V 3 (x 1 ) = A A σ 13 (x 1, x 2, x 3 )da (7.3) (7.4) The bending moments are defined by the expressions: M 2 (x 1 ) = x 3 σ 11 (x 1, x 2, x 3 )da (7.5) A M 3 (x 1 ) = A x 2 σ 11 (x 1, x 2, x 3 )da (7.6) (7.7) The negative sign is needed to generate a positive bending moment with respect to axis, see Figure 7.4 σ 11 σ 13 M 3 σ 11 σ 12 M 3 N 1 V 3 σ 13 e2 σ 11 V 3 N 1 N 1 V 2 σ 12 σ 11 V 2 N 1 M 2 M 2 Figure 7.4: Sign conventions for the sectional stress resultants 7.2 Axial loading of beams Readings: BC 5.4 Consider the case where there are no transverse loading on the beam, Figure 7.5. The only external loads possible in this case are either concentrated forces such as the load P 1, or distributed forces per unit length p 1 (x 1 ).

6 96 MODULE 7. SIMPLE BEAM THEORY p 1 (x 1 ) P Kinematics L Figure 7.5: Beams subjected to axial loads. In this case, we will assume that the cross sections will not rotate upon deformation. Concept Question Based on this assumption, specialize the general displacement (??) and strain field (??) to this class of problems and comment on the implications of the possible deformations obtained in this theory Constitutive law for the cross section We will assume a linear-elastic isotropic material and that the transverse stresses σ 22, σ By Hooke s law, the axial stress σ 11 is given by: Replacing the strain field for this case: σ 11 (x 1, x 2, x 3 ) = Eɛ 11 (x 1, x 2, x 3 ) In other words, we are assuming a state of uni-axial stress. σ 11 (x 1, x 2, x 3 ) = Eū 1(x 1 ) (7.8) Concept Question This exposes an inconsistency in Euler-Bernoulli beam theory. What is it and how can we justify it? The axial force can be obtained by replacing (7.8) in (7.1): N 1 (x 1 ) = Eū 1(x 1 )da = EdA ū 1(x 1 ) A(x 1 ) A(x 1 ) }{{ } S(x 1 ) We will define: S(x 1 ) = A(x 1 ) E(x 1, x 2, x 3 )da (7.9)

7 7.2. AXIAL LOADING OF BEAMS 97 as the axial stiffness of the beam, where we allow the Young s modulus to vary freely both in the cross section and along the axis of the beam, and we allow for non-uniform cross section geometries. In the case that the section is homogeneous in the cross section (E = E(x 1, x 2, x 3 )), we obtain: S(x 1 ) = E(x 1 )A(x 1 ) (This may happen for example in functionallygraded materials). Further, if the section is uniform along x 1 and the material is homogeneous (E = const), we obtain: S = EA. We can then write a constitutive relation between the axial force and the appropriate measure of strain for the beam: N 1 (x 1 ) = S(x 1 )ū 1(x 1 ) (7.10) i = n, E n i, E i x i+1 3 x i 3 i = 1, E 1 w Figure 7.6: Cross section of a composite layered beam. Concept Question Axial loading of a composite beam 1. Compute the axial stiffness of a composite beam of width w, which has a uniform cross section with n different layers in direction, where the elastic modulus of layer i is E i and its thickness is t i = x i+1 3 x i 3, as shown in the figure. 2. Compute the stress distribution in the cross section assuming the axial force distribution N 1 (x 1 ) is known: 3. Interpret the stress distribution obtained.

8 98 MODULE 7. SIMPLE BEAM THEORY Having completed a kinematic and constitutive description, it remains to formulate an appropriate way to enforce equilibrium of beams loaded axially Equilibrium equations N(x 1 ) p 1 (x 1 ) N(x 1 )+N (x 1 ) e1 Figure 7.7: Axial forces acting on an infinitesimal beam slice. For structural elements, we seek to impose equilibrium in terms of resultant forces (rather than at the material point as we did when we derived the equations of stress equilibrium). To this end, we consider the free body diagram of a slice of the beam as shown in Figure 7.7. At x 1 the axial force is N 1 (x 1 ), at x 1 +, N 1 (x 1 + ) = N 1 (x 1 ) + N (x 1 ). The distributed force per unit length p 1 (x 1 ) produces a force in the positive x 1 direction equal to p 1 (x 1 ). Equilibrium of forces in the direction requires: which implies: Governing equations N 1 (x 1 ) + p 1 (x 1 ) + N 1 (x 1 ) + N (x 1 ) = 0 dn 1 + p 1 = 0 (7.11) Concept Question Derive a governing differential equation for the axiallyloaded beam problem by combining Equations (7.10) and (7.11). 2. What type of elasticity formulation does this equation correspond to? 3. What principles does it enforce?

10 100 MODULE 7. SIMPLE BEAM THEORY and applying the boundary condition ū 1 (0) = 0. The solution can be readily found to be: ū 1 (x 1 ) = ρω2 L 3 [2η + η2 3E 2 η log ( 1 η ) ] 2 Verify that the correct strain is obtained and that the boundary condition is satisfied: 7.3 Beam bending Readings: BC 5.5 p 2 (x 1 ) P 2 L Figure 7.9: Beam subjected to tranverse loads Beams have the defining characteristic that they can resist loads acting transversely to its axis, Figure 7.9 by bending or deflecting outside of their axis. This bending deformation causes internal axial and shear stresses which can be described by equipolent stress resultant moments and shearing forces. We will start by analyzing beam bending in the plane,. Combined bending in different planes can be treated later by using the principle of superposition. The Euler-Bernoulli kinematic hypothesis (??) reduces in this case to u 1 (x 1, x 2, x 3 ) = x 2 ū 2(x 1 ), u 2 (x 1, x 2, x 3 ) = ū 2 (x 1 ), u 3 (x 1, x 2, x 3 ) = 0 The strains to: ɛ 11 (x 1, x 2, x 3 ) = u 1,1 = x 2 ū 2(x 1 ) Constitutive law for the cross section Hooke s law reduces one more time to: σ 11 (x 1, x 2, x 3 ) = Eɛ 11 (x 1, x 2, x 3 ) = Ex 2 ū 2(x 1 ) (7.12)

11 7.3. BEAM BENDING 101 Concept Question Assuming E is constant in the cross section, comment on the form of the stress distribution We now proceed to compute the stress resultants of section Concept Question Location of the neutral axis: We will see in this question that the x 2 location of the fibers that do not stretch in the direction, which is where we are going to place our origin of the x 2 coordinates is determined by the requirement of axial equilibrium of internal stresses. 1. The only applied external forces are in the direction. Based on this, what can you say about the axial force N 1 (x 1 )? 2. Write the expression for the axial force 3. From here, obtain an expression that enforces equilibrium in the direction. Interpret its meaning 4. Define the modulus-weighted centroid of the cross section by the condition: S(x 1 )x c 2(x 1 ) = A(x 1 ) Ex 2 da, x c 2(x 1 ) = 1 Ex 2 da S(x 1 ) A(x 1 ) and interpret the meaning of using x c 2 as the origin of the coordinate system 5. Compare the location of the modulus-weighted centroid, the center of mass and the center of area for a general cross section and for a homogeneous one We now consider the internal bending moment. Concept Question Specialize the definition of the M 3 stress resultant (7.5) M 3 (x 1 ) = x 2 σ 11 (x 1, x 2, x 3 )da A(x 1 ) to the case under consideration by using the stress distribution resulting from the Euler- Bernoulli hypothesis, σ 11 (x 1, x 2, x 3 ) = Ex 2 ū 2(x 1 ) to obtain a relation between the bending moment and the local curvature ū 2(x 1 ). We can see that we obtain a linear relation between the bending moment and the local curvature ( moment-curvature relationship): M 3 (x 1 ) = H c 33(x 1 )ū 2(x 1 ) (7.13)

12 102 MODULE 7. SIMPLE BEAM THEORY The constant of proportionality will be referred to as the centroidal bending stiffness (also sometimes known as the flexural rigidity): H33(x c 1 ) = A(x 1 ) In the case of a homogeneous cross section of Young s modulus E(x 1 ): H33(x c 1 ) = E(x 1 ) x 2 2dA A(x 1 ) }{{} I 33 Ex 2 2dA (7.14) we obtain the familiar: M = EIū 2(x 1 ) Concept Question Modulus-weighted centroid, Bending stiffness and bending stress distribution in a layered composite beam A composite beam of width b, which has a uniform i = n, E n i, E i x i+1 2 x i 2 i = 1, E 1 b Figure 7.10: Cross section of a composite layered beam. cross section with n different layers in direction, where the elastic modulus of layer i is E i and its thickness is t i = x i+1 2 x i 2, as shown in Figure Compute the position of the modulus-weighted centroid

13 7.3. BEAM BENDING Compute the bending stiffness 3. Compute the σ 11 stress distribution in the cross section assuming the bending moment M 3 is known: 4. Interpret the stress distribution obtained. 5. Specialize to the case that the section is homogeneous with Young s modulus E: Concept Question Bi-material cross section properties h 2 E A x c 2 h 2 E B b Figure 7.11: Bi-material beam For the cantilevered beam shown in Figure 7.11, 1. Compute the location of the modulus-weighted centroid: Equilibrium equations Concept Question Consider the equilibrium of a slice of a beam subjected to transverse loads. Using the figure, 1. write the equation of equilibrium of forces in the direction and then derive a differential equation relating the shear force V 2 (x 1 ) and the distributed external force p 2 (x 1 ). 2. do the same for equilibrium of moments in the axis about point O. 3. Eliminate the Shear force from the previous two equations to obtain a single equilibrium equation relating the bending moment and the applied distributed load:

14 104 MODULE 7. SIMPLE BEAM THEORY V 2 p 2 (x 1 ) V 2 + dv 2 O M 3 M 3 + dm 3 Figure 7.12: Equilibrium of a beam slice subjected to transverse loads Governing equations Concept Question Derive a governing differential equation for the transverselyloaded beam problem by combining Equations (7.13) and (??). 2. What type of elasticity formulation does this equation correspond to? 3. What principles does it enforce? Concept Question The equation requires four boundary conditions since it is a fourth-order differential equation. Express the following typical boundary conditions mathematically 1. clamped at one end 2. simply supported or pinned 3. free (unloaded) 4. subjected to a concentrated transverse load P 2 Concept Question Cantilevered beam under uniformly distributed transverse load A cantilevered beam (clamped at x 1 = 0 and free at x 1 = L) is subjected to a uniform load per unit length gp Specialize the general beam equation to this problem 2. Write down the boundary conditions for this problem: 3. Integrate the governing equation and apply the boundary conditions to obtain the deflection ū 2 (x 1 ), bending moment M 3 (x 1 ) and shear force V 2 (x 1 ).

15 7.3. BEAM BENDING Compute the maximum deflection, maximum moment and maximum σ 11 stress (for the case of a solid rectangular wing spar of length L = 1m, width b = 5mm, height h = 3cm, and Young s modulus E = 100GP a when the load is p 0 = 10N/m.

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