# Understanding Repeater Site Interference

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1 IWCE Test & Measurement 101 Understanding Repeater Site Interference Presented by: Jay M. Jacobsmeyer, P.E. Pericle Communications Company 1910 Vindicator Drive, Suite 100 Colorado Springs, CO (719)

2 Outline Types of Interference Sources of Radio Interference Methods for Measuring and Isolating Interference Tools of the Trade Spectrum Analyzer Methods & Pitfalls

3 Why is This Topic Important? Radio Interference is Widespread & Growing Malfunctioning bidirectional amplifiers Cell phone jammers Unlicensed band radios Broadcasters Interference at Site can Totally Disable System E.g., 20 db of desense shrinks coverage radius by factor of 10* Built-In Network Diagnostic Tools are Generally Weak Interference is Often Intermittent Making it difficult to identify, isolate and correct *Simplified assumption of line-of-sight path.

4 Types of Interference

5 Types of Interference Transmitter Intermodulation Receiver Intermodulation Passive Intermodulation Transmitter Out-of-Band Emissions (OOBE) Receiver Desense Note: Not all interference is generated locally

6 Intermodulation (IM) Definition: Intermodulation is a nonlinear mixing of two or more radio frequency carriers to create new carriers on frequencies that are sums and differences of harmonics of the original carriers.

7 Intermodulation Math A Simplified Model: sin(2πf 1 t) 1/2 cos[2π(f 1 -f 2 )t] - 1/2 cos[2π(f 1 +f 2 )t] sin(2πf 2 t) I.e., the result of a multiplication of two carriers at the very least includes the sum and difference of the two carrier frequencies

8 Harmonics Harmonics are Special Cases of IM Only one carrier is involved Non-Linearities Create Harmonics as Well as IM Harmonics are common interferers E.g., 9 (90.7 MHz) = MHz (9th harmonic of FM station)

9 Order of IM Products Two Carrier IM Product: f im = mf 1 + nf 2 where m, n are non-zero integers Order = m + n Examples: 2f 1 - f 2 is 3rd order f 1 + f 2 - f 3 is 3rd order 3f 1-2f 2 is 5th order

10 Amplitude of IM Products Very Difficult to Predict Except for receiver amplifiers not in saturation Higher Order = Weaker Amplitude (in General) Notable exception is 9th harmonics of FM transmitters

11 Bandwidth of IM Products Key Principle: Multiplication in Time Domain = Convolution in Frequency Domain Example: * W W = 2W

12 Bandwidth of IM Products Rule of Thumb #1: Two carriers of equal bandwidth Bandwidth of IM product = Order x Bandwidth of Carrier Rule of Thumb #2: One carrier much wider than the other Bandwidth of IM = Bandwidth of Wider Carrier E.g., iden (25 khz) mix with CDMA (1.25 MHz) = 1.25 MHz Shape is a Diagnostic Factor Neither harmonics or IM products have identical shape to original E.g., Raised cosine ( Bart s Head ) IM products have rounded corners

13 Where Will IM Fall? Depends, But Some Rules of Thumb Apply Consider two cases, 3rd order and 5th order Two Carrier 3rd Order IM Products, 2A-B Difference between A and B equals spacing of IM product below A and above B 2f 1 - f 2 f 1 f 2 2f 2 - f 1

14 Where Will IM Fall? Two Carrier 5th Order IM Products, 3A-2B IM products fall 2 below A and above B 3f 1-2f 2 f 1 f 2 3f 2-2f 1 2 2

15 Types of IM Three Types: Transmitter Receiver Passive Similarities Mathematically, they are identical Differences Physical mechanisms are quite different Correct solution depends on the mechanism

16 Transmitter Intermodulation Originates in Transmitter Amplifier Radiates from Repeater Site Filter at Transmitter Helps Filter at Receiver Does Not Help

17 Transmitter IM Mitigation Bandpass Cavity Filter Attenuates incoming interferer Attenuates outgoing IM product Ferrite Isolators One-way device prevents external interferers from entering transmitter Cavity Filter Combiners Use Both Devices Hybrid Combiners Reverse isolation similar to ferrite isolator Very lossy Linear Amplifier Combiners Often Do Not Use Isolators

18 Receiver Intermodulation Originates in Receiver Front End Two Different Types Mixes of external frequencies Mixes of external and internal frequencies (e.g., LO) Antenna Mixer/Amplifier Mixer/Amplifier Bandpass Filter First IF Bandpass Filter Second IF Bandpass Filter To Baseband Circuitry Low Noise Amplifier LO LO Image reject filter between LNA and first mixer is present but not shown.

19 Receiver IM Mitigation Receive Filter Keeps Interferers Out But only if interferers are outside bandpass High Third Order Intercept (IP3) Amplifiers May not be under operator s control in base station radio But tower-top amplifier (TTA) choice may be under your control Combinations of TTA and multicoupler amplifier gain may be excessive, causing receiver IM Which Amplifier is Most Susceptible? All else being equal, the last amplifier is most susceptible It is the one hit with the greatest input amplitude More Gain Stages Generally Reduce Dynamic Range

20 Passive Intermodulation Often the Most Difficult to Diagnose Often the IM source after all others have been eliminated Mathematically, Identical to TX and RX IM Caused by Non-Linear Junctions Loose connections Corroded joints Antenna IM is common Transmit Antennas More Susceptible Than Receive Antennas Antenna Design is Critical More important than factory test results Some designs are noteworthy for poor passive IM performance

21 Passive IM Mitigation Connectors Linear materials (no nickel) No dissimilar materials Large surface area (DIN better than N) Installed correctly and tightened firmly Weatherproofed Antennas Choose good designs No mechanical connections, if possible Tower Members No loose connections No corrosion

22 Transmitter OOBE Out of Band Emissions Other than IM Sprint/Nextel iden Example (-63 dbc) Best mitigation is tighter bandpass filter OOBE

23 Transmitter OOBE (Cont d) Using Spectrum Analyzer to Verify Transmitter Mask Compliance Courtesy of Anritsu

24 Receiver Desense Desensitization Caused by Strong Signals Excludes receiver IM Can be caused by a single strong interferer Often caused indirectly by AGC amplifier Energy that Falls in RF Passband But not in IF passband Mitigation Tighter front end filters Amplifiers with higher IP3 Antenna isolation to attenuate interferer

25 Sources of Interference

26 Sources of Interference Wireless Operators Sprint/Nextel OOBE ( MHz, mitigated by reband) WCDMA OOBE Paging Transmitters 929, 930, 931, 940 MHz bands Antenna Passive IM Malfunctioning Bidirectional Amplifiers (BDAs) Cell Phone Jammers Ilegal in U.S., but prevalent regardless

27 Sources of Interference (cont d) Unlicensed 900 MHz Emitters ( MHz) Vehicle tracking systems Remote telemetry Cordless phones Your Own System Poor transmitter to receiver isolation Typically requires other interferers, too Computers Especially at VHF Broadcasters Harmonics of FM stations Harmonics and IM products from FM and TV

28 Other Interference Issues GPS L1 Channel ( MHz) 2 MHz wide 3rd harmonic of Ch. 23-TV visual carrier = MHz 2nd harmonic of Ch. 66-TV aural carrier = MHz Interference to 2.4 GHz Receivers Fifth order mixes between AWS and PCS New 700 MHz Interferers MHz MHz MediaFLO (TV Channel 55) 2.5 GHz MMDS/ITFS WIMAX Buildout

29 Measuring and Isolating Interference

30 The Process Step 1: Symptoms Reactive approach, but this is usually the starting point Dropped calls/failed call attempts, etc. Step 2: Gather Information Collect information on environment Frequencies, antenna parameters, filters, etc. Identify nearby powerful emitters Step 3: Run Interference Study Use IM prediction software

31 The Process (cont d) Step 4: Verify With Measurements Look for correlations Use automated test systems for intermittent sources Step 5: Test for Cause & Effect On/off testing is simple, but powerful tool Note that multiple transmitters may be contributing Step 6: Test Solutions Step 7: Adopt Best Solution

33 Tools of the Trade IM Prediction Software Spectrum Analyzer PIM Analyzer Service Monitor Custom Software Important to detect intermittent interference Accessories Handheld directional antennas (for direction finding) Low PIM coaxial cables Bandpass filters Lowpass filters Low noise amplifier

34 IM Prediction Software Purpose Predict IM products from transmit frequencies Secondary purpose is to predict IM interference amplitude Predicting amplitude is tricky and requires accurate modeling Some programs also predict receiver desense and transmitter OOBE Lots of Choices Some free Some > \$4k

35 IM Prediction Software (cont d) Problems We ve Seen Program only predicts products of two interferers Program only predicts 3rd order products Models are usually poor predictors of IM amplitude

36 The Spectrum Analyzer

37 The Spectrum Analyzer Photo courtesy of Agilent, Inc.

38 Spectrum Analyzer Block Diagram Input Signal Detector Variable Attenuator IF Gain IF Filter (RBW) Log Amp Video Filter LO Crystal Reference Sweep Generator LCD Display

39 Spectrum Analyzer Typical Characteristics Wideband Front-End - Susceptible to compression from unwanted signals High Noise Figure - Typical NF > 22 db - Cannot see weak signals without help of LNA Compression Point - Typical 1 db compression at -10 dbm Narrow Dynamic Range (relative to environment) - Typical: With two signals at -30 dbm, 3rd order IM at 100 dbm (70 db dynamic range)

40 Spectrum Analyzer Common Mistakes Marker Power Does Not Equal Channel Power Generating IM in the Instrument Mistaking Instrument Noise for External Noise Mistaking Wideband Intermittent Signal for Narrowband Frequency Hopping Signal Forgetting Preamplifier Reduces Dynamic Range

41 Spectrum Analyzer Common Mistakes - Marker Power vs. Channel Power Marker Power Does Not Equal Channel Power Marker power is power in resolution bandwidth (RBW) RBW may be much narrower than channel BW Example on Next Slide Solution: Always compare RBW to Channel BW Make a habit of using the Channel Power feature

42 Marker Power = -20 dbm in 1 khz RBW Channel Power (25 khz)

43 Spectrum Analyzer Common Mistakes - Generating IM in the Instrument Generating IM or Harmonics in the Instrument Mistaken for external interference They appear identical Solution: Must monitor power of all signals present External bandpass filter is critical Test for linearity by inserting attenuation» 3rd order instrument IM will reduce 3 db per 1 db atten.» External IM will reduce db for db

44 Spectrum Analyzer Common Mistakes - Instrument Noise Mistaking Instrument Noise for External Noise Example: Radio receiver noise floor in 25 khz = -126 dbm Instrument noise figure = 22 db Attenuator setting = 5 db Resolution Bandwidth = 1 khz Displayed noise floor: Noise = log 10 (1,000) = -117 dbm Conclusion: Instrument noise floor > receiver noise floor Solution: Use Preamplifier, Reduce Atten. to 0 db

45 Spectrum Analyzer Common Mistakes - Intermittent Wideband Signals Mistaking Wideband Pulsed Signal for Narrowband Frequency Hopping Signal Problem occurs when interferer duration is less than sweep duration Example on Next Slide Span = 20 MHz Sweep duration = 20 ms Pulse duration of interferer = 2 ms Guard time of interferer = 4 ms

46 Spectrum Analyzer Common Mistakes - Intermittent Wideband Signals Actual Wideband Interferer (visible using max hold) What Appears on Display MHz 0 20 ms How might this occur in the real world? 5th order mix (3A-2B) of WiMAX signal at 2512 MHz and GSM signal at MHz

47 Spectrum Analyzer Common Mistakes - Preamplifier Preamplifier Reduces Dynamic Range IM specification = 70 db at -30 dbm Levels above -30 dbm have degraded IM rejection Preamplifier gain = 20 db New IM limit = -30 dbm - 20 db = -50 dbm Solution: Use preamplifier to observe weak signals Reject unwanted strong signals with a bandpass filter

48 Spectrum Analyzer Wish List Basic Specifications Noise figure < 24 db w/o preamp (-120 dbm in 1 khz RBW) IM dynamic range of 80 db Resolution bandwidth down to 1 khz Variable sweep speed/fast sweep Desirable Options Precision frequency reference (using OCXO) Tracking generator Preamplifier Narrow resolution bandwidths (100, 300 Hz) Burst power measurement

49 Custom Software Interference is Often Intermittent An automated, unattended system is needed We Developed and Use Two Software Packages Interference Monitor for collecting measurements Interference Viewer for analyzing data

50 Interference Viewer Test Frequency MHz Verizon Transmit 940 MHz Pagers 929 MHz Pagers Verizon Receive

51 Topics We Did Not Cover The Rest of the Big Picture Use of Other Test Equipment PIM analyzers Service monitors Cable/antenna analyzers Power meters Specific Test Methods Signal collection using spectrum analyzer Receiver desense using service monitor Transmission line testing using cable/antenna analyzer

52 Q&A Early Land Mobile Radio Source: Bell Labs

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