SRON, we have a problem - CSI in Space. Peter Roelfsema SAFARI Principal Investigator HIFI Project Manager

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1 SRON, we have a problem - CSI in Space Peter Roelfsema SAFARI Principal Investigator HIFI Project Manager

2 .but sometimes things don t go so well August 3 rd at HIFI was found with unknown LO status 14 Change occurred around 20:45 HIFI LCU current had dropped to from 2.5A to 0.36A Instrument temperature was decreasing HK for the LO subsystem contained many invalid values.ohhh boy! Aot2_M_OTFLChop_7b_xxx OBSID = tuned f LO = GHz Drop of temperature Time HL_Mode_S HL_LCU_Status HL_checksum HL_17P5_V HL_S_17P5_V -12 normal normal normal <<INVALID TEXT CONVERSION FOR RAW VALUE 14>> NaN NaN 4 <<INVALID TEXT CONVERSION FOR RAW VALUE 14>> NaN NaN 8 <<INVALID TEXT CONVERSION FOR RAW VALUE 14>> NaN NaN 12 <<INVALID TEXT CONVERSION FOR RAW VALUE 14>> NaN NaN HL_17P5_C HL_S_17P5_C HL_VS_5P_V HL_VS_15P_V HL_VS_15M_V HL_REF_2P5_V HRH_3P3_C HRV_3P3_C NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN S/C heater T22:43:00Z NORMAL / 2.5A MODE 14 / 0.36A SRON, we have a problem, CSI in space - NVR - 6/11/2013 2

3 The major guidelines in such a case Think first, then think again and think again, before you act, (and keep on breathing calmly) B.t.w.; trust the design we made it to withstand space hazards Each unit watches over itself All have been tested extensively HIFI has been in this state now for 20+ hours! a few more can t hurt Something is not working - any action will have consequences Be very careful and do one step at a time Get all experience on-board First agree before you make a change...and then think three more times before you do the change Do not let yourself be hurried...even if the scientists want us back fast! and even (certainly?) if the bosses want us back fast SRON, we have a problem, CSI in space - NVR - 6/11/2013 3

4 The history of things from the top Timeline of events 2 nd August anomaly HIFI team starts research immediately End August ESA senior investigation team starts End September basic scenario uncovered October scenario refinement, design mitigating measures November full implementation and validation Teams involved HIFI research team ~ 20 persons (HIFI consortium) Herman Jacobs, Pieter Dieleman, Willem Jellema, Piotr Orleanski, Christophe Risacher, John Pearson, Heino Smit, Malgosia Malgorzata, Bert-Joost van Leeuwen, Anna di Giorgio, David Teyssier, Albrecht de Jonge, Martin Stokroos, Witek Nowosielski, Thomas Klein, Willem Jellema, Henri Aarts, Michael Olberg, Philip Laubert, Martin Freriks, Luc Dubbeldam ESA senior investigation team ~ 10 persons Philip Perol, Johannes Riedinger, Giorgio Magistrati, Firdinando Tonicelli, Alfio Mantineo, Andreas Rudolph, Filippo Marliani, Jan Rautakoski, Ralf de Marino, Stephan Thurey, Christian Poivey HIFI steering committee review team 4 external specialists Andy Harris, Nick Whyborn, Christian Rouzies, Tien T. Nguyen And review processes all along the path SRON, we have a problem, CSI in space - NVR - 6/11/2013 4

5 The history of things getting back on-line The LCU anomaly happens T22:43:00Z We switch off components to keep the instrument safe LCU Switch-off T15:20:00Z HIFI Switch-off T15:15:00Z An initial evaluation of LCU power consumption A DC/DC converter is broken but maybe not? A HIFI restart is tried T15:30:00Z Still nothing works start detailed analysis Reconstruction of the timing crucial for the understanding Key Features/Symptoms of the Anomaly The sequence of events is understood we can cure it but only for the redundant system so lets be absolutely sure! SRON, we have a problem, CSI in space - NVR - 6/11/2013 5

6 The main components in the play What is still working The controller ICU The backends HRS/WBS The focal plane unit controller FCU..and what not? The LO controller unknown The LO source unit - unknown The LO multiplier chain unknown The mixers unknown but are they broken? Detailed inspection of signals; Voltages, currents, temperatures, status words, etc. etc. SRON, we have a problem, CSI in space - NVR - 6/11/2013 6

7 An example the LO control unit House Keeping Conditions LO hardware completely stable (at bit resolution) prior to the event Changes occurred within one periodic HK interval Long term HK trend analysis (ILT/TBTV/COP) did not reveal suspicious trends TM1_VBUS LCU_L53_I Temperatures HRH_3P3_C HRV_3P3_C SRON, we have a problem, CSI in space - NVR - 6/11/2013 7

8 Inspection of the DC/DC converters in the LCU Lots of inspection of technical drawings, evaluation of what-if s and trials on laboratory spare units DCDCHRS4 broken reproduces the (static) symptoms DCDCHRS4 PDU/LCL 28V LF External Filter, SRON EMC Filter and Slow Start System 28V +/-12V, +/-15V, +5V common Supply for Bias Generators Supply for Gate Generators Supply for PL Generator Supply for Control of Drain Gen. Supply for Control of Main Heater DCDCHRS3 Power rail for Main Heater /INT1 ICU, ICU INTERFACE Stb. CMD during Power-up Undervoltage Sensor Stb./Nom. Switch STB CMD DCDC3 8V5 for digital 17V5 LSU stb 28V LSU relay 28V LCU relay 5V LSU dig. (interface with LCU) OPTO INT to 80C32 LCU Stand-By and Nominal supply OPTO CMD from 80C32 LCU Nominal only supply SUBBAND /INT0 STB DIGIT BOARD ADC RD HK BOARD DCDC1 SLEEP 17V5, +/-7V5 for LSU Supply Scheme of LCU Main SLEEP SLEEP DCDC2 10V5, 9V5 for LSU DCDCHRS1 Power rail for Drain 1 /INT0 PGM. BIAS GENERATORS SLEEP DCDCHRS2 Power rail for Drain 2 /INT0 /INT0 LSU, LSU INTERFACE SRON, we have a problem, CSI in space - NVR - 6/11/2013 8

9 Initial Evaluation LCU Power Consumption After LCU switch-off lab-tests on QM/IMD-3 conducted Identify power consumption at module level only one DC/DC converter (HRS-4) with LCU standby state LCU could explain observed low power consumption Switch-on with (simulated) failure in HRS-4 predicts: Communication would be restored Low current consumption would stay the same Unit would be found in standby Analogue HK LCU would show zero readings With this knowledge a HIFI switch-on attempt was made on OD89 / T15:30:00Z SRON, we have a problem, CSI in space - NVR - 6/11/2013 9

10 A HIFI restart trial no luck but confirmation LCU booted normally Entered standby mode, same primary supply current No analogue HK LCU_L53_I 0.36A Temperatures zero readings 10 MHz supplied SRON, we have a problem, CSI in space - NVR - 6/11/

11 Timing Reconstruction what happened wen? Standard house keeping ¼ Hz monitoring Tests in the lab (QM/IMD-3) with low level monitoring shows useful additional LCU HK is contained in Science Start Frame Packets : B086 HK request of LSU frequency telemetry voltage F30A CC7A Command setting 7A page address B33A HK request reading from specific RAM page address F30A CC7A Command setting 7A page address B33C HK request reading from specific RAM page address F30A CC7A Command setting 7A page address B33E HK request reading from specific RAM page address Time Specification HL_Frequency Main Offset Description Time = obstime 0x62D8 0x023EF2 0x017DE1 Periodic HK Reported latched time 0x62DB 0xEEEEEE 0xEEEEEE HRS H start fram HK Reported latched time 0xEEEE 0xEEEEEE 0xEEEEEE HRS V start frame HK Time = obstime 0xEEEE 0xEEEEEE 0xEEEEEE Periodic HK SRON, we have a problem, CSI in space - NVR - 6/11/

12 Timing Reconstruction zooming in Therefore the LCU fault it stopped talking- occurred between the following two times: (HL_frequency acquisition time) (HL_LSU_f main acquisition time) Confining the time interval of the fault to 6 ms connected to either LCU command 0xF30ACC7A and/or 0xB33A but we don t know the exact time when the system crashed Loss of communication is known within 6 ms w.r.t other actions what can we say about the physical state of the LO subsystem? Inspection of the Science Data = IF power, for more information IF power (indirectly) depends on LO power drop of IF power tells something about LO power SRON, we have a problem, CSI in space - NVR - 6/11/

13 Timing Reconstruction zooming in further 3s integrations (3x1s for HRS, 1x3s for WBS) Consider average integrated power for: A) fully pumped mixer (prior to event) B) integration during which fault occurred C) completely underpumped mixer (after event) SRON, we have a problem, CSI in space - NVR - 6/11/

14 Timing Reconstruction LCU stops talking t = 1.58s Instrument stops WBS integration average IF power per dataframe HRS integrations communication loss effective LO loss periodic HK timestamp WBS HK sample/report time HRS HK sample/report time HRS-H 3.3 V supply current LCL 53 current SRON, we have a problem, CSI in space - NVR - 6/11/

15 Key Features/Symptoms During the sequence of events eventually leading to the LCU failure communication was lost and only 1.6s later the RF power was lost. After the anomaly the LCU was found in a state with low power consumption drawing 0.36A primary supply current After the anomaly the LCU was found in a state where the standby relay had been switched The reconstruction of the anomaly shows that the failure scenario must be consistent with all of these key symptoms so what is broken? SRON, we have a problem, CSI in space - NVR - 6/11/

16 We still need a conspiracy A power spike on the DC/DC converter can break a component Power is from the space craft that is stable Spacecraft power is monitored by LCU for changes with unexpected power drop LCU software activates standby relay to disconnect from the power just to be safe what if LCU disconnects while spacecraft power is stable? switch-ripple with overshoot! How can the LCU software think it needs to disconnect? Bad software Jump to boot because the disconnect is also executed at boot just to be safe And what could the system be doing those first 1.6 seconds? doing a drunkards walk through its program memory! SRON, we have a problem, CSI in space - NVR - 6/11/

17 Anomaly scenario 1. A single event upset corrupted the LCU memory. 2. Bit-flip brought the micro controller in non-communicado condition 3. Micro controller jumps to an erroneous program location executes program code not meant for use in normal operation 4. After 1.6 sec. of random code it comes to program counter 0 5. Start boot sequence standby relay was switched unit went instantly from full operational to standby 5. Power drop generates voltage transient on the internal 28V bus fatal for a secondary rectifier diode in HRS4 DC/DC converter 6. End result: instrument in stand-by no LCU-ICU communication LCU drawing ~0.36A (nominal is 2.8A) significantly decreased power dissipation unit/panel temperature drop Important note; NO other scenario explains all observed behavior SRON, we have a problem, CSI in space - NVR - 6/11/

18 Scenario consequences how can we prevent it Prevent instantaneous switch from nominal to standby disable or eliminate the function switching the standby relay lobotomise the LCU forget how to switch the standby relay add dissipative mode to eliminate switching between tunings (keeping RF power on) Introduce regular checks for LCU integrity check whether LCU program patch to disable relay is applied checksum (~few times per OD) to monitor LCU memory integrity ICU-LCU interaction to detect loss of communication SRON, we have a problem, CSI in space - NVR - 6/11/

19 Next steps Design and implement software changes LCU, ICU and ground operational software Test these all on the ground lab setup Start reviving HIFI step by step redundant side 1. ICU SW upload and sanity test 2. LCU SW upload and sanity test 3. Activate a mixer chain and see if it still sees something 4. Test if anything else in the system was affected e.g. mixers!? 5. Re-commission the system 6. Do science operations verification and start catch up with the other instruments! SRON, we have a problem, CSI in space - NVR - 6/11/

20 CSI in space and after 5 months hard work t = 1.58s Deep investigation by large team; Cause fully understood based on minute amount of telemetry; a cosmic ray hit! Mitigating measures put in place, and instrument could be restarted Required huge amount of background; full instrument description, full trace of parts, how were things made/tested etc WBS integration average IF power per dataframe HRS integrations communication loss effective LO loss periodic HK timestamp WBS HK sample/report time HRS HK sample/report time HRS-H 3.3 V supply current LCL 53 current Cheers!! GO! SRON, we have a problem, CSI in space - NVR - 6/11/

21 Consequences for operations For nominal operations virtually none! AOTs and engineering modes not at all affected AOTs are per subband already LCU integrity checks add of order seconds to standard AORs No change in physical characteristics e.g. temperatures not affected Mission planning constraint to minimize band switches #OD s for contiguous scheduling not important use dissipative modes For non-nominal conditions loss of observations/ods SEU can still upset LCU, leads to disabling LCU but will not lead to standby switch no damage LCU integrity check fails loss of current OD, likely loss of next OD if HIFI is scheduled Note: statistics for LCU integrity issues currently totally unknown 1 SEU/5d? FDIR unchanged SRON, we have a problem, CSI in space - NVR - 6/11/

22 Refinements in the root cause New finding w.r.t Schottky diode properties i.e. failed regulator Devices have threshold with respect to stress below threshold device functions ad infinitum, above threshold device dies Appropriate screening filters out low threshold devices (by breaking them) Screening was apparently not applied for HIFI (CPPA) flight articles Implication for HIFI LCU anomaly With the standby switch indeed the diode with the lowest threshold died Redundant chain diodes had ~100 subband0 switches (IST, TB/TV) without failing will not fail if they do not get stressed higher Consequences if this applies Scenario uncertainties significantly reduced the missing link Limiting number of band0 switches probably becomes less important All mitigating measures still apply, no new mitigating measures implied Some mitigating measures can possibly be relaxed Specifically applies to scheduling 1 band per OD SRON, we have a problem, CSI in space - NVR - 6/11/

23 Root cause cosmic ray Single Event Upset they continue to happen Redundant unit with updated SW is more robust Regular hits seen handled routinely with operational procedures PACS and SPIRE also suffer from cosmic ray hits Click to edit Master text styles Second level Third level Fourth level Fifth level B.t.w. was there anything special in OD 81?... actually no, radiation-wise a boring day...we were just unlucky SRON, we have a problem, CSI in space - NVR - 6/11/

24 We got HIFI working again. ready for three years of great science! SRON, we have a problem, CSI in space - NVR - 6/11/

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