Assessment and Progression in Reading Skills

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1 Lancashire Primary Strategy: Literacy Assessment and Progression in Reading Skills Revised April 2007 Produced by the Lancashire Literacy Team

2 ASSESSMENT AND PROGRESSION IN READING SKILLS Some ideas on how to use this booklet This booklet has suggested guidelines for the guided reading sessions to help teacher monitor children s progress through National Curriculum levels and can help provide summative assessment. It is intended to give guidelines only and can be used to inform future short term planning. It is a useful tool for target setting and plotting the progress of groups of children. It would be recommended that reading and writing is linked and that the skills are not considered in isolation. The booklet contains level descriptors taken from the National Curriculum Levels. Each level has been differentiated to give some guidelines for progress within each level. The purpose of this is to help teachers in their target setting for groups of children. Teachers can use the information to assess the reading level of groups of children and from this develop the next targets on which to base their teaching. The guided sessions can be used as a focus for this teaching, helping to move children through to the next level. The information gained may also be used to inform shared reading and writing sessions.

3 Reading Assessment Focus 1. use a range of strategies, including accurate decoding of text, to read for meaning; 2. understand, describe, select or retrieve information, events or ideas from texts and use quotation and reference to text; 3. deduce, infer or interpret information, events or ideas from texts 4. identify and comment on the structure and organisation of texts, including grammatical and presentational features at text level 5. explain and comment on the writer s use of language, including grammatical and literacy features at word and sentence level 6. identify and comment on writer s purposes and viewpoints and the overall effect of the text on the reader 7. relate texts to their social, cultural and historical contexts and literacy traditions

4 Reading Prompts In the initial stages of reading children need to develop fluent and confident reading. Children will discuss the story / text at this level but the teacher s role will be to ensure the children can decode at speed, using a variety of strategies. At this stage the children will be expected to talk about the text and show they understand what they read. When fluent and confident reading is established the teacher will begin to focus more on developing the comprehension and higher order reading skills. Initially some children find it difficult to express their opinions about text and may need some prompts to support their responses. These prompts have been developed to encourage children in their responses and help them to develop their language skills. The prompts can be used in a variety of ways. In the guided session the teacher may use the prompts to aid children in their responses. They may be available on the table and children can choose one to help them respond to the text they have read. Sometimes the children may use them as they read independently in the guided session and, as they read, the prompts aid their response as they read. They may also be used in independent sessions to aid discussion between children or independent responses to texts. They may also form the basis to reading journal work. There are prompts for each year group. They are linked to the objectives for each term. Children working below the expected level for their age may benefit from using those from a lower year group but the prompts often help children to respond at a level above their working level as they can scaffold their responses well.

5 Prompts for Decoding Reading I can blend the sounds in order through the word

6 Prompts for Decoding Reading I can look at the picture Read to the end what fits? said I can use letter sounds Any words I know? my like

7 Prompts for Decoding Reading ing Think about the story Can I see any patterns? ight -ed Leave a gap and read on When I am reading I can

8 The progression of successful text reading through Key Stage 1 Band National Curriculum Level Working towards Level 1 Working towards Level 1 Working within Level 1 Working within Level 1 Working within Level 1 Working towards Level 2 Working towards Level 2 Working within Level 2 Working within Level 2 Working towards Level 3 Working within Level 3 Colour Year R/P1 Year 1/P2 Year 2/P3 Year 3 P4 PINK RED YELLOW BLUE GREEN ORANGE TURQUOISE PURPLE GOLD WHITE LIME Majority of pupils secure at this level Normal range of achievement A wider range of achievement in text reading may well occur within a class. The challenge for schools is to make special provision for children falling above and below the ranges indicated, if necessary, on an individual basis.

9 Book Band Colours Learning Opportunities BAND 1 PINK Working towards L1 BAND 2 RED Working towards L1 BAND 3 YELLOW Working within L1 BAND 4 BLUE Level 1 BAND 5 GREEN Level 1 Locate title Open front cover Turn the pages Understand left page before right Understand that print is read from left to right Match spoken word to written word Locate familiar words and use them to check own reading Use meaning of text together with language patterns (syntax) Predict storyline and some vocabulary, aided by the illustrations Locate title Locate and recall title Consolidate secure control of 1:1 matching Use known words to check and control reading Start to read more rhythmically or use phrasing while maintaining track of print Repeat words, phrases or sentences to check, confirm or modify own reading Predict from meaning, syntax and print to solve new words Follow print with eyes, pointing only at points of difficulty Take more note of punctuation To support the use of grammar and oral language rhythms Cross check all sources of information more quickly while reading Note familiar words and letter clusters and use to get to unknown words, e.g. look, took Search for information in print to predict, confirm or attempt new words while reading Notice relationships between one text and another Predict in more detail Move through text attending to meaning, print and sentence structure flexibly Self-correct more rapidly on the run Re-read to enhance phrasing and clarify precise meaning Solve new words using print information along with attention to meaning Use analogy with known vocabulary to solve new words Manage a greater variety of text types Discuss content of the text in a manner which indicates precise understanding Read fluently with attention to punctuation Solve new words using print detail while attending to meaning and syntax Track visually additional lines of print without difficulty Manage effectively a growing variety of texts Discuss and interpret character and plot more fully BAND 6 ORANGE Working towards L2 BAND 7 TURQUOISE Working towards L2 BAND 8 PURPLE Working within L2c BAND 9 GOLD Working within L2b BAND 10 WHITE Working at L2a or towards L3 BAND 11 LIME Level 3 Get started on fiction after briefer introductions and without relying so heavily on illustrations Read longer phrases and more complex sentences Attend to a greater range of punctuation and text layout Cross-check information from meaning, syntax and print on the run Search for and use familiar syllables within words to read longer words Infer meaning from text Check information in text with illustrations and comment on content Begin to use appropriate terminology when discussing different types of text Extract meaning from the text while reading with less dependence on illustrations Approach different genres with increasing flexibility Use punctuation and text layout to read with a greater range of expression and control Sustain reading through longer sentence structures and paragraphs Tackle a higher ratio of more complex words Look through a variety of texts with growing independence to predict content, layout and story development Read silently or quietly at a more rapid pace, taking note of punctuation and using it to keep track of longer sentences Solve unfamiliar words on the run Adapt to fiction, non-fiction or poetic language with growing flexibility Take more conscious account of literary effects used by writers Begin to make more conscious use of reading to extend speaking and writing vocabulary and syntax Look through a variety of texts with growing independence to predict content, layout and story development Read silently most of the time Sustain interest in longer text, returning to it easily after a break Use text more fully as a reference and as a model Search for, and find information in texts more flexibly Notice the spelling of unfamiliar words and relate to known words Show increased awareness of vocabulary and precise meaning Express reasoned opinions about what is read and compare texts Offer and discuss interpretations of text Use experience of reading a variety of material to recognise text-type and predict layout and general content Read silently most of the time, adjusting speed of reading to suit material and monitoring the precise meaning Rerun to make different interpretations of dialogue, more complex sentences, unfamiliar language, etc Sustain interest in longer texts, returning easily to them after a break Make use of blurbs, chapter headings, glossaries, indexes and procedural texts to search for and locate information quickly and accurately Take note and devise ways to remember the meaning and spelling of unfamiliar words Express reasoned opinions about what is read, and compare texts Investigate and identify the styles and voice of a range of texts types including plays, poetry, narrative, procedural and explanatory texts

10 Year: Group: Stepping Stone: Yellow Enjoy rhyming and rhythmic activities Distinguish one sound from another Listen to and join in with stories and poems, oneto-one and also in small groups Show interest in illustrations and print in book and print in the environment Begin to be aware of the way stories are structured.

11 Year: Group: Stepping Stone: Blue Show awareness of rhyme and alliteration Recognise rhythm in spoken words Have favourite books Handle books carefully Suggest how the story might end Know information can be relayed in the form of print Hold books the correct way up and turn pages Understand the concept of a word

12 Year: Group: Stepping Stone: Green Continue a rhyming string Hear and say initial sounds in words and know which letters represent some of the sounds Enjoy an increasing range of books Begin to recognise some familiar words Know that information can be retrieved from books and computers

13 Year: Group: Early Learning Goals Hear and say sounds in words in the order in which they occur Link sounds to letters, naming and sounding the letters of the alphabet Explore and experiment with sounds, words and texts Retell narratives in the correct sequence. Drawing on language patterns of stories Read a range of familiar and common words and simple sentences independently Know that print carries meaning and, in English, is read from left to right and top to bottom Show an understanding of the elements of stories, such as main character, sequence of events, and openings, and how information can be found in non-fiction texts to answer questions about where, who, why and how

14 Year: Group: Reading Level: WTL1: See Book Band 1: Pink Differentiate between text and illustration. AF1 Understands that print conveys meaning. Holds a book correctly. Recognise the front and back cover. Has established left to right movement, top to bottom. AF2 Understands that books/texts are created by writers Recite rhymes and sing songs. Enjoys sharing books with an adult. Talk about stories.

15 Year: Group: Reading Level: WTL1: See Book Band 2: Red Tell a story from the pictures. Describe pictures. AF1 Is beginning to understand what a letter and a word are. Name some letters. Recognise some capitals and lower case letters. Recognise own first name. Turns the pages from front to back. Sequence a simple story or event. AF2 Use gesture and action to act out a story, event or rhyme. Make predictions based on illustrations, story content and title. Chooses to look at books.

16 Year: Group: Reading Level: 1c See Book Band 3: Yellow AF6 AF4 AF3 AF2 AF1 Distinguish between a word, a letter and a space Use picture clues to help in reading simple text Make 1 to 1 correspondence between written and spoken words Blend phonemes to read CVC words Use phonic knowledge to attempt unknown words Read, on sight, high frequency words from NLS appendix list 1 Listen attentively to a story at the appropriate interest level Say how they feel about stories and poems Recall the main points of a recount in the correct sequence Use the structure of a simple story when reenacting and retelling Talk about the themes of simple texts, e.g. good over evil Use knowledge of simple sentences structures and repeated patterns to make predictions and check reading Use the patterns and structures of text when retelling and reciting Understand, and use correctly, terms referring to conventions of print: book, cover, beginning, end, page, word, letter, line. Return to favourite books, songs, rhyme to be re-read and enjoyed.

17 Year: Group: Reading Level: 1b See Book Band 4: Blue and 5: Green Read on sight words from NLS appendix list 1 Recognise familiar words in simple texts AF1 Blend phonemes to read CCVC and CVCC words Continue to use phonic knowledge to attempt unknown words Expect written text to make sense AF2 AF3 AF4 Identify main events or key points in texts Answer literal retrieval questions about the text Make simple deductions with prompts and help from the teacher Begin to make predictions about the characters. Begin to talk about the differences between fiction and non-fiction Identify print effects, e.g. bold, italic, capitalisation, etc. AF 6 Choose and talk about a favourite book from a selection

18 Year: Group: Reading Level: 1a Refer to Book Band 6: Orange and 7: Turquoise Read on sight words from NLS appendix list 1 AF1 AF2 Blend and segment sounds in consonant clusters and use this knowledge in reading Show awareness of the grammar of a sentence to help decipher new or unfamiliar words Talk about the main events in a text Pick out relevant information AF3 Express opinions about main event and characters in stories. E.g. good and bad characters Understand the difference between fiction and non-fiction AF4 Understand the way that information texts are organised and use this when reading simple texts Understand the sequence of a story AF 6 Continue to choose and talk about a favourite book from a selection

19 Year: Group: Reading Level: 2c See Book Bands 8: Purple Use a range of decoding strategies AF1 AF2 Blend and segment sounds in consonant clusters and long vowel phonemes and use this knowledge in reading Read on sight words from NLS appendix list 1 Use the grammar of a sentence to decipher new or unfamiliar words Identify and discuss the main events or key points in a text Locate specific information in the text to find answers to simple questions Use an understanding of the story to make predictions AF3 AF4 Relate story settings and incidents to own experience Compare stories and identify common themes Identify and discuss the way information texts are organised and use this in reading simple texts Discuss the structure of a narrative AF6 Continue to choose and talk about a favourite book from a selection

20 Year: Group: Reading Level: 2b See Book Band 9: Gold AF4 AF3 AF2 AF1 Read aloud with intonation and expression, taking account of the punctuation, e.g. speech marks and exclamation marks Read on sight a range of high frequency words from NLS appendix 2 Identify syllables in order to read polysyllabic words Blend and segment long vowel phonemes Make predictions using experience of reading books written by the same author or based on similar themes Generate questions before reading and use bibliographic knowledge to help retrieve specific information Use an understanding of the structure of nonchronological reports and explanations to make predictions Go beyond own experience or general impression and refer to text to explain meaning Make simple inferences about thoughts and feelings and reasons for actions Evaluate the usefulness of the information in a particular text for answering questions Understand how to use alphabetically ordered texts to retrieve information Discuss and comment on the structure of a narrative AF5 AF6 Identify how vocabulary choice affects meaning Make choices about which texts to read based on prior reading experience and bibliographic knowledge

21 Year: Group: Reading Level: 2a See Book Band 10: White AF1 AF2 Recognise a range of prefixes and suffixes to construct the meanings of words in context Read fluently with intonation, expression and regard for punctuation. Retell a story clearly and with appropriate detail. Extract information from the text and discuss orally with reference to the text. Identify key themes and discuss reasons for events in stories. AF3 AF4 Be aware of underlying themes and ideas within a text. Begin to understand the effects of different words and phrases, e.g. to create humour, images and atmosphere Make comparisons between books, noting similarities and difference, e.g. layout theme, characters and setting Gain an overall impression of a text by making predictions about content/subject of a book by skim reading, title, contents, illustrations. AF5 AF6 Identify and comment on vocabulary and literary features Continue to make choices about which texts to read based on prior reading experience and bibliographic knowledge

22 Year: Group: Reading Level: 3c See Book Band 11: Lime AF4 AF3 AF2 AF1 Read independently, using known strategies appropriately to establish meaning. Recognise the functions of punctuation including apostrophe for omission and use appropriate intonation and expression. Recognise the full range of consonant diagraphs e.g. kn,wr,ph Show understanding of main points with reference to the text. Recognise the main differences between fiction and non-fiction texts. Extract information from the text and make notes using quotation and reference to the text. Explore underlying themes and ideas make clear reference to the text. Make plausible predictions based on knowledge of the text Discuss the actions of the main characters and justify views using evidence from the text. Summarise the main points from a passage or a text. Identify the features of different text-types. Understand the purpose of the paragraph. AF5 Identify where language is used to create mood or build tension.

23 Year: Group: Reading Level: 3b AF1 AF2 AF3 Read independently using a range of strategies Understand how simple and complex sentences influence meaning. Identify and discuss issues locating evidence in the text. Recognise the main differences between fiction and non-fiction texts. Identify the language used to create moods and build tension. Infer reasons for actions and events based on evidence from the text. Continue to make plausible predictions based on knowledge of the text Make use of non-fiction features to find information from the text. AF4 Identify the features of different text-types. Understand how paragraphs are used to order and build up ideas. AF5 AF6 Comment on the choice of language to create moods and build tension. Evaluate specific texts with reference to texttypes.

24 Year: Group: Reading Level: 3a AF1 AF2 Read a range of appropriate texts fluently and accurately Re-read and read ahead to look for clues to determine meaning. Use features to locate information. e.g. contents; indices; subheadings etc. Justify predictions by referring to the text. Locate information using skimming, scanning and text marking. Distinguish between fact and opinion. AF3 AF4 Infer meaning using evidence from the text. Use clues from action, dialogue and description to establish meaning. Make reasoned judgements on characters actions. Identify features of different fiction genres. Identify structures and grammatical features of non-fiction. AF5 Comment upon the use of author s language AF6 Comments identify the author s main purpose.

25 Year: Group: Reading Level: 4c Select and read a range of appropriate texts fluently and accurately Use contextual knowledge to determine meaning. AF5 AF4 AF3 AF2 AF1 Skim and scan to identify key ideas. Use knowledge of text structure to locate information. Understand how the meaning of sentences is shaped by punctuation, word order or connectives. Justify opinions and elaborate by referring to the text. Show understanding of significant ideas, themes, events and characters. Empathise with different characters points of view. Infer meaning using evidence from the text and wider experiences. Use clues from action, dialogue and description to interpret meaning. Identify features of different fiction genres. Compare, contrast and evaluate different nonfiction texts. Comment upon the use and effect of author s language Find and comment on examples of how authors express different moods, feelings and attitudes. AF6 Expresses personal response with little awareness of the writers viewpoint or the effect on the reader

26 Year: Group: Reading Level: 4b AF1 AF2 AF3 Use knowledge of word derivations and word formation to construct the meaning of words in context. Refer to the text to support predictions and opinions. Skim, scan and text-mark to research quickly and efficiently. Identify implicit and explicit points of view. Discuss messages, moods, feelings and attitudes using inference and deduction. Identify key points when reading an appropriate text. Recognise texts that contain features from more than one genre. e.g. persuasive playscript. AF4 Identify genre-specific phrases. Understand how paragraphs are linked. Use structural and organisational features of a range of text-types to support understanding. Identify and describe the styles of individual writers and poets. AF5 AF6 Identify and comment on expressive, figurative and descriptive language to create effect in poetry and prose Use language features of a range of non-fiction text-types to support understanding. Recognise ways in which writers present issues and points of view in fiction and non-fiction. Comments show some awareness of the writer s viewpoint.

27 Year: Group: Reading Level: 4a AF1 AF2 Read fluently, using punctuation to establish meaning and inform intonation. Secure use of skimming, scanning and text-marking so that research is fast and effective. Refer to the text to support predictions and opinions (Point + Evidence) AF6 AF5 AF4 AF3 Explain and comment on implicit and explicit points of view Describe, with examples, how the author has chosen a range of vocabulary to convey different messages, moods, feelings and attitudes. Use structural and organisational features of a range of text-types to sustain understanding over extended texts. Identify the style of individual writers and poets and provide examples from a range of texts. Use the language features of a range of non-fiction text-types to sustain understanding over extended texts. Comments show an awareness of the writer s viewpoint and respond to this by e.g. re-telling from a different point of view.

28 Year: Group: Reading Level: 5c AF1 AF2 AF3 Use connectives as signposts to indicate a change of tone. Use the skills of skimming, scanning and text-marking to identify the gist. Refer to the text to support predictions and opinions (Point + Evidence + Explanation) Compare and contrast implicit and explicit points of view. Analyse how the author has chosen a range of vocabulary to convey different messages, moods, feelings and attitudes. AF4 AF5 AF6 AF7 Explain the structural devices the author has used to organise the text. Comment on the genre-specific language features the author has used to convey information in a non-fiction text. Compare and contrast the styles of individual writers and poets providing examples. Analyse how the author has chosen a range of vocabulary to convey different messages, moods, feelings and attitudes. The writer s main purpose is clearly identified through a general overview. Comments on the overall impact of poetry and prose with reference to features, e.g. development of themes. Identify the key features of a range of texts. Identify different character types across a range of texts. Identify themes across a range of texts. (Social, cultural and historical)

29 Year: Group: Reading Level: 5b AF2 AF3 Use the skills of skimming, scanning and text-marking to identify key ideas. Explore the text to support and justify predictions and opinions (Point + Evidence + Explanation + Evaluation) Identify the techniques the author has used to create moods, feelings, messages and attitudes AF7 AF6 AF5 AF4 Comment on the structural choices the author has made when organising the text. Comment and compare the language choices the author has made to convey information over a range of non-fiction texts. Compare, contrast and explore the styles of writers and poets, providing evidence and explanations. The viewpoint in the text clearly identified with some, often limited explanation. Declare and justify personal preferences for writers and types of text. Explain the key features, themes and characters across a range of texts. Explain character profiles over a range of texts. Explain themes over a range of texts. (Social, cultural and historical)

30 Year: Group: Reading Level: 5a AF5 AF4 AF3 AF2 Retrieve and collate key ideas from a range of sources. Identify and evaluate the techniques the author has used to create moods, feelings, messages and attitudes. Explore how the structural choices support the writer s theme and purpose. Explore how the language choices support the writer s theme and purpose in nonfiction texts. Describe and evaluate the styles of individual writers and poets, providing evidence and justifying interpretations. Identify and discuss irony and its effect. AF6 AF7 Have a general awareness of the effect of text with some explanation. Articulate personal responses to literature, identifying how and why the texts affects the reader. Compare and contrast the key features of a range of appropriate texts. Compare and contrast characters across a range of appropriate texts. Compare and contrast themes across a range of appropriate texts. (Social, cultural and historical)

31 Year: Group: Reading Level: P5 Begin to recognise familiar objects/signs/ symbols. Searchlights Identifies meaning from objects/symbols. Derives some meaning from text/symbols/ signs represented in a familiar way. Uses pictorial cues when sharing a book or reading, e.g. points to a picture and uses this to re-tell part of the story. Response Responds to questions about familiar text showing curiosity about the content at a simpler level.

32 Year: Group: Reading Level: P6 Can select and recognise own name. Searchlights Can select and recognise key words and objects in school home context. Anticipates words, signs or symbols in a familiar story. Recognises when a significant word, sign or symbol is omitted from a familiar story. Response Aware of the sequence of a familiar story.

33 Year: Group: Reading Level: P7 Understanding of print Begins to choose and share books. Begins to understand the convention of print. Searchlights Can distinguish between print and pictures in text. Is able to predict words, symbols or signs and/or phrases in a familiar text. Can recognise some words by shape or sound.

34 Year: Group: Reading Level: P8 Understanding of print Looks at book and turns pages recognising direction of print. Is focused on expressing the meaning of a story rather than reading the words accurately. Searchlights Demonstrates some knowledge of letter sound relationship, i.e. the sound represented by the initial and most salient letters in words. Can recognise some familiar words/symbols/ signs. Recognises letters of the alphabet by shape and sound and can name them.

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