13 th Edition. Audio. Product Guide.

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1 13 th Edition Audio Product Guide

2 Audio Product Guide Table of Contents Speaker Amplifiers 3 Digital Input Class D Amplifiers 4 Tiny Speaker Amplifier Solution 5 Boosted Class D and Class DG Amplifiers 6 High-Power Speaker Amplifiers Headphone Amplifiers 8 2V RMS DirectDrive Amplifier 9 Class H Headphone Amplifiers Codecs 10 Codec Design Tools 11 Audio Codec with FlexSound Processor 12 Selection Guide 17 Class A Class H Amplifier Tutorial 2

3 Audio Product Guide Plug-and-Play Digital Input Class D Amplifiers The MAX98355A/MAX98355B and the MAX98356 are easy-to-use digital speaker amplifiers that improve audio quality, simplify design, and hasten time to market. They offer very high wideband jitter tolerance, low THD+N, and low output offset voltage to deliver superior performance and audio quality. These devices are easy to use because unique internal circuitry allows the parts to self-configure for sample rate and bit depth. This functionality eliminates the need for programming. The MAX98355A/MAX98355B and the MAX98356 do not require an MCLK signal, simplifying routing and allowing for a small 9-bump package. They also do not require a separate digital supply rail, thereby eliminating the need for an additional capacitor. MAX98355A/MAX98355B Single-supply operation (2.5V to 5.5V) 3.2W output power into 4Ω at 5V 2.2mA quiescent current 92% efficiency (R L = 8Ω, P OUT = 900mW, V DD = 3.7V) 25µV RMS output noise (A V = 15dB) Low 0.013% THD+N at 1kHz No MCLK required Supports left, right, or (left + right)/2 outputs PCM INPUT SHUTDOWN AND CHANNEL SELECT DIGITAL AUDIO INTERFACE MAX98355A MAX98355B DAC GAIN CONTROL OUTPUT STAGE MAX98356 Single-supply operation (2.5V to 5.5V) 3.2W output power into 4Ω at 5V 1.7mA quiescent current 92% efficiency (R L = 8Ω, P OUT = 900mW, V DD = 3.7V) 29µV RMS output noise (A V = 6dB) Low 0.013% THD+N at 1kHz Supports PDM_CLK rates of 1.8MHz to 4.32MHz and 5.28MHz to 8.6MHz Supports left, right, or (left + right)/2 outputs PDM INPUT SHUTDOWN AND CHANNEL SELECT DIGITAL AUDIO INTERFACE MAX98356 DAC GAIN CONTROL OUTPUT STAGE 3

4 Audio Product Guide Tiny Speaker Amplifiers for Space-Constrained Applications Small Size to Fit Your Application Maxim continues to lead the industry in innovative packaging technology that enables the smallest audio solutions. The Maxim family includes the industry's smallest Class AB and D amplifiers on the market in tiny 0.3mm pitch, 1mm x 1mm, 9-bump WLP packages. 3DMI Process Technology 3DMI process technology enables us to stack passive components directly onto the active substrate without increasing package height and area. This technology is used to integrate highly linear, input capacitors into the MAX98314, further reducing solution size, to save at least 25% more board space and provide excellent THD+N, PSRR, and CMRR performance at low frequencies. 3DMI technology opens doors to countless possibilities for future solutions. MAX mA at 3.7V low quiescent current 3.2W into 4Ω, V PVDD = 5V 19µV ultra-low noise Spread spectrum and active emissions limiting Part Amplifier Class Power at 10% THD+N (W), R L = 4Ω Integrated Input Capacitors Package (mm x mm) MAX98304 Class D x 1 MAX98309 Class AB x 1 MAX98310 Class AB x 1 MAX98314 Class D x 1 C IN C IN MAX98314 MODULATOR AND H-BRIDGE 9-BUMP 1 m m x 1 m m GAIN CONTROL 4

5 Audio Product Guide Louder, Clearer Audio with Extended Battery Life The MAX98500/MAX98502 boosted Class D amplifiers and the MAX98307/MAX98308 Class DG amplifiers are designed for battery-operated portable devices. MAX98500/MAX98502 Integrated boost converter to provide a constant output power for louder audio output over a wide range of battery supply voltages. The automatic level control (ALC) has a battery tracking function that reduces output swing as the supply voltage drops, preventing collapse of the battery voltage. BATTERY V BAT LX SDBST D4 B4 A3 BOOST CONVERTER A2 V CCOUT SDSPK GAIN C3 B2 CONTROL MAX98500 A1 PVDD RKNEE B3 INP INN D2 D3 DIFFERENTIAL INPUT GAIN OUTPUT STAGE B1 C1 SPKP SPKN C4 A4 D1, C2 AGND BSTPGND SPKPGND MAX98307/MAX98308 Class DG multilevel architecture offers highly efficient, high-power audio portable solutions. Class DG multilevel architecture combines Class D switching output efficiency and Class G supply level shifting to more efficiently supply the required signal power. This allows for optimal efficiency over a wide output range. See the Class A Class H Amplifier Tutorial. A Class DG amplifier improves upon Class AB by using a different power supply voltage depending on the signal level. Two or more voltages can be used, but all the voltages are available all the time. This is done by generating additional voltages from the single input voltage. Multiple Power Supply Voltages 5

6 Audio Product Guide No EMI Problems with Maxim's Class D Amplifiers Filterless Class D Amplifiers Provide the Output Power You Need With No EMI Hassles Maxim s Class D amplifiers use patented spread-spectrum modulation techniques in conjunction with sophisticated edge-rate control technology to minimize EMI emissions. With no need for LC filters to clean up RF interference, your design will be compact, deliver solid performance, and cost less. CLIPPING LIMITER PGA MODULATOR AND H-BRIDGE INL- INL+ OUTL- OUTL+ Differential Input, Power Limiting, Thermal Foldback, Excellent EMI Performance, and Clipping Limiter CLIPPING LIMITER MAX98400A MAX98400B PGA MODULATOR AND H-BRIDGE INR- INR+ MONO OUTR- OUTR+ MAX98400A/MAX98400B Wide 8V to 28V single-supply voltage range 2x20W into 8Ω or 1x40W into 4Ω (MAX98400A) or 2x12W into 8Ω (MAX98400B) Optional 5V supply for efficiency optimization Integrated edge rate control for low EMI for filterless operation Clipping and power limiting Two-pin, eight gain selector (9.1dB to 32.9dB) Thermal foldback avoids thermal shutdown AUDIO INPUT BIAS VOLUME CONTROL 20W Stereo/10W Mono Amplifier with I 2 C Volume Control AUDIO INPUT SYNC MUTE SHUTDOWN ANALOG OR I 2 C VOLUME CONTROL OSCILLATOR MAX9744 SYNCOUT MAX9744/MAX V to 14V supply voltage range Filterless, low-emi modulation scheme I 2 C or analog volume control High efficiency eliminates bulky heatsinks High PSRR, low THD+N 6

7 Audio Product Guide Maxim s Class D Amplifier Family Extend Battery Life While Reducing EMI, Clipping, Noise, and Clicks and Pops Industry s Lowest Supply Current The MAX98300 and the MAX98302 represent a substantial advancement in Class D amplifier power consumption by achieving supply current as low as 600µA. Critical to maximizing battery life in today s portable products, this low supply current has been achieved without sacrificing EMI suppression, clipping behavior, noise performance, and click-and-pop level. In fact, these have all been improved. SUPPLY CURRENT (ma) Supply Current vs. Supply Voltage COMPETITION MAX98300 Overdrive is No Problem These Amplifiers Clip Cleanly SUPPLY VOLTAGE (V) In small consumer devices, both speakers and amplifiers are driven hard to yield the highest sound pressure level (SPL) possible. As a result, the amplifier may be heavily clipped. Many amplifier designs, particularly Class D designs, contribute additional high-frequency distortion artifacts that are far more objectionable than a cleanly clipped signal. The MAX98300 and the MAX98302 have been carefully designed to ensure clean recovery from clipping events. MAX98300 Heavy Clipping Recovery Low V OS for Low Click-and-Pop Noise Click-and-pop performance becomes important as we aggressively manage the power of amplifiers with frequent turn-on and turn-off cycles. If a pop or click is heard each time, it is annoying for the user. The MAX98300 has a very low offset voltage, and carefully addresses other sources of click-and-pop noise to ensure the best performance MAX98300 Filtered Output Voltage vs. SHDN V OUT 1mV (typ) SHDN 50.0 MAX98300 EMI Spectrum (~24in Cable) 40.0 AMPLITUDE (dbμv/m) EN55022B LIMIT MAX FREQUENCY (MHz) 7

8 Audio Product Guide 2V RMS DirectDrive Headphone Amplifier The MAX97220A-MAX97220E deliver excellent audio quality and performance. Differential input reduces common input and ground noise Output power 125mW into 32Ω with a 5V supply 3V RMS output drive into 1kΩ with a 5V supply 2V RMS output drive into 600Ω with a 3.3V supply Fixed or externally adjustable gain with no clicks or pops Wide 2.5V to 5.5V operating range DirectDrive outputs eliminate DC-blocking capacitors High 112dB SNR and 90dB THD+N across audio bandwidth Ground sense reduces noise, distortion, and crosstalk R F LEFT AUDIO INPUT R IN R IN INL- INL+ OUTL LEFT AUDIO INPUT INL- INL+ R IN R IN R F OUTL R F MAX97220A MAX97220B MAX97220E R F MAX97220C MAX97220D RIGHT AUDIO INPUT R IN R IN R F INR+ INR- OUTR RIGHT AUDIO INPUT INR+ INR- R IN R IN R F SGND OUTR SGND R F R F 8

9 Audio Product Guide Ultra-Low Power Headphone Amplifiers Low-Power Class H Headphone Amplifiers Offer Higher Efficiency Class H amplifiers provide nearly 2x higher efficiency than the closest competitive Class G headphone amplifiers. Class H amps modulate the supply voltage to minimize voltage drop across the output devices by using either multiple supply voltages or an infinitely adjustable power supply. Enjoy Longer Battery Life Using Second-Generation, Dual-Mode, DirectDrive Technology Based on Maxim s proprietary DirectDrive technology, our dual-mode DirectDrive II Class H amplifiers save power by switching between two supply voltages. The dual-mode charge pump uses ±0.9V rails when the output signal is small, only switching to ±1.8V supply voltage when more output power is needed. This technology renders a continuous signal without the glitches seen in Class G amplifiers. OUTPUT VOLTAGE +1.8V +0.9V V TH_H HPVDD 32ms TIME V TH_L -0.9V -1.8V HPVSS 32ms LEFT AUDIO INPUT MAX97200 No clicks or pops LEFT AUDIO OUTPUT AUDIO SOURCE SHDN RIGHT AUDIO INPUT 0.05% THD+N performance CHARGE PUMP RIGHT AUDIO OUTPUT Dynamic, Class H dual-mode charge pump 9

10 Audio Product Guide Customized Audio Made Easy MAX98089, MAX98090*, and MAX98091* Codec Design Tool Maxim s evaluation kit and intuitive user interface allow you to tune flexible, feature-rich codecs to the desired performance quickly and easily. Optimize parametric EQ, automatic level control, speaker excursion limiter, speaker distortion THD limiter, microphone AGC, and microphone noise gate. 1) Download the codec GUI software. 2) Plug evaluation kit into your laptop. 3) Connect your headphones and speakers to the evaluation kit. 4) Graphically route and tune audio as you listen; register is set automatically. Software drivers are available for Linux and other OS platforms. *Future product contact factory for availability. 10

11 Audio Product Guide Audio Codecs with Integrated Digital Signal Processing The MAX98089 and the MAX98090* full-featured audio codecs improve audio performance and prevent speaker damage. The parts feature Maxim s proprietary FlexSound audio technology that optimizes the signal level and frequency response while limiting the maximum distortion and power at the output. This technology improves loudspeaker performance and prevents speaker damage. BATTERY 1.8V 1.2V I2S/TDM I2C OR DIGITAL MICROPHONE OR ANALOG LINE INPUT MICROPHONE OR ANALOG LINE INPUT MICROPHONE OR ANALOG LINE INPUT MICROPHONE STEREO DIGITAL MICOPHONE MICROPHONE 1 PREAMP/PGA (DIFFERENTIAL) MICROPHONE 2 PREAMP/PGA (DIFFERENTIAL) LINE INPUT A PGA (DIFFERENTIAL OR SINGLE-ENDED) LINE INPUT B PGA (DIFFERENTIAL OR SINGLE-ENDED) POWER MANAGEMENT STEREO ADC DIGITAL AUDIO INTERFACE FlexSound DSP DIGITAL BIQUAD FILTER (RECORD) 7-BAND PARAMETRIC EQUALIZER (PLAYBACK) DYNAMIC RANGE CONTROL (PLAYBACK) DIGITAL FILTERING DIGITAL GAIN/LEVEL CONTROL CONTROL REGISTERS STEREO DAC STEREO LINE OUTPUT CLASS AB AMPLIFIER (SINGLE-ENDED) OR SPEAKER LEFT AMPLIFIER (DIFFERENTIAL) SPEAKER LEFT AMPLIFIER (DIFFERENTIAL) SPEAKER RIGHT AMPLIFIER (DIFFERENTIAL) STEREO HEADPHONE CLASS H AMPLIFIER (SINGLE-ENDED) LINE OUTPUT OR RECEIVER/ EARPIECE SPEAKER LEFT/RIGHT OR 3-POLE (TRS) 4-POLE (TRRS) JACK DETECTION MAX98090* CHARGE PUMP HEADPHONES OR HEADSET Feature MAX98089 MAX98090*/ MAX98091* Parametric EQ 5 band 7 band Distortion limiter Yes Yes Excursion limiter Yes Yes Integrated speaker amplifiers Yes Yes Integrated headphone amplifiers Yes Yes Analog microphone inputs 2 3/3 Digital microphone inputs 2 2/4 Line inputs/line outputs 4 6 Jack detection Yes Yes Digital audio interfaces 2 1 Automatic level control Yes Yes Power limiter Yes Yes Microphone AGC Yes No Microphone noise gate Yes No *Future product contact factory for availability. 11

12 Audio Product Guide Class AB Speaker Amplifiers Part Supply Voltage (V) Output Power at 1% THD+N (W) Features 8Ω 4Ω Gain Other Package (mm x mm) MAX to x x 2.6 Adj Mute 20-TQFN (5 x 5) MAX to Adj Mute 12-TQFN (4 x 4) MAX9716 MAX9717 MAX9718 MAX to to 5.5 Adj Fixed Adj 2 x x 1.4 Fixed Headphone sense Differential inputs MAX to Adj Charge-pump-boosted amp for dynamic speakers 8-TDFN (3 x 3), 9-UCSP (1.5 x 1.5) 10-TDFN (3 x 3), 9-UCSP (1.5 x 1.5) 28-TQFN (4 x 4), 20-WLP (2 x 2.5) MAX to V P-P Adj DC-DC-boosted amp for ceramic speakers 20-WLP (2 x 2.5) MAX to V P-P Adj Charge-pump-boosted amp for ceramic speakers MAX98309 MAX to Adj Fixed 28-TQFN (4 x 4), 20-WLP (2 x 2.5) Differential inputs 9-WLP (1 x 1) High-Power, Class D Speaker Amplifiers Part Supply Voltage (V) Output Power at 10% THD+N (W) Features 8Ω 4Ω Gain Other Package (mm x mm) MAX to 18 2 x Pin programmable Programmable thermal flag 56-TQFN (8 x 8) MAX to 22 2 x Pin programmable Programmable thermal flag 56-TQFN (8 x 8) MAX9736A 8 to 28 2 x Set by external resistors Mute function 32-TQFN (7 x 7) MAX9736B 8 to 28 2 x 6 12 Set by external resistors Mute function 32-TQFN (7 x 7) MAX to Set by external resistors Mute function 24-TQFN (4 x 4) MAX to 40 2 x 20 2 x 16 Set by external resistors Single-ended output 36-TQFN (6 x 6) MAX to 14 2 x 13 2 x 20 Set by external resistors I 2 C/analog volume control 44-TQFN (7 x 7) MAX to Set by external resistors I 2 C/analog volume control 24-TQFN (4 x 4) MAX98400A* 8 to 28 2 x Pin programmable Clipping limiter 36-TQFN (6 x 6) MAX98400B* 8 to 28 2 x 12 Pin programmable Clipping limiter 24-TQFN (4 x 4) *JEITA (Japan Electronics and Information Technology Industries Association) standard, A Guide to the Safe Use of Secondary Lithium Ion Batteries in Notebook-type Personal Computers, April 20,

13 Audio Product Guide Low-Power, Class D Speaker Amplifiers (Filterless) Part Supply Voltage (V) Output Power at 1% THD+N (W) 8Ω 4Ω Spread- Spectrum/ Edge-Rate Control Features Gain Differential Input Package (mm x mm) MAX to x x 2.3 / Pin programmable 16-TQFN (5 x 5) MAX to / Pin programmable 16-TQFN (4 x 4) MAX to / Fixed 8-TDFN (2 x 2), 9-WLP (1.2 x 1.2) MAX to / Pin programmable 8-TDFN (2 x 2), 9-WLP (1.2 x 1.2) MAX to x 1 2 x 2 / Pin programmable 14-TDFN (3 x 3) MAX to / Pin programmable 9-WLP (1.0 x 1.0) MAX to x x 2.4 / Pin programmable 14-TDFN (3 x 3) MAX to / Pin programmable 9-WLP (1.0 x 1.0) MAX to / Pin programmable 16-WLP (2.1 x 2.1) MAX to / Pin programmable 16-WLP (2.1 x 2.1) Digital Input Class D Speaker Amplifiers Part Supply Voltage (V) Output Power at 1% THD+N (W) Features 8Ω 4Ω Gain Input Type Package (mm x mm) MAX98355A/ MAX98355B 2.5 to , 6, 9, 12, 15 PCM MAX to , 6, 9, 12, 15 PDM 9-WLP (1.3 x 1.5) 9-WLP (1.3 x 1.5) 13

14 Audio Product Guide Capless, DirectDrive Headphone Amplifiers Part Supply Voltage (V) Supply Current (ma) Output Offset (mv) Output Power at 1% THD+N (mw) 32Ω 16Ω Features Package (mm x mm) MAX to Ground noise rejection 20-TQFN (4 x 4) MAX4410/ MAX to Ultra-low distortion 16-UCSP (2 x 2), 20-TQFN (4 x 4) MAX to Differential inputs 16-TQFN (3 x 3) MAX to MAX to Industry's lowest RF susceptibility Windows Vista premium mobile compliant 12-TQFN (3 x 3), 12-UCSP (1.5 x 2) 10-TDFN (3 x 3) MAX to Lowest quiescent current 12-WLP (1.7 x 1.3) MAX97220 MAX97220E 2.5 to V RMS into 600Ω differential outputs 16-TQFN (3 x 3 x 0.8) Audio Data Converters Part Supply Voltage (V) 48kHz DAC Playback Power Consumption (mw) Playback Dynamic Range (db) Core I/O Analog I/O Features Digital Audio Interface MCLK Range (MHz) Supported Sample Rates (khz) Package (mm x mm) MAX9850 (DAC) 1.8 to to line inputs, 2 line outputs, 2 headphone amps I 2 S 8.5 to 40 8 to TQFN (5 x 5) MAX9856 (codec) 1.7 to to line inputs, 3 microphone inputs, 2 line outputs, 2 headphone amps I 2 S/TDM 10 to 60 8 to TQFN (6 x 6) MAX9860 (codec) 1.7 to to microphone inputs, 1 headphone amp I 2 S/TDM 10 to 60 8 to TQFN (4 x 4) MAX9867 (codec) 1.65 to to line inputs, 2 microphone inputs, 2 headphone amps, 1 aux ADC I 2 S/TDM 10 to 60 8 to WLP (2 x 2.5), 32-TQFN (5 x 5) MAX98089 (codec) 1.65 to to line inputs, 3 microphone inputs, 2 headphone amplifiers, 2 speaker amplifiers I 2 S/TDM 10 to 60 8 to WLP, 56-TQFN MAX98090* (codec) 1.65 to to line inputs, 3 microphone inputs, 2 headphone amplifiers, 2 speaker amplifiers I 2 S/TDM 8 to 96 8 to WLP, 40-TQFN MAX98091* (codec) 1.65 to to line inputs, 4 microphone inputs, 2 headphone amplifiers, 2 speaker amplifiers I 2 S/TDM 8 to 96 8 to WLP *Future product contact factory for availability. 14

15 Audio Product Guide Microphone Amplifiers With Integrated Mic Bias Part Supply Voltage (V) Supply Current (µa) Input- Noise Voltage Density (nv/ Hz) Single- Ended Inputs Differential Features Gain Shutdown Mode Package (mm x mm) MAX to Adj 8-TDFN (3 x 3) MAX to dB, 20dB, 40dB 8-TDFN (3 x 3) MAX to Adj 16-TQFN (4 x 4) MAX4465/ MAX4466 MAX9812L/ MAX9813L MAX9812H/ MAX9813H 2.4 to Adj 5-SC70 (2 x 2), 5-SOT23 (3 x 3) 2.7 to dB 4.5 to dB 6-SC70 (2 x 2.1) (MAX9812), 8-SOT23 (3 x 3) (MAX9813) 6-SC70 (2 x 2.1) (MAX9812), 8-SOT23 (3 x 3) (MAX9813) MAX to Automatic gain control 14-TDFN (3 x 3) Specialty Audio Devices Part Supply Voltage (V) Description Package (mm x mm) MAX to 5.5 Headphone-amp click-pop suppressor 8-TDFN (3 x 3), 9-UCSP (1.5 x 1.5) MAX to 3.6 Audio shunt-mode click-pop suppressor 6-UCSP (1 x 1.5), 6-µDFN (2 x 2) MAX to 5.5 Dual SPDT audio switch 10-µDFN (2 x 2) MAX to 5.5 Dual SPDT audio switch 10-TDFN (3 x 3), 10-UCSP (1.5 x 2) MAX4993/ MAX to 5.5 DPDT audio switch 10-UTQFN (1.4 x 1.8) MAX9895A* 2.5 to 4.5 Active noise-cancellation solution for stereo headphones 36-WLP (2.5 x 2.5 x 0.4), 40-TQFN (5 x 5) *Future product contact factory for availability. 15

16 Audio Product Guide Integrated Audio Subsystems Output Power at 1% THD+N* Features Part Supply Voltage (V) HP 32Ω (mw) HP 16Ω (mw) SP 8Ω (W) SP 4Ω (W) Gain/Volume Control Speaker Amplifier Other Package (mm x mm) MAX to x x 1.5 I 2 C Stereo Class D MAX to I 2 C Mono Class D 6 single-ended or 3 differential audio inputs, 3D sound 6 single-ended or 3 differential audio inputs, 3D sound 36-UCSP (3 x 3) 36-UCSP (3 x 3), 32-TQFN (5 x 5) MAX to x 1 2 x 2 Pin programmable Stereo Class AB Integrated LDO 32-TQFN (5 x 5) MAX to x x 1.7 Adj Stereo Class D MAX to Adj Mono Class D MAX to I 2 C Mono Class D MAX to I 2 C Mono Class D Wake-on-beep, ground sense, integrated LDO Wake-on-beep, ground sense, integrated LDO 6 single-ended or 3 differential audio inputs, 3D sound 2 stereo or 2 mono differential audio inputs 28-TQFN (4 x 4) 28-TQFN (4 x 4) 32-TQFN (5 x 5) 20-WLP (2 x 2.5) MAX to x x I 2 C Stereo Class D 2 stereo or 2 mono differential audio inputs 30-UCSP (2.5 x 3) MAX to 5.5/ 1.7 to I 2 C Mono Class D Integrated LDO, bypass switch, THD limiter, Class H headphone amp 25-WLP (2 x 2 x 0.4) MAX to 5.5/ 1.6 to I 2 C Mono Class D MAX to I 2 C Mono Class D Bypass switch, THD limiter, Class H headphone amp Class H headphone amp, 2 stereo singleended/mono differential inputs 20-WLP (2 x 2.5) 20-WLP (2 x 2.5) *HP = headphone, SP = speaker 16

17 Audio Product Guide Class A Class H Amplifier Tutorial Class A The simplest type of amplifiers, Class A amplifiers, are those in which the output transistors conduct (i.e., do not fully turn off), irrespective of the output signal waveform. This type of amplifier is typically associated with high linearity, but low efficiency. Class B Class B amplifiers are those in which the output transistors only conduct during half (180 ) of the signal waveform. To amplify the entire signal, they use two transistors, one conducting for positive output signals and the other conducting for negative outputs. Class B amplifiers are much more efficient than Class A amplifiers, but they have high distortion due to the crossover point at which the two transistors transition from on to off. Class AB A combination of Class A and Class B, the Class AB amplifier has higher efficiency than Class A, but less distortion than Class B. This performance is achieved by biasing both transistors to conduct near zero signal output the point where Class B amplifiers introduce nonlinearities. They then transition to Class B for large excursions. Thus, for small signals, both transistors are active, acting like a Class A amplifier. For large signal excursions, only one transistor is active for each half of the waveform, acting like a Class B amplifier. MODULATOR MODULATOR MOSFET DRIVER MOSFET DRIVER Class D Class D amplifiers are those that output a switching waveform at a frequency far higher than the highest audio signal that needs to be reproduced. The lowpass-filtered average value of this waveform MOSFET corresponds to the actual required MODULATORaudio DRIVER waveform. These amplifiers are highly efficient (often up to 90% or higher) because the output transistors are either fully turned on or off during operation. This approach completely eliminates the use of the linear region of the transistor, which is responsible for the inefficiency of other amplifier types. Modern Class D amplifiers achieve fidelity comparable to Class AB. MODULATOR MOSFET DRIVER 17

18 +V2 Audio Product Guide +V2 -V2 Class A Class H Amplifier Tutorial (cont.) Class G -V2 Class G amplifiers are similar to Class AB amplifiers, except that they use two or more supply voltages. When operating at low signal levels, the amplifier selects a low supply voltage. As the signal level increases, the amplifier automatically selects the appropriate supply voltage. Class G amplifiers are more efficient than Class AB amplifiers because they use the maximum supply voltage only when required, while a Class AB amplifier always uses the maximum supply voltage. +V2 +V2 -V2 -V2 MODULATOR MOSFET DRIVER +V2 -V2 +V2 -V2 Class DG an analog input signal as in a Class D amplifier. The Class +V2 Class DG uses pulse-width modulation (PWM), a rail-to-rail digital output signal with variable duty cycle, to approximate DG multilevel output stage also senses the magnitude of the output signal and switches the supply rails +V2 as needed to more efficiently supply the required signal power. -V2 -V2 +V2 Class H Class H amplifiers modulate their supply voltage to minimize the voltage drop across the output stage. Implementations range from using multiple discrete voltages to an infinitely adjustable supply. Though similar to the Class G technique of reducing dissipation across output devices, the Class H technique does not require multiple power supplies. Class H amplifiers are generally more complex than other designs, with extra control circuitry required to predict and control the supply voltage. MODULATOR MOSFET DRIVER -V2 +V2 -V2 +V2 18 MODULATOR MOSFET DRIVER +V2 -V2

19 Audio Product Guide Theoretical Output Power The following figure shows the theoretical output power possible from a range of supply voltages. Output power is specified at 1% and 10% THD+N with 4Ω and 8Ω loads. Real amplifiers will always output less power than shown in this figure. 100 Output Power vs. Supply Voltage 4Ω BTL, 10% THD+N 10 4Ω BTL, 1% THD+N 8Ω BTL, 10% THD+N OUTPUT POWER (W) 1 8Ω BTL, 1% THD+N SUPPLY VOLTAGE (V) 19

20 Audio Product Guide DirectDrive is a registered trademark and registered service mark and FlexSound and UCSP are trademarks of Maxim Integrated Products, Inc. Windows Vista is a registered trademark and registered service mark of Microsoft Corporation. Contact Maxim Direct at or for more information, visit Maxim Integrated. All rights reserved. The Maxim logo and Maxim Integrated are trademarks of Maxim Integrated Products, Inc. in the United States and other jurisdictions throughout the world. All other company names may be trade names or trademarks of their respective owners. Rev. 0; December 2012

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