GCSE HISTORY B Unit 1 and 4: International Relations: Conflict and Peace in the 20th Century

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1 GCSE HISTORY B Unit 1 and 4: International Relations: Conflict and Peace in the 20th Century Schemes of work Schemes of work are suggestions and ideas about how you might deliver GCSE History. You can use these suggestions, adapt them to better suit your students or use your own schemes of work. However you deliver GCSE History, you can rely on AQA s comprehensive support package online, on paper and in person including resources, specimen exam questions, training meetings, continuing professional development (CPD), guidance and advice. This Scheme of work is part of your invaluable teaching and learning resources. Contact us If you have any enquiries about GCSE History you can get in touch directly with the AQA History team by or telephone

2 This Scheme of work offers a number of teaching suggestions for lessons to be planned around. It should be used in conjunction with the content laid down in the Specification and the Resource list. It is not prescriptive but could be used to inform a school/college s approach and scheme of work. The school/college s scheme of work would take account of the ability of its students, its resources and style of teaching and learning. The teaching suggestions are indicative of a way of approaching the content. It does not necessarily represent the way the content will be treated in the examination paper. The origins of the First World War c Why were there two armed camps in Europe in 1914? the political situation in 1890 Bismarck s system of alliances and the isolation of France sacking of Bismarck and changes under Kaiser Wilhelm II the need for alliances Britain and Splendid Isolation threats to Splendid Isolation how and why Britain ended Splendid Isolation the nature of the various crises the effect of crises on alliances the situation in 1914 the role of individuals. Timeline to summarise events. Charts and maps to show Bismarck s alliances Dreikaiserbund; Dual Alliance; Triple Alliance; Reinsurance Treaty. Discussion of strengths and weaknesses of these alliances. Examine maps of Europe, diagrams, etc to appreciate the geographical position of countries in alliances and fears. Effect of Bismarck s sacking relate to Kaiser Wilhelm II. Kaiser Wilhelm II study through images and documents. Trace his errors. Role play: his part in the outbreak of the war. Arms race military and naval, analyse statistics on growth of armies/navies. Security of Britain map of Empire to discuss difficulties and strengths areas of conflict Fashoda, Boer War, German Navy. Security of Germany encirclement, secret treaties. Standpoint exercise. Alliances/crises: interpret through maps cartoons and documents. 2

3 GCSE HISTORY B UNIT 1 AND 4: INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS: CONFLICT AND PEACE IN THE 20TH CENTURY Why did war break out in 1914? the importance of Sarajevo the part played by the alliances the Schlieffen Plan and its effects the responsibility of the various countries for the outbreak of war. the importance of interpretations in the study of an historical event. Construct a timetable of events: June to August. Story of the assassination: use written accounts and images. Use a map to illustrate the theory of the Schlieffen Plan and its effect on war. Debate or group research on allocation of each country s responsibility for outbreak of war. Discussion/class debate: was a general European war inevitable? Peacemaking and the League of Nations How did the Treaty of Versailles establish peace? the differing aims of the peacemakers the main terms of the Treaty how far the peacemakers achieved their aims the role of individuals opposition to the Treaty in Germany principles and reality of the Treaty. Consideration of France, GB and USA in 1918 and how this would affect aims. Groups to construct the perfect treaty for each country using headings, then compare with reality. Use map to consider territorial settlement and its weaknesses. Discussion/class debate: what pleased each country? What disappointed each country? Construct a grid of the countries involved relating to how they were pleased and disappointed. Examine the part played by Wilson. 3

4 Why did the League of Nations fail in its aim to keep peace? the structure and weaknesses of the League the Manchurian Crisis and its effect on League the Abyssinian Crisis and its effect why the League failed. elements of source evaluation differing interpretations of the League of Nations and consequence. Analyse structure and membership of League. Discuss: its strengths and weaknesses In what ways was the Covenant of the League a good idea? What assumptions did the Covenant make about the Treaty of Versailles? Examine the two crises through League of Nations documents, cartoons, political statements and maps. Class/group debate on reasons for failure after analytical research. Was it due to its structure, economic circumstances, political circumstances, etc? Hitler s foreign policy and the origins of the Second World War How did Hitler challenge and exploit the Treaty of Versailles 1933 March 1938? Hitler s aims in foreign policy how far he achieved these aims why there was little opposition. and consequence aspects of source evaluation. Link to terms of Treaty of Versailles which terms would Germans want to reverse? Analyse Hitler s aims and policies in the 1930s which went beyond reasonable requests use of sources, eg Mein Kampf, speeches, etc and images of Hitler s policies. Compare his occupations of the Saar, Rhineland and Anschluss. Analysis of his methods. 4

5 GCSE HISTORY B UNIT 1 AND 4: INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS: CONFLICT AND PEACE IN THE 20TH CENTURY Why did Chamberlain s policy of appeasement fail to prevent the outbreak of war in 1939? the arguments for and against appeasement the Sudeten Crisis, Munich and its results the Nazi Soviet Pact the responsibility of various countries for the outbreak of war the role of individuals. elements of source evaluation the importance of differing interpretations and consequence. Consider different interpretations of appeasement and reasons for it, and/or Munich and/or the Nazi Soviet Pact. Discussion of when appeasement ended or when war was inevitable. Analyse the roles of Hitler, Chamberlain and Stalin in the outbreak of war. Was the war inevitable? Was it caused by the Treaty of Versailles? The origins of the Cold War Why did the USA and USSR become rivals in the years ? the differences that broke up the alliance of WW2 Soviet expansion into Eastern Europe the Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan the Berlin Blockade and Airlift the role of individuals. and consequence the importance of differing interpretations. Examine basic differences between USA and USSR using Yalta and Potsdam. Use map to trace the growth of the Soviet Empire in the East the idea of the Iron Curtain. Consider different interpretations of this expansion and/or Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan, and/or Berlin Blockade. Discussion: When did the Cold War start? Discuss the parts played by Truman, Churchill and Stalin. Allocation of responsibility for the Cold War. 5

6 How did the Cold War develop in the years ? the two opposing alliances the nuclear arms race opposition in Korea peaceful co-existence the effects of peaceful coexistence in East Europe and Soviet reaction to it different ways of gaining security the start of the space race Sputnik; ICBMs. Use maps to show the relative position of NATO and Warsaw Pact. Maps and sources to show the involvement and progress of the UN and powers in Korea how great a threat was the war to world peace? Progress of nuclear arms. Discussion of their impact on the Cold War. Debate on the importance of the space race for security. Analyse sources to explain the Hungarian Rising, danger of this to USSR and Soviet response to it. Crises of the Cold War and Détente How close to war was the world in the 1960s? the limits to peaceful coexistence abroad U2, Berlin Wall links between the space race and the arms race why there was no war over Cuba the concept of the nuclear deterrent the role of individuals the nature of events in Czechoslovakia Timeline on developments in space. Trace the fortunes of the superpowers in the space race link to arms race. Reasons for espionage. The Paris Summit and U2 use of sources, debate on responsibility for failure of the Summit. Consider images and interpretations of the Berlin Wall. Map to show the danger of Cuba to USA. Consideration of the different options open to Kennedy in 1962 and their likely outcomes. The parts played by Kennedy and Khrushchev. Debate: who gained most from the Cuban Crisis? Images of Czech reaction to Soviet invasion - comparison with Hungary Consider different interpretations of Cuba and/or Czechoslovakia. Debate: Which Cold War Crisis was the most dangerous to the world? 6

7 GCSE HISTORY B UNIT 1 AND 4: INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS: CONFLICT AND PEACE IN THE 20TH CENTURY Why did Détente develop and collapse in the 1970s? the meaning of Détente legacy of Cuba reasons for Détente role of individuals political signs of Détente SALT Helsinki other links sporting, space why the USSR invaded Afghanistan reaction of USA and the world to this effect on Détente. Trace the progress of Détente after Cuba. Standpoint exercise: what did each power hope to gain from Détente and how did SALT and Helsinki fulfil these hopes? The strengths and weaknesses of Détente. Part played by Nixon, Brezhnev, Mao and Carter. Failure of SALT 2 analysis of reasons. Group analysis of causes of Soviet invasion using given information and map to show geographical importance of Afghanistan re oil, etc. Discuss the effectiveness of the response of other countries to the invasion of Afghanistan. Debate: was Détente of any value? What was the most important achievement of Détente? The collapse of Communism and the post Cold War world Why did Communism collapse in central and Eastern Europe? the Soviet defeat in Afghanistan the policies of Gorbachev the role of Reagan effect of changes on USSR and communist Europe the fall of the Berlin Wall the role of individuals. and consequence the importance of differing interpretations. Use maps to show the importance of geography in the nature of the fighting and the defeat of the USSR in Afghanistan. Effect of the war and defeat on Soviet economy and army. Analyse Glasnost and Perestroika and their effects on communist countries. Changes in foreign policy. Consider different interpretations of Gorbachev Soviet and Western. Use timelines, maps and diagrams to trace the fall of communism in the East. Consider different interpretations of the responsibility for the end of the Cold War and the collapse of communism. 7

8 What problems face the USA and the UN following the end of the Cold War? the changing balance of power in the world after the collapse of communism the dilemma facing the USA: the most powerful state with no single danger so had to adapt to new role attitude of USA towards the new Europe, towards the world the UN role in the 1990s powers and peacekeeping the invasion of Kuwait world reaction to invasion UN action against Iraq First Gulf War UN and Iraq between the Gulf wars position of Kosovo within Yugoslavia why the UN intervened and results of intervention? Map to show the changing world Europe, USA and Asia. Discussion of the perceived role of the USA with examples of US action to explain the role this could include: protector of democracy; elimination of terrorism; arbiter of the world; protector of the environment etc. Research the invasion of Kuwait causes Iraqi success UN resolutions and actions. Support for UN. Debate: did the UN succeed? Iraq after First Gulf War. Saddam Hussein and the UN weapon inspections aims, results. Summarise the nature of Kosovo and Yugoslavia. The war of 1998 part played by NATO who was responsible for its outbreak? Research: ethnic cleansing massacres refugees role of UN Slobodan Milosevic. Debate: was intervention justified? Did the UN succeed? aqa.org.uk Copyright 2014 AQA and its licensors. All rights reserved. AQA Education (AQA) is a registered charity (registered charity number ) and a company limited by guarantee registered in England and Wales (company number ). Registered address: AQA, Devas Street, Manchester M15 6EX. January 2014 G00369

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