Captain Stephen Miller Chapman School of Seamanship

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1 Captain Stephen Miller Chapman School of Seamanship

2 A Brief Marine Navigation Primer Marine Navigation deals with going from one place to another by water. The Navigator first determines where his departure point and destination points are located. The next step is to determine the direction that must be traveled from departure point to destination point.

3 MARINER S CHART Our Estimated Position on 11 March 2011 For Our NOON Sight

4 A Brief Marine Navigation Primer The direction can be converted to a Course to be followed and drawn on a Mariner s chart (ocean map) By using Time and Speed calculations the Navigator can indicate on his chart where he expects to be at any given time during the trip. This is the Deduced Reckoning Plan (DR )

5 MARINER S CHART Our Estimated Position on 11 March 2011 For Our NOON Sight

6 A Brief Marine Navigation Primer Once underway, the Navigator uses various methods for determining his location and compares that position with his plan. These methods include: Two or three bearings to land based objects RADAR bearings and distances again to land based objects GPS (Global Positioning System Satellite based) Depth soundings and bearings to land based objects

7 A Brief Marine Navigation Primer It should be obvious that once well out of sight of land that some of these methods are no longer an option. As one proceeds out to sea the depth of the water becomes too deep to measure It is at this point that the only options are GPS and Celestial Navigation methods. The only drawback of GPS is that you are only sure it is working properly is when you arrive at your destination and relies on electricity. The only way to be sure of where you are far out to sea involves using Celestial Navigation

10 do we USE to do Celestial Navigation?

11 do we DO Celestial?

12 do we obtain a Position from Celestial Bodies?

13 Here are some brief answers to those questions

14

15 Celestial Navigation is the Art and Science of Navigating out of the sight of land using only the Celestial Bodies for position determination

16 do we USE to do Celestial Navigation?

17 The we use are: Four PLANETS VENUS, MARS, JUPITER, SATURN and 57 STARS plus POLARIS

18 WE WILL USE THE SUN FOR OUR OBSERVATIONS IN THIS SERIES OF LECTURES AND IF THERE IS TIME WE WILL LOOK AT USING THE NORTH STAR - POLARIS

19 Tools of the Trade Sextant Timekeeping Device or Watch Nautical Almanac Workform

20 IS CELESTIAL DONE? Stars, Planets, and/or Moon are observed before Sunrise results in a FIX The SUN is observed mid-morning results in a LOP only NOON Sight is done at NOON results in a LOP (our Latitude) and a Running FIX The SUN is observed mid-afternoon results in a LOP only Stars, Planets, and/or Moon are observed after Sunset - results in a FIX

21 do we obtain a Celestial Position?

22 Our position from a Body can be measured in distance and a direction

23 NOW Wait a Minute we are approximately 93 million miles away from the Sun and the SUN is up in the SKY so how could we possibly plot from that information?

24 WE are NOT getting Distance!

25 WHEN using CELESTIAL The object we are sighting Is MOVING Relative to us BUT

26 For our purposes the instant we observe the BODY We will FREEZE TIME So the BODY is essentially

27 From THAT instant of time we can determine from the NAUTICAL ALMANAC where on EARTH the BODY is Located

28 I DID SAY ON EARTH!

29 The location on EARTH is the point on the EARTH s surface where a line from the Center of the Body (SUN) to the Center of the EARTH passes, it is called the Geographic Position, or GP

30 When we OBSERVE A BODY with our Sextant we measure the ANGLE of the body above the Horizon. ANGLE

31 The mathematical complement of this Angle is the ANGULAR DISTANCE we are from the GP of the BODY. The Complement called Zenith Distance is 90 - Our Angle ANGLE Zenith Distance

32 An IMPORTANT ANGLE - DISTANCE relationship from Chart Navigation IS 1 equals 60 nautical miles

33 Converting the Zenith Distance from an ANGLE to a DISTANCE is accomplished by applying THAT relationship.

34 ZENITH DISTANCE

35 ZENITH DISTANCE In the example Zenith Distance is 60 of Arc (the complement of our 30 Angle) One of Arc on a Great Circle is Sixty nm Therefore: Zenith Distance = 60 x 60 nm/ or 3600 nm THIS is the RADIUS of a Circle of Position with it s center at the GP of SUN

36 CIRCLE OF POSITION Diagram indicates an Afternoon Situation 3600 nm RADIUS

37 The Noon Diagram DR Meridian Latitude Zenith Distance SUN Declination Equator

38 Latitude by Noon Sight DR Meridian Latitude Equator Declination SUN We have determined our Zenith Distance from our Observation (Sight) Zenith Distance From the Time of our Sight we can find the Declination of the Sun at that time from the Nautical Almanac With the Zenith Distance known and the Declination known We can find the difference between them and the RESULT IS OUR LATITUDE

39 For Determining Latitude by a Noon Sight THAT is HOW CELESTIAL NAVIGATION WORKS

40 There is Certainly MORE to CELESTIAL NAVIGATION than what you have just seen.

41 By studying Celestial Navigation YOU will be able to FIND OUT

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